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Department of Electronics Engineering

Indian Institute of Technology


(Banaras Hindu University)

A presentation on

HIGH VOLTAGE MOSFETs


Shivanshi Gupta
Roll No. 12305EN043
NO. OF SLIDES-28

HIGH VOLTAGE MOS (POWER MOS)


Introduction- HVMOS structure
2 types of HVMOS:LDMOS & V-MOS:- Structure
Analysis
Applications

Conclusion & Future trends


References

High voltage MOSFETs structure:

The presence of a low-doped drift region in addition helps to sustain


high-voltages.

The charge carriers flow from source to drain through the channel
and the drift region.

HVMOS structure

Types of HVMOS:1. LDMOS (The Laterally Diffused MOSFET )


2. V- Groove MOS (VMOS)

LDMOS (The Laterally Diffused MOSFET )


The Laterally Diffused MOSFET (LDMOS) is a power MOSFET designed for
low on-resistance and high blocking voltage.
In a lateral high-voltage MOS transistor, the lightly doped drift
region is extended laterally and current flows along the horizontal direction
between source and drain.
A diffused p-type channel region is fabricated in a low-doped n-type drain
region.

Fabrication
fabrication requires a diffusion.
The device can be fabricated by diffusion as well as ion implantation.
The p-type region is formed first, followed by shallow p+ and n+ regions..
Eliminates the body effect:- The p+-region contacts the p-type body, which is
typically shorted to the source, thereby eliminating the body effect

LDMOS structure

MODELLING STRATEGY
DRIFT RESISTANCE MODEL:-

DRIFT RESISTANCE MODEL

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DC BEHAVIOUR OF LDMOS

ANAMALOUS EFFECTS
QUASI SATURATION
SELF HEATING

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Quasi saturation effect


Low doping concentration in the drift region of high-voltage LDMOS
produces a quasi saturation region.
The quasi-saturation state appears at the point when the incoming
carrier density exceeds the doping level of the drift.
if the velocity saturation occurs first in the drift region
instead of the channel region the quasi-saturation effect appears in
the device characteristics.
The reason for the occurrence of quasi-saturation
at high-gate voltages is that the conductivity of the channel
region is high, whereas that of the thin-gate-oxide drift region
is low due to depletion in the drift region. For further increasing
drain voltages, the depletion layer widens, and the current
through the drift region becomes conned to a limited effective
cross section ,which leads to velocity saturation in the
drift region

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QUASI SATURATION
Characteristics

13 Output

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Minimization
Quasi saturation effects can be minimized or even eliminated by
increasing the doping level in the drift region.

SELF HEATING

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P = IDS VDS

IDS = nCoxW/L (VGS VT)2

Self -heating effect

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With the device scaling and increasing integration density self heating
becomes one of the major issues in device design.

Due to the internal resistance (on-resistance).

In high-voltage devices the self-heating effect no longer remains


Insignificant

With the increase of the internal device temperature due to selfheating the charge carriers mobility decreases because of increased
lattice scattering. This causes a negative resistance effect in the
characteristic output curves where the current starts falling with
increasing drain voltage

IDS vs. VDS of 40V LDMOS transistor

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M O D ELLIN G O F SELF H EATIN G

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EFFECT

Applications

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LDMOS devices, with their high breakdown voltage,


provide
excellent power,
linearity and efficiency performance up to 3 GHz. For these

reasons, LDMOS is nowadays the leading technology for


commercial base station power amplifiers .
The LDMOS structure combines a short channel length
with high breakdown voltage as desired for high power
RF amplifiers in base stations of wireless communications
systems
UHF and L-band power amplifiers

Problem with normal MOS structure


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In low-power applications there is no reason why MOSFETs
can't be used anywhere a bipolar transistor can (they are, in
fact, more versatile than bipolars in low-power
applications). But, therein lies the rub power. It is very difficult
(and expensive) to make a MOSFET which can pass large currents: the main
reason being the horizontal make-up of ordinary MOSFETs. Bipolar transistors
have vertical current flow and can pass larger currents because of it. Figure shows
the theoretical cross-section of a bipolar transistor and a similar cross-section of a
MOSFET is shown in. Current flow in the bipolar is vertically upwards from collector
to emitter
and the large area through which the current passes allows large currents.
MOSFET current flow is from left to right (drain to source) and the small area of
current flow means smaller currents than in a similar-sized bipolar transistor.

SOLUTION- V-MOS TRANSISTORS

2. VMOS Transistors

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The VMOS transistor, named after the V-shaped groove, is a vertical MOSFET
with high current handling capability as well as high blocking voltage.
It consists of a double diffused n+/p layer, which is cut by a V-shaped groove
. The substrate acts as a drift region.
The vertical structure allows the use of a low-doped drain region, which results
in a high blocking voltage.
The V-groove is easily fabricated by anisotropically etching a (100) silicon
surface using a concentrated KOH solution.
The V-groove is then coated with a gate oxide, followed by the gate electrode.
As the V-groove cuts through the double diffused layer, it creates two
vertical MOSFETs, one on each side of the groove.
The combination of the V-groove with the double diffused layers results in a
short channel length, which is determined by the thickness of the p-type layer.

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V-MOS structure

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For low drain voltage, channel and drift regions both contribute to the on-resistance. For
large gate biases, the channel resistance and, hence, the total on-resistance reduces until
a point where the on-resistance becomes independent of further change in gate bias. At
this stage, the on-resistance becomes almost equal to the drift resistance. A small value
of on-resistance is always desirable to achieve low power dissipation (P dissipation), given

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Applications:VMOS FETs overcome the power problems normally associated with FETs.
Current flow is now vertically upwards, from drain to source, in much the same
way as in bipolar transistors. The larger chip area means large current. Hence we
have transistors exhibiting all the advantages of MOSFETs without the usual
power limits. VMOS FETs also have some other very interesting advantages:
low ON resistance good for audio switching purposes. Low ON resistances
and high OFF resistances make VMOS FETs ideal for use in audio switching
networks. Figure shows a simple on/off audio switch controlled by the voltage
on the transistor gate: + 15V turns the switch on and OV turns it off. Audio
signals can only pass in one direction, from drain to source, but any audio
voltage of about 1/2V to + 5V can be switched.
The extremely high gate-input resistance of VMOSFETs means that they can be
switched by virtually any control method, such as CMOS, TTL, op-amps and
soon.
power amplification as high as 10*6 .
positive temperature coefficient on the ON resistance as the temperature goes
up the transistor passes less current, therefore remaining thermally stable.
easily operated in parallel to increase overall current flow due to the
inherent thermal stability no 'current hogging' by one device occurs.

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Conclusion & Future Trends


LDMOS and VMOS devices, with their high breakdown voltage,
provide excellent power, linearity and efficiency performance up to 3
GHz. For these reasons, these are nowadays the leading technology
for commercial base station power amplifiers
These device are currently the device of choice for numerous UHF
and L-band power amplifiers in broadcast, communication and radar
systems.
Their capability to go beyond 3 GHz Is recently investigated.

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REFERENCES
http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/
http://ecee.colorado.edu/
http://en.wikipedia.org
http://www.scribd.com/

Queries ??

Thank you