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Starting of induction

motors
Starting of induction motors
 At starting induction motors take five to seven
times the full-load current developing only 1.5
to 2.5 times the full-load torque.
 The excessive current will produce large line-
voltage drop affecting the operating of supply
system.
 In slip-ring motors the starting torque is
improved and starting current is reduced by
increasing the resistance in the rotor circuit.
Cont.
 In squirrel-cage motors the in-rush of current
is limited by applying reduced voltage to the
motor at starting.
Starting methods of
cage-motors
1. Auto-transformer method
2. Step-down Transformer method
3. Star-delta method
4. Resistance control method
Auto-transformer method
 Reduced voltage for starting is obtained from
an auto-transformer also called a starting
compensator.
 It may be manually operated or automatically
operated by relays.
 When the motor gains some speed, say 70%
of normal speed, connections are so changed
that auto-transformer is cut out and full
voltage is applied across the motor.
Cont.
 The switch making the changes from ‘start’ to
‘run’ may be air-break for small motors or oil-
immersed for large motors to reduce
sparking.
 Two windings auto-transformer connected in
open delta or ‘V’ is commonly used to its
cheapness.
Step-down transformer
method
 An ordinary transformer instead of auto-
transformer may also be used.
 The secondary is used as an auto-
transformer.
 This simplifies the switchgear, but the extra
connections from the transformer is a
disadvantage.
Star-delta method
 This type of starting is normally used for
mesh-connected motors to keep the normal
phase voltage equal to line voltage.
 At starting the three phases of the stator of
motor are connected in a star, phase
voltages being 1/1.732 of normal voltage and
torque developed is 1/3 of that developed if
motor were connected directly in delta.
Cont.
 The line current is reduced to 1/3.
 A throw-over switch is used to change the
connections from star to delta
Resistance control method
 An induction motor can also be started by
connecting a resistance in series with stator.
 Resistors connected in series with stator
phases causes voltage drop and reduction in
voltage applied to the motor.
 The current reduces directly with the voltage
but the torque also varies as square of the
current.
Starting of wound-rotor motors
 The wound-rotor motors are started on full-
line voltage and with variable resistors in the
form of a rheostat connected in star and
connected to rotor circuit through its slip-
rings.
 The speed of the motor increases, the
resistance is reduced and ultimately short-
circuited when the motor gains its full speed.
Cont.
 At starting rotor and stator currents are
reduced and starting torque increases due to
improvement in p . f.
 By proper choice of resistors, large torques
can be obtained at nearly all speeds and
rapid acceleration can be obtained.
 Such motors can be started under load.
figure
crawling
 Motor runs at one seventh of the rated speed
is known as crawling.
 Crawling on the other hand signifies running
of motor at almost one seventh of the rated
speed due to interference of seventh
harmonics.
Crawling of induction motor
 Induction motor (specially squirrel-cage)
exhibit a tendency to run at a speed very
much smaller than synchronous one, usually
(1/7)th.
 Running of induction motor at very small
speed is called crawling of motor.
 This is due to effect of harmonics, produced
due to imperfect distribution of stator winding.
cont
 Even harmonics cancel each other and never
exist in machines.
 Effects of higher higher harmonics (beyond
seven) are negligible.