A Hortatory exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to explain the listeners or readers that something should or should not happen or be done. To strengthen the explanation, the speaker or writer needs some arguments as the fundamental reasons of the given idea. In other words, this kind of text can be called as argumentation. Hortatory exposition text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Hortatory expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of Hortatory exposition usually has three components: (1) Thesis, (2) Arguments and (3) Recommendation.

A . G e n e ric S tru ctu re o f H o rta to ry E x p .oThesis n Statement or announcement of issue sitio : 1

concern 2. Arguments : Reasons for concern that will lead to recommendation 3. Recommendation : Statement of what should or should not happen or be done based on the given arguments

B . G e n e ric F e a tu re s o f H o rta to ry E x p o sitio n

1.A Hortatory exposition focuses on generic human and non human participants, except for speaker or writer referring to self. 2.It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc. 3.It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc. 4.It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense. 5.Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.

C . Language Feature of Hortatory Exposition
1. Focusing on the writer 2. Using abstract noun; policy, advantage, etc 3. Using action verb 4. Using thinking verb 5. Using modal adverb; certainly, surely, etc 6. Using temporal connective; firstly, secondly, etc 7. Using evaluative words; important, valuable, trustworthy, etc 8. Using passive voice 9. Using simple present tense

Thesis (Announcement of issue concern) Do you know what the meaning of corruption is? What is the relation between money and corruption? Well, corruption is common everywhere in the world, even in the United States. It’s just a matter of intensity. However, it is quite shocking when one reliable survey claims Jakarta as the most corrupt place in Indonesia. Argument 1 The survey has made me sad, actually, because I stay and earn a living here in the capital. As most people know, Tanjung Priok port smuggling is not a new thing at all. Entrepreneurs who want to minimize their tax payments tend to do such a thing more often. They even bribe the officials. Argument 2 Well, I think the measures taken so far to overcome the problem by punishing the corruptors is still not far enough. We have to prevent the younger generations from getting a bad mentality caused by corruption.

Recommendation I believe we should start at the earliest stages in school and I think everyone should be involved in the effort to eradicate corruption. We must not make any distinction.

An analytical exposition is a type of spoken or written text that is intended to persuade the listeners or readers that something is the case. To make the persuasion stronger, the speaker or writer gives some arguments as the fundamental reasons why something is the case. This type of text can be found in scientific books, journals, magazines, newspaper articles, academic speech or lectures, research report etc. Analytical expositions are popular among science, academic community and educated people. The generic structure of analytical exposition usually has three components: ( 1 ) Thesis , ( 2 ) Arguments and (3) Reiteration or conclusion .

A . Generic Structure of Analytical Exposition Introduces the topic and shows speaker 1 . Thesis :

position; Outlines of the arguments are presented. 2 . Arguments : It consists about Point and Elaboration Point, states the main argument Elaboration, develops and supports each point of argument 3 . Conclusion : Reiteration (restatement), restates speaker or writer’s position

or writer’s

B . Generic Features of Analytical Exposition An analytical exposition focuses on generic human

human participants. It uses mental processes. It is used to state what the writer or speaker thinks or feels about something. For example: realize, feel etc. It uses emotive and evaluative words It often needs material processes. It is used to state what happens, e.g. ….has polluted… etc. It usually uses Simple Present Tense and Present Perfect Tense. Enumeration is sometimes necessary to show the list of given arguments: Firstly, secondly …, Finally, etc.

and non

C . Language Features of Analytical Exposition
vUsing vUsing vUsing vUsing relational process internal conjunction causal conjunction Simple Present Tense

Corruption and Indonesian Culture
Thesis Corruption has happened for many years and today it becomes a bad culture in Indonesia for three reasons

Argument 1 Most adult Indonesian or foreigners have known and admitted that corruptions happen in many places. The daily newspapers, news programs on TV and radio have reported corruptions are done everywhere, almost in all departments or public services of this country. Corruptions happen in health, education departments and banks. When we manage to get some documents in public service offices, we usually need much money to pay. Manipulations happen everywhere

Argument 2 The actions to eliminate corruption are weak. The ever stronger culture seems not to come to an end when the responsible institutions who have to reinforce the justice today commit corruption. This is the worst. Corruptions happen in police department, courts where judges, public prosecutors, lawyers make deals to do corruption. All of us also heard in the end of 2004, Probosutejo reported that he had bribed the Supreme Court, or called Mahkamah Agung which becomes the highest level where the justice can be obtained. Perhaps you have to try to come to the local courts and see what happen there. You will see practices of bribery and other kinds of corruption. Therefore, we can say that corruptions becomes our culture. Do you like it? Argument 3 The citizens have no goodwill to fight against the corruption. They create the situations in which people have opportunities to do corruptions. The citizens like to break the rules because they are not disciplined. For example, in the street when they drive a car or ride motorcycle, they do not have the driving license or necessary documents. Then, they are caught by the local policemen. To avoid more difficulties, they like to bribe the officer. The officer let them go then. In other words, the citizens and officers are the same, doing corruption together. If only the people were critical, disciplined, and obey the rules, and willing to report any wrong behaviors, this country will not be number one corrupting country in the world.

Reiteration / conclusion :
Conclusion Based on the reasons, we can conclude that corruption is becoming a bad culture in Indonesia if it is not ended soon by all of us. It seems that there must be more severe penalty for the Corruptors. Do we still care about the future of this country?

Narrative Text
Definition of Narrative
Narrative is a text focusing specific participants. Its social function is to tell stories or past events and entertain the readers.

Generic Structure of Narrative
A narrative text consists of the following structure: 1 . Orientation: Introducing the participants and informing the time and the place 2. Complication: Describing the rising crises which the participants have to do with 3. Resolution : Showing the way of participant to solve the crises, better or worse

Language Features of Narrative
· Using processes verbs · Using temporal conjunction · Using Simple Past Tense

The Myth of Malin Kundang
A long time ago, in a small village near the beach in West Sumatra, a woman and her son lived. They were Malin Kundang and her mother. Her mother was a single parent because Malin Kundang's father had passed away when he was a baby. Malin Kundang had to live hard with his mother. Malin Kundang was a healthy, dilligent, and strong boy. He usually went to sea to catch fish. After getting fish he would bring it to his mother, or sold the caught fish in the town. One day, when Malin Kundang was sailing, he saw a merchant's ship which was being raided by a small band of pirates. He helped the merchant. With his brave and power, Malin Kundang defeated the pirates. The merchant was so happy and thanked to him. In return the merchant asked Malin Kundang to sail with him. To get a better life, Malin Kundang agreed. He left his mother alone. Many years later, Malin Kundang became wealthy. He had a huge ship and was helped by many ship crews loading trading goods. Perfectly he had a beautiful wife too. When he was sailing his trading journey, his ship landed on a beach near a small village. The villagers recognized him. The news ran fast in the town; “Malin Kundang has become rich and now he is here”.

An old woman ran to the beach to meet the new rich merchant. She was Malin Kundang’s mother. She wanted to hug him, released her sadness of being lonely after so long time. Unfortunately, when the mother came, Malin Kundang who was in front of his well dressed wife and his ship crews denied meeting that old lonely woman. For three times her mother begged Malin Kundang and for three times he yelled at her. At last Malin Kundang said to her "Enough, old woman! I have never had a mother like you, a dirty and ugly woman!" After that he ordered his crews to set sail. He would leave the old mother again but in that time she was full of both sadness and angriness. Finally, enraged, she cursed Malin Kundang that he would turn into a stone if he didn't apologize. Malin Kundang just laughed and really set sail. In the quiet sea, suddenly a thunderstorm came. His huge ship was wrecked and it was too late for Malin Kundang to apologize. He was thrown by the wave out of his ship. He fell on a small island. It was really too late for him to avoid his curse. Suddenly, he turned into a stone. (Re-written from

Narrative Analysis on Generic Structure
Many believe that a story can teach a society certain moral value. Most stories are build in narrative. Because it is a narrative story, it must consists of complication. That complication, in fact, is the moral value which like to be taught. Orientation; the first paragraph is set to be the story introduction. Reading the orientation, reader will know that the story is characterized with Malin Kundang and his mother. Wes Sumatra is set as the place. Complication; this is the main element of narrative story. From the Malin Kundang myth, we know that there are more than one complication. Many stories are composed with multi complications. They are minor complication and major complication. When Malin Kundang and her mother did life hard, it can be the minor complication. this hard life in the first time was solved by his successful trading as new merchant. However this narrative sotry is more interesting when we see the major complication among the participants- Malin Kundang denied his mother after being successful merchant. In every story, complication must be ended; happy ending or sad one Resolution ; this is the end of the story, the sad ending one. Malin Kundang faces his curse of turning into a stone.

Spoof Text
Definition and Social Function of Spoof
Spoof is a text which tells factual story, happened in the past time with unpredictable and funny ending. Its social function is to entertain and share the story.

Generic Structure of Spoof
1. Orientation 2. Events 3. Twist

Language Feature of Spoof
1. 2. 3. 4. Focusing on people, animals or certain things Using action verb; ate, ran, etc Using adverb of time and place Told in chronological order



There was a man who liked money very much. He worked all of his life and wanted to save all of his money for his own future. He was a real miser when it came to his money. He loved money more than just about anything. Even, just before he died, he said to his wife; "Now listen, when I die, I want you to take all my money and place it in the casket with me. I wanna take my money to the afterlife." So he asked his wife to promise him with all her heart that when he died, she would put all the money in the casket with him. Well, one day, he really died. Then he was stretched out in the casket. The wife was sitting there in black clothes next to her closest friend. When they finished the ceremony, just before the undertakers got ready to close the casket, the wife said "Wait just a minute!" She had a box in her hands. She came over with the box and placed it in the casket. After that the undertakers locked the casket down and rolled it away. Not long after that, her friend said, "I hope you were not crazy enough to put all that money in the casket." The wife turned to her friend and replied; "Yes, because I have promised." Then she continued; "I can't lie. I promised him that I was going to put that money in that casket with him." Feeling shocked, her friend said; "You mean that you have put every cent of his money in the casket with him?" Then the wife answered; "Surely I did. I got it all together, put all the money into my account and I just wrote him a check."

Notice on Generic structure of spoof sample

Spoof text is very similar to recount text. Both spoof and recount tell about the past event with chronological order. Its purpose is to amuse reader with funny story. The story mostly is ended with an unpredictable event. The above spoof sample has generic structure as follow: Orientation: It is the introduction of the story. By giving the orientation, reader will recognize, for the first time, who involves in the story.The above story talks about a wife and his husband who loves money too much even up to his death. Events: Several events are explored in chronological way which able to arrange the story read nicely.Promising with her money miser husband, Putting the box inside casket, locking and rolling the casket are the events which build the complete story. Twist: This is the unpredictable event/thing/way which amuse the reader. Readers even did not predict before that it would be. When reading the above story, for the first, readers likely think that the wife would put all the money instead of just a check

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