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KELOMPOK III : “Narrative Text”


• A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or
written text that is intended to explain the listeners
or readers that something should or should not
happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation,
the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the
fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other
words, this kind of text can be called as
argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be
found in scientific books, journals, magazines,
newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures,
research report etc. Hortatory expositions are
popular among science, academic community and
educated people. The generic structure of
Hortatory exposition usually has three components:
(1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3)
A . G e n e ric S tru ctu re o f H o rta to ry
E x p1.oThesis
sitio n: Statement or announcement of issue
2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to
3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not
happen or
be done based on the given arguments

B . G e n e ric F e a tu re s o f H o rta to ry
E x p o sitio n
1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non
human participants, except for speaker or writer referring
to self.
2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the
writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For
example: realize, feel etc.
3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what
happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect
5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of
given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.
C . Language Feature of Hortatory
1. Focusing on the writer
2. Using abstract noun; policy, advantage, etc
3. Using action verb
4. Using thinking verb
5. Using modal adverb; certainly, surely, etc
6. Using temporal connective; firstly, secondly, etc
7. Using evaluative words; important, valuable, trustworthy,
8. Using passive voice
9. Using simple present tense

(Announcement of issue concern)
Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation
between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in
the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity.
However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta
as the most corrupt place in Indonesia.

Argument 1
The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living
here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling
is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax
payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the
Argument 2
Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by
punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent
the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by

I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think

everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We
must not make any distinction.

An analytical exposition is a type of

spoken or written text that is intended to
persuade the listeners or readers that something
is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the
speaker or writer gives some arguments as the
fundamental reasons why something is the case.
This type of text can be found in scientific
books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles,
academic speech or lectures, research report etc.
Analytical expositions are popular among
science, academic community and educated people.
The generic structure of analytical exposition
usually has three components: ( 1 ) Thesis , ( 2 )
Arguments and (3) Reiteration or
conclusion .
A . Generic Structure of Analytical
1 . Thesis : Introduces the topic and shows speaker or writer’s
Outlines of the arguments are presented.
2 . Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration
Point, states the main argument
Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument
3 . Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or
writer’s position

B . Generic Features of Analytical

An analytical exposition focuses on generic human and non
human participants.
It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer
or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example:
realize, feel etc.
It uses emotive and evaluative words
It often needs material processes. It is used to state what
happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc.
It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect
Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given
arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.
C . Language Features of Analytical
vUsing relational process
vUsing internal conjunction
vUsing causal conjunction
vUsing Simple Present Tense
Corruption and Indonesian

Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad
culture in Indonesia for three reasons

Argument 1
Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that
corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs
on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost
in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions
happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get
some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to
pay. Manipulations happen everywhere
Argument 2
The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture
seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have
to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst.
Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public
prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard
in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme
Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where
the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the
local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of
bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that
corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it?

Argument 3
The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They
create the situations in which people have opportunities to do
corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not
disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride
motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents.
Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more
difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go
then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing
corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and
obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country
will not be number one corrupting country in the world.
Reiteration / conclusion :

Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is

becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of
us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the Corruptors.
Do we still care about the future of this country?
Narrative Text

Definition of Narrative
Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function
is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Narrative

A narrative text consists of the following structure:
1 . Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time
and the
2. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the
participants have to do
3. Resolution : Showing the way of participant to solve the crises,
better or worse
Language Features of Narrative
· Using processes verbs
· Using temporal conjunction
· Using Simple Past Tense
The Myth of Malin Kundang

A long time ago, in a small village near the beach in West Sumatra,
a woman and her son lived. They were Malin Kundang and her mother. Her
mother was a single parent because Malin Kundang's father had passed
away when he was a baby. Malin Kundang had to live hard with his mother.
Malin Kundang was a healthy, dilligent, and strong boy. He usually went
to sea to catch fish. After getting fish he would bring it to his mother,
or sold the caught fish in the town.
One day, when Malin Kundang was sailing, he saw a merchant's ship
which was being raided by a small band of pirates. He helped the
merchant. With his brave and power, Malin Kundang defeated the pirates.
The merchant was so happy and thanked to him. In return the merchant
asked Malin Kundang to sail with him. To get a better life, Malin Kundang
agreed. He left his mother alone.
Many years later, Malin Kundang became wealthy. He had a huge ship
and was helped by many ship crews loading trading goods. Perfectly he
had a beautiful wife too. When he was sailing his trading journey, his
ship landed on a beach near a small village. The villagers recognized
him. The news ran fast in the town; “Malin Kundang has become rich and
now he is here”.
An old woman ran to the beach to meet the new rich merchant. She
was Malin Kundang’s mother. She wanted to hug him, released her sadness
of being lonely after so long time. Unfortunately, when the mother
came, Malin Kundang who was in front of his well dressed wife and his
ship crews denied meeting that old lonely woman. For three times her
mother begged Malin Kundang and for three times he yelled at her. At
last Malin Kundang said to her "Enough, old woman! I have never had a
mother like you, a dirty and ugly woman!" After that he ordered his
crews to set sail. He would leave the old mother again but in that
time she was full of both sadness and angriness.
Finally, enraged, she cursed Malin Kundang that he would turn into
a stone if he didn't apologize. Malin Kundang just laughed and really
set sail.
In the quiet sea, suddenly a thunderstorm came. His huge ship was
wrecked and it was too late for Malin Kundang to apologize. He was
thrown by the wave out of his ship. He fell on a small island. It was
really too late for him to avoid his curse. Suddenly, he turned into a
(Re-written from
Narrative Analysis on Generic Structure

Many believe that a story can teach a society certain moral value.
Most stories are build in narrative. Because it is a narrative story,
it must consists of complication. That complication, in fact, is the
moral value which like to be taught.
Orientation; the first paragraph is set to be the story introduction.
Reading the orientation, reader will know that the story is
characterized with Malin Kundang and his mother. Wes Sumatra is set as
the place.
Complication; this is the main element of narrative story. From the
Malin Kundang myth, we know that there are more than one complication.
Many stories are composed with multi complications. They are minor
complication and major complication. When Malin Kundang and her mother
did life hard, it can be the minor complication. this hard life in the
first time was solved by his successful trading as new merchant.
However this narrative sotry is more interesting when we see the major
complication among the participants- Malin Kundang denied his mother
after being successful merchant. In every story, complication must be
ended; happy ending or sad one
Resolution ; this is the end of the story, the sad ending one. Malin
Kundang faces his curse of turning into a stone.
Spoof Text
Definition and Social Function of Spoof
Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time
with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to
entertain and share the story.

Generic Structure of Spoof

1. Orientation
2. Events
3. Twist

Language Feature of Spoof

1. Focusing on people, animals or certain things
2. Using action verb; ate, ran, etc
3. Using adverb of time and place
4. Told in chronological order
There was a man who liked money very much. He worked all of his life and
wanted to save all of his money for his own future. He was a real miser
when it came to his money. He loved money more than just about anything.
Even, just before he died, he said to his wife; "Now listen, when I die, I
want you to take all my money and place it in the casket with me. I
wanna take my money to the afterlife." So he asked his wife to promise
him with all her heart that when he died, she would put all the money in
the casket with him.
Well, one day, he really died. Then he was stretched out in the casket.
The wife was sitting there in black clothes next to her closest friend.
When they finished the ceremony, just before the undertakers got ready
to close the casket, the wife said "Wait just a minute!"
She had a box in her hands. She came over with the box and placed it in
the casket. After that the undertakers locked the casket down and rolled
it away. Not long after that, her friend said, "I hope you were not crazy
enough to put all that money in the casket."
The wife turned to her friend and replied; "Yes, because I have promised."
Then she continued; "I can't lie. I promised him that I was going to put
that money in that casket with him." Feeling shocked, her friend said;
"You mean that you have put every cent of his money in the casket with
him?" Then the wife answered; "Surely I did. I got it all together, put
all the money into my account and I just wrote him a check."
Notice on Generic structure of spoof sample

Spoof text is very similar to recount text. Both spoof and recount tell
about the past event with chronological order. Its purpose is to amuse
reader with funny story. The story mostly is ended with an unpredictable
The above spoof sample has generic structure as follow:
Orientation: It is the introduction of the story. By giving the
orientation, reader will recognize, for the first time, who involves in
the story.The above story talks about a wife and his husband who loves
money too much even up to his death.
Events: Several events are explored in chronological way which able to
arrange the story read nicely.Promising with her money miser husband,
Putting the box inside casket, locking and rolling the casket are the
events which build the complete story.
Twist: This is the unpredictable event/thing/way which amuse the reader.
Readers even did not predict before that it would be. When reading the
above story, for the first, readers likely think that the wife would put
all the money instead of just a check