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Synchronous motor

 Basic principle.
 Starting of synchronous motor.
 Why dc excitation is used?
SYNCRONOUS
MOTOR
what is synchronous
motor?

 It is a synchronous machine use to
convert electrical power to
mechanical power.
 A synchronous motor is identical
with a an alternator or ac
generator or synchronous
generator
Some features of
synchronous motor

 It runs as synchronous speed the only to
change its speed can be change only by
changing supply frequency.
 It is not self starting. it has to be run up to
synchronous speed by some means before it
can be synchronized to the supply.
 It can used for both lagging and leading power
factor.
BASIC PRINCIPLE
It should be noted:

 The rotating part is called rotor
and field winding is mounted on
it .it is also called rotor winding
 Armature winding mounted on
stationary part called stator so also
called stator winding.
Basic principle

 Consider a two pole synchronous motor
 A 3-Φ supply is applied to the stator of the
motor which produces a 3-Φ current flow
in the winding.
 This current results a magnetic flux of
constant magnitude rotating at
synchronous speed.
 The field winding is excited by dc current
which produces steady state magnetic
field
Basic principle

 Now there two magnetic field present
in the motor :
 Rotor filed
 Stator field
 Both field will tend to line up each
other just like two bar magnets will
tend to line up if place near each
other.
Basic principle

 The stator magnetic field is rotating so
the rotor magnetic field will try to catch
up.
 Due to inertia of the rotor and also
inertia of the load connected to the
rotor it can never catch up the stator
field but always lags behind it .
 The greater the angle between the two
magnetic fields greater will be the
torque on the rotor.
 We can say the rotor chases the
rotating stator magnetic filed
around in a circle never quit
catching up with it.
Starting of
synchronous
motor
Why synchronous motor is
not self starting?
 when the supply is given to the stator the rotating magnetic field is created, the
poles will be generated by the formula
 Ns=120f/p

 consider,when the frequency is 50Hz and 2 pole motor the synchronous speed
will be 3000rpm. so that the rotating magnetic field completes its one cycle in
0.02seconds.when the supply given to the rotor the poles will be created which
is constant.due to the force of attraction and repulsion the rotor just
oscillates.due to the inertia of the rotor it cannot be rotated.
 so the magnetic locking cannot takes place.so that the synchronous motor is
not a self starting motor.
Why synchronous motor is
not self starting?

 A synchronous motor is not a self
starting motor because torque is
only developed when running at
synchronous speed, therefore ,the
motor needs some type of device
to bring the rotor to synchronous
speed
Methods of starting
synchronous motor

 By reducing supply frequency.
 By using external prime mover.
 By using damper winding.
Reducing the
frequency
 When we reduce the supply frequency
speed of the stator magnetic field to a
low enough value that the rotor can
accelerate and lock in with it during one
half of the magnetic field rotation.
 Then the frequency is gradually
increase up to normal value.
Disadvantage
 It requires an independent generator for
frequency control.
By using external prime
mover
 The speed of the rotor is made
equal to the synchronous speed.
 when the both speed are
synchronized the prime mover is
detached and motor is connected
to 3-Φ supply and field is excited
the motor will continue to rotate.
Disadvantage
 It needs the external prime mover.
By using damper winding

 The pole shoes of most f the
machines are punched with slots
having copper bar which are short-
circuited at both ends by heavy
copper rings.Thse bars are known
as damper windind or amortissuer
windind.
 First main fild winding is short circuited.
 Reduce voltage with the help of auto
transformer,applied across stator
terminals.The motor starts up.
 When it reaches a steady speed a weak
d.c excitation is applied by removing the
short circuit on the main field winding.If
excitationis sufficient thenthe machine
will be pulled into synchronism.
 Full supply voltage is applioed
across stator terminals by cutting
out the auto transformer.
 The motor may be operated at any
desired power factor by changing
the d.c excitation.
Pull in torque

 The torque developed by the
sychhoronous motor as an
induction motor(with its field
un excited) is called pull in
torque
Pull out torque

Pull-out torque is the maximum sustained torque
the electric motor develops at synchronous
speed for one minute with rated frequency and
normal excitation. Normal pull-out torque is
usually 150% of full-load torque for unity-power-
factor electric motors, and 175 to 200% for 0.8-
leading-power-factor electric motors.
Why d.c excitation?

Torque developed in a motor is
unidirectional only when
 Directions of both the field and
armature currents remains
unchanged
OR
Both change simultaneously
 So in synchronous motor the
armature current and field flux will
change simultanously only if D.C is
given to the field because it to
rotate at synchronous speed.