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Limit Switching

By:
Almeda, Barrion, Ramos, Redondo, Umali
V4A

Definition
An electromechanical device that
consists of an actuator mechanically
linked to a set of contacts
Used in a variety of environments and
applications for their ease of installation,
toughness, and reliability.
First to define the limit of travel of an
object

Construction
Designed in two body
types
Plug-in
Nonplug-in

Plug-in housing
Developed to ease switch replacement if
needed.
Consist of two parts electrical and
mechanical.
Base composes of electrical wirings
Switch body consists of moving parts.

Nonplug-in housing
First housings that were developed
Box-shaped with a separate cover.

Basic components
Actuator
portion which comes in contact with the
sensed object
detects movement of the operating unit, and
transmits external force to the changeover
mechanism

Head
Houses the mechanism translating actuator
movement into contact movement

Contact Block
houses the electrical contact elements

Terminal Block
Contains the screw terminators

Terminals
Forms the circuit for electrical input/output

Switch Body
Houses the contact block in a plug-in switch

Base
Houses the terminal block
Nonplug-in switches do not have this part.

Actuator functions/types
Side rotary actuation
Shaft protruding from the side of the head
that operates the switch contacts when
rotated
Designed to move in a clockwise or anticlockwise position and either uni- or bidirectional operation of the contacts.

Side/Top push
Short rod (button) on the side or top of a limit
switch head that operates the switch
contacts when depressed.
Usually designed with a spring mechanism
Some designs employ rods without spring
return which must be pushed to the opposite
direction to reset the contacts

Wobble Stick/Cat Whisker actuation


a long narrow rod on the top of a limit switch
head which operates the switch contacts
when deflected from the vertical position
Wobble sticks are typically nylon rods, while
cat whiskers are made of flexible wire.

Advantages
Mechanical:
Ease of use
Simple visible operation
Durable housing
Well sealed for reliable operation
High resistance to different ambient conditions found
in industry
High repeatability
Positive opening operation of contacts (some models)

Electrical
Suitable for switching higher power loads than other
sensor technologies (5A at 24V DC or 10A at 120V AC
typical vs. less than 1A for proximities or photoelectrics)
Immunity to electrical noise interference
Immunity to radio frequency interference (walkietalkies)
No leakage current
Minimal voltage drops
Simple Normally Open and/or Normally Closed
operation

Disadvantages
Shorter contact life than solid-state
technology
Moving mechanical parts wear out
eventually
Not all applications can use contact sensing

Applications
Conveyor systems
Transfer machines
Automatic turret lathes
Milling and boring machines
Radial drills
High speed production equipment

END

Reference:
http://www.ces-pasco.com/information
_links/manuals/FUNDAMENTALS%20OF%20S
ENSING.pdf