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# AN ALTERNATIVE

EVALUATION OF FMEA:
FUZZY ART ALGORITHM

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Outline
 Introduction
 FailureMode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy
ART)
 Computational Experiment
 Results
 Conclusion and Discussion

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Introduction
 The traditional FMEA has many
shortcomings.
 This study describes an alternative
algorithm for evaluating Risk Priority
Number of Failure Mode and Effect
Analysis.

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 3
ART)
Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
 The FMEA method is based on brainstorming for
the failures that might occur
 Three indices have been used: Occurence (O) ,
Severity (S) and Detection (D)
 The product of the three indices gives a risk
degree, known as risk priority number (RPN).

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis  Results
(FMEA)
 Conclusion and Discussion
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) 4
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy
ART)
Shortcomings of FMEA
At the classical FMEA method;
 The failure modes over the threshold value are improved. This situation increases
the cost.
 RPN = 5 X 5 X 5 is improved but RPN = 8 X 1 X 10 is not considered.
 The condition assigning to (S, O, D) indexes the values (8, 1, 1) are considered at the
same level as (2, 2, 2). Both situations determine an RPN= 8.
 S, O and D values are evaluated by multiplying each other. So three risk factor’s
importance is disappeared.
 The traditional FMEA is that various sets of S, O and D may produce an identical
value of RPN
 For example, a RPN equal to 64 may be obtained from 10 different combinations of
the S, O, and D indices.
 Some numbers between 1 and 1000 cannot be obtained from the product of three
numbers, for example, 11, 22, 33 . . . . . 990

 Introduction
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis
 Computational Experiment
(FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
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 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy
ART)

 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) was developed
by Grossberg (1976)
 Input vectors which are close to each other according
to a specific similarity measure should be mapped to
the same cluster
 ART adapts itself by storing input patterns, and tries
to match best the input pattern

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 6
ART)
ART clustering algorithms
 ART1
 ART2
 ART3
 ARTMAP
 Fuzzy ART

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 7
ART)
Fuzzy ART Modeling

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 8
ART)
Fuzzy ART

 Layer 1 consists of neurons that are
connected to the neurons in Layer 2 through
weight vectors.
 The number of neurons in Layer 1 depends
on the characteristics of the input data.
 The Layer 2 represent clusters.

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 9
ART)
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Fuzzy ART Architecture

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 11
ART)
Fuzzy ART FMEA

 FMEA values are evaluated separately with
severity, detection and occurrence values
 The aim is to apply Fuzzy ART algorithm to
FMEA method and by performing FMEA on
test problems, most favorable parameter
combinations (α , β and ρ) are investigated.

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy 12
ART)
Computational Experiment

A non-binary
dataset of FMEA is
used to evaluate the
performance of the
Fuzzy ART neural
network on different
test problems

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 13
Computational Experiment

For a comprehensive
analysis of the effects
of parameters on the
performance of Fuzzy
ART in FMEA case, a
number of levels of
parameters are
considered.

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 14
Computational Experiment

The Fuzzy ART neural network method is applied
to determine the most favorable parameter (α, β
and ρ) combinations during application of FMEA
on test problems

 Introduction
 Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Results
 Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 15
Results
 For any test problem 900 solutions are obtained.
 The β-ρ interactions for parameter combinations
are considered where solutions are obtained.
For each test problem, all the combinations are
evaluated and frequency distribution of clusters
are constituted

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 16
 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 17
Results
For example, for test
problem 1, four groups
which consist the 70% of
combinations are selected,
cluster numbers that
contains minimum 80% of
the all combinations are
determined according to
the results of pareto
analysis. These are groups
2-3 and 4

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 18
Results

Parameter combinations,
β-ρ interactions and the
number of α parameters
in any combination of β
and ρ, is shown at the
side. Favorable solutions
are marked as bold and
italic

 Introduction
 Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Results
 Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 19
Results
 Number of cluster increases with the increase in ρ.
 Number of cluster increases with the increase in β.
 Clustering of the data in most problems depends on the
interaction between the β and ρ parameters. α parameter
has no effect on solution in small scaled problems, but in
large scale problems, effect of α turns to an irregular
state
 Also with the increase in problem scale, the change in
number of clusters is defined.

 Introduction
 Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Results
 Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 20
Results
In FMEA test problems,
which determine most
favorable parameter
combinations, β - ρ
interactions providing
appropriate cluster numbers
are noted on the summary
table that evaluates each
test problem separately. The
values involve favorable β -
ρ combinations are marked
with the blue area. This is a
suitable solution area for
FMEA problem.

 Introduction
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Computational Experiment
 Results
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART)
 Conclusion and Discussion
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Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy ART neural network is applied to FMEA
 Appropriate parameter intervals are investigated for giving
successful results of Fuzzy ART in FMEA problems.
 The investigations show us, if input number is smaller than or
equal to 30, FMEA problem is defined as small scale,
otherwise it is large scale.
 We suggest that cluster numbers should be determined
between 2 and 6 at small scale problems for practical studies.
 Cluster numbers of large scale problems should be maximum
12 for practical studies.

 Introduction  Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)  Results
 Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART)  Conclusion and Discussion
 Fuzzy Adaptive Resonance Theory (Fuzzy ART) 22
Conclusion and Discussion
 In small scale problems, alfa increases cluster number only if β is
greater than or equal to 0.8. In other conditions, it is observed that α
values have no effect on solution.
 In large scale problems, appropriate interval cannot be determined
because the effect of α becomes irregular
 For both small and large scale problems, number of cluster
increases with the increase in β.
 For both small and large scale problems, number of cluster
increases with the increase in ρ.

 Introduction
 Computational Experiment
 Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA)
 Results