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nchronous Generator:

**Tests And Characteristics
**

Voltage Regulation

Losses and Efficiency

Determination of the parameters of

the equivalent circuit from test data

** The equivalent circuit of a synchronous generator that
**

has been derived contains three quantities that must be

determined in order to completely describe the

behaviour of a real synchronous generator:

The saturation characteristic: relationship between If and

φ (and therefore between If and Ef)

The synchronous reactance, Xs

The armature resistance, Ra

Test of synchronous

generator

The above three quantities could be determined

by performing the following three tests:

**Open-circuit test
**

Short-circuit test

DC test

Open-circuit test

The generator is turned at the rated speed

The terminals are disconnected from all loads, and

the field current is set to zero.

Then the field current is gradually increased in steps,

and the terminal voltage is measured at each step

along the way.

It is thus possible to obtain an open-circuit

characteristic of a generator (Ef or Vt versus If) from

this information

Connection for Open Circuit

Test

Open-Circuit

Characteristic

Short-circuit

test

Adjust the field current to zero and short-

circuit the terminals of the generator through a

set of ammeters.

Record the armature current Isc as the field

current is increased.

Such a plot is called short-circuit

characteristic.

Connection for Short Circuit

Test

Open and short circuit

characteristic

Curve

feature

The OCC will be nonlinear due to the

saturation of the magnetic core at higher

levels of field current. The SCC will be

linear since the magnetic core does not

saturate under short-circuit conditions.

Determination of Xs

For a particular field current IfA, the internal voltage Ef (=VA) could be found from the

occ and the short-circuit current flow Isc,A could be found from the scc.

Then the synchronous reactance Xs could be obtained using

VA (= E f )

Z s ,unsat = R + X

2

a

2

s ,unsat =

I scA

Ef or Vt (V) Air-gap line

OCC Isc (A) X s , unsat = Z s2,unsat − Ra2

Vrated

SCC

: Ra is known from the DC test.

VA

Isc,B Since Xs,unsat >>Ra,

Isc,A

Ef Vt , oc

IfA IfB

If (A) X s ,unsat ≈ =

I scA I scA

Xs under saturated condition

**Ef or Vt (V) Air-gap line
**

OCC Isc (A)

Vrated SCC

At V = Vrated , VA

Isc,B

Vrated ( = E f )

Isc,A

If (A)

IfA IfB

Z s , sat = R + X

2

a

2

s ,sat =

I scB

**X s , sat = Z s2, sat − Ra2: Ra is known from the DC test.
**

Equivalent circuit and phasor diagram under

condition

jXs Ra

+ Vt=0 Ef

Ia

Ef + jIaXs

Vt=0 Ia

Ia R a

Short-circuit Ratio

Another parameter used to describe synchronous generators is the short-

circuit ratio (SCR). The SCR of a generator defined as the ratio of the field

current required for the rated voltage at open circuit to the field current

required for the rated armature current at short circuit. SCR is just the

reciprocal of the per unit value of the saturated synchronous reactance

calculated by

**Ef or Vt (V) Air-gap line
**

Isc (A)

OCC

Vrated I f _ Vrated

SCC

SCR =

Isc,rated I f _ Iscrated

1

=

X s _ sat [ in p .u .]

If (A)

If_Vrated If_Iscrated

VOLTAGE

REGULATION

Voltage regulation of an alternator is

defined as the rise in terminal voltage of the

machine expressed as a fraction of

percentage of the initial voltage when

specified load at a particular power factor is

reduced to zero, the speed and excitation

remaining unchanged.

Voltage

Regulation

A convenient way to compare the voltage behaviour

of two generators is by their voltage regulation (VR).

The VR of a synchronous generator at a given load,

power factor, and at rated speed is defined as

Enl − V fl

VR = × 100%

V fl

Voltage

Regulation

Case 1: Lagging power factor:

A generator operating at a lagging power factor has a

positive voltage regulation.

Case 2: Unity power factor:

A generator operating at a unity power factor has a small

positive voltage regulation.

Case 3: Leading power factor:

A generator operating at a leading power factor has a

negative voltage regulation.

Voltage

Regulation

This value may be readily determined from

the phasor diagram for full load operation.

If the regulation is excessive, automatic

control of field current may be employed to

maintain a nearly constant terminal voltage

as load varies

Synchronous Generator Capability

Curves

** Synchronous generator capability curves are used to
**

determine the stability of the generator at various points of

operation. A particular capability curve generated in Lab

VIEW for an apparent power of 50,000W is shown in Fig.

The maximum prime-mover power is also reflected in it.

Capability

Curve

Losses and

Efficiency

The losses in synchronous generator include:

1. Copper losses in

a) Armature

b) Field winding

c) The contacts between brushes

2. Core losses, Eddy current losses and

Hysteresis losses

Losses

3. Friction and windage losses,the brush

friction at the slip rings.

4. Stray load losses caused by eddy currents

in the armature conductors and by

additional core loss due to the distribution

of magnetic field under load conditions.

synchronous generator power flow

diagram

The three-phase synchronous generator power flow diagram

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