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Inspection and Testing

Peel Test
Shown in the figure:

Visual Inspection

Radiography
[Drawbacks]
The time element in
developing the negative and
obtaining the necessary
information
Impracticability of taking the
welded parts to the X-ray
machine with the attendant
time element involved
Not all faults are revealed
Interpretation of radiographs
requires a highly skilled
technician

Peel Test and Chisel Test

Button Size as a Measure of


Weld Quality

Button
Diameter

Modes of Failure in Spot Welds

Full Button

Irregular Button

Interfacial Failure

Long Life Test

Undersized
Button
Buttons/Strip Diameter (mm)

Percent
Heat (%)

-- on 1.3-mm Thick 6009-T4 Arc Cleaned/Conversion-Coated Sheet


with Truncated Cone Electrodes and Current Stepping

[Reference: SAE
840291, Patrick,
Auhl, and Sun]

Number of Welds

Shear-Strength Data for Long


Life Test

Shear Strength (kN/Spot)

-- on 6009-T4 Arc Cleaned/Conversion-Coated Sheet

[Reference: SAE 840291,


Patrick, Auhl, and Sun]

Number of Welds

Minimum Tensile-Shear Strength


of Spot Welds in Aluminum Alloys

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.11-26, RWMA]

Resistance Spot Weld


Radiographs 1 mm Sheet

6009/6009

Small
Cracking

5182/5182

Large Center
Porosity

[Reference: Joining of Aluminum Alloys 6009/6010, Hoch]

2036/2036

Large
Cracking

Types of Defects Revealed by Radiography


Undersize nugget
Inadequate diameter
Inadequate penetration

Oversize nugget
Excessive diameter
Excessive penetration

Odd and misshapen nuggets


Extent of Alclad inclusion
into the nugget
Extrusion of the nugget

Cracking of the nugget


Porosity
Expulsion from faying
surfaces
Segregation of eutectic in
parent material
Electrode pickup
Size or extent or granular
zone
Nugget penetration

Setup Procedures and Suggested Schedules


[Step 1] Insert electrode of proper
size and tip contour for the gauge
combination. Align electrodes.
[Step 2] Set pressure gage for
suggested welding force, and

check with an electrode force


gauge.
[Step 3] Adjust the control to
provide the approximate suggested
weld and postheat time.

[Step 4] The welding currents


shown are approximate and intended
to be a guide. The magnitude of the
welding current is usually controlled
by a heat dial or phase-shift control.
[Step 5] Check the machine for
consistency of operation by making
and testing twenty single spot
tension-shear specimens and five
macroscopic examination specimens.

Typical Oscillograph Record during


Welding
Voltage

1V

Force
1 kN

Welding Force
0.25 mm

5.0 kA rms
0.1 sec

Forge Force

Displacement
Current

Typical Oscillograph Record


5.2 kA RMS

0.7 kN

Current

Force

0.2 mm

Displacement
1.0 V (p-t-p)

Voltage

Zero line
for force

Resistance Spot Weld Data

[Reference: Guidelines
to Resistance Spot
Welding Aluminum
Automotive Sheet,
p.9, The Aluminum
Association]

Joint
Strength
Shunt
Resistance

Weld Spacing, in.

Shunt Path Resistance, Microohms

Joint Strength, lb/weld

Shunting Effect on 2024-T


Alclad
Factors Influencing Shunting
Effect Include:
Thickness and resistance of the
alloy being welded
Shunting effect increases as the
stock thickness and resistance
decrease

Surface resistance of the faying


surface
Shunting effect increases as the
faying surface resistance increases

Spot spacing
Shown in left figure

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.11-19, RWMA]

Suggested Minimum Weld Spacing


Edge and Flange Distance

[Reference: Resistance Welding Manual, p.11-20, RWMA]