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SYNCHRONOUS

GENERATOR
 CONSTRUCTUION
 BASIC PRINCIPLE
 SPEED AND FREQUENCY
 EMF INDUCED
SYNCHRONOUS
GENERATOR
Introduction to Synchronous Generator
• Are the primary source of all electrical energy
• Synchronous generators are commonly used to convert
the mechanical power output of steam turbines, gas
turbines, hydro turbines into electrical power for the grid
• Can be extremely large – power ratings up to 1500MW.
• Are known as synchronous machines because they
operate at synchronous speed (speed of rotor always
matches supply frequency)
Construction Housing ,cooling ducts

Stator Rotor

Shaft

Bearing
Rotor winding
Stator winding
Connections
Construction
Iron core

Stator details
Coil
• Coils are placed
Slots
in slots

• Coil end windings
are bent to form
the armature
winding. End winding
Metal frame

Laminated iron
core with slots

Insulated copper
bars are placed in
the slots to form
the three -phase
winding
Construction
Round rotor
• The round rotor is
used for large high
speed (3000rpm, 2 or
4-pole) machines.
• A forged iron core is
installed on the shaft.
• Slots are milled in the
iron and insulated
copper bars are placed
in the slots.
• The slots are closed by
wedges and re-
enforced with steel
rings.
Constructi
on
Rotor Details
Construction Stator with
laminated iron-core
C
Concept (two poles) A

Round Rotor Machine
Slots with
The stator is a ring winding
shaped laminated B
iron-core with slots. A -

Three phase windings + C
are placed in the +
slots. (same as
N S
induction machines)
Rotor with dc
Round solid iron rotor winding C
with slots. A
-
A single winding is -
placed in the rotor B
slots. Dc current is B +

supplied through slip
rings.
Salient pole rotor

Generally for low speed generators driven by
water turbines.
Large number of poles and large diameter
Damper winding is embedded in the pole-
face
Construction
Salient Rotor Machine
• The stator has a
laminated iron-core
with slots and three
phase windings placed B- C+
in the slots.
N

• The rotor has salient
poles excited by dc A+ A-
current.

• DC current is supplied S
to the rotor through
slip-rings and brushes. B+
C-

• The number of poles
varies between 2 - 128.
Salient Pole rotor
G en era tor

E xciter
View of a two-pole round rotor generator and exciter.
• The position of the armature and the field circuit
is interchanged in synchronous generators
compared to the dc machines – Armature in Stator,
Field in Rotor

REASONS:
• The armature winding, being rated for higher power
is much larger than the field winding. Therefore, it
can be better placed in the stationary part.
• Cooling arrangement is easier if the armature is in
the stator.
• The field coils carry relatively small current and
hence the power can be supplied easily to the field
winding by slip rings.
Field excitation
• The field is excited by two dc generators connected
in cascade: Main exciter and Pilot exciter.
• The main exciter feeds the exciting current to the
field of the synchronous generator. Pilot exciter feeds
power to the field winding of the main exciter. (Refer to
Fig.)
• Typically, a 2500 kW exciter
for 500 MVA alternator.
• This cascade arrangement is
to get quick response.
• To avoid problems due to
carbon brushes of exciters,
brushless excitation systems
are being used recently.
DAMPER WINDING
• THE POLE SHOES OF THE GENERATOR ARE
PUNCHED WITH SLOTS HAVING COPPER BARS
WHICH ARE SHORT CIRCUITED AT BOTH ENDS
BY HEAVY COPER WINGS. THESE BARS ARE
USED TO PREVENT THE HUNTING IN
GENERATORS AND MOTORS IN
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR TO PROVIDE THE
STARTING TORQUE

• THESE BARS ARE KNOWN AS SQUIRRELCAGE
WINDINGS,DAMPER WINDING OR
AMORTISSUER WINDINGS
AIR GAP
• The air gap length in synchronous
generators and motors is fixed by armature
reactions as in D.C. machines
• The air gap should be considerably longer
than necessory for mechanical clearance
so that the effect of armature reactions
may not be exaggerated
Principle of Operation and emf Equation
• When the generator is driven by the prime mover a revolving
field is produced by the rotor field winding.
• A three-phase voltage is induced in the three-phase winding due
to relative motion.
•Frequency of the voltage depends upon number of poles and
speed.
a
A positive voltage is
induced in the • c’
conductor when an N 3-phase b • x
N
pole voltage
sweeps across it, a
negative voltage is • S x
induced when the S pole c b’
x
sweeps by.
a’
Every time a complete pair of poles crosses the
conductor, the induced voltage goes through one
complete cycle. Therefore, the generator frequency
is given by
p n pn
f = . =
2 60 120
f =
p n
. =
Derivation of Emf equation
pn
2 60 120

The average induced voltage in each phase
∆φ
E ave =N
∆t
where N = number of turns in the phase winding
∆ φ = change of flux in a given time, ∆ t.