About BHEL

Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited, or BHEL, is a state owned enterprise which
is an integrated power-plant equipment manufacturer and one of the oldest and
largest engineering and manufacturing companies in India .It is the 12th largest
power equipment manufacturer in the world. According to Forbes, in 2011
BHEL was ranked ninth most innovative company in the world.
BHEL, Bhopal, was established in on 29th August, 1956, with the technical
assistance of Associated Electronics(India) Ltd. which is a U.K. based
company.
Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime minister of India dedicated this plant to the
nation on 6th November, 1960

BHEL, Bhopal, is situated 5 kms from the Habibganj Railway Station, which is
also the nearest railway station from BHEL Bhopal. Bhopal Railway station is 7
kms and Raja Bhoj Airport is 18kms away from BHEL, Bhopal.

BHEL engages in designing, engineering, manufacturing, testing, and
servicing a wide range of products and services for the core sectors of economy
like Power, Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Renewable Energy, Oil &
Gas and Defence. It imports raw materials from other companies and processes
the material by performing different type of workshop activities to get the
finished part of the required dimension, which are then assembled to make
different components of a Power plant like a steam turbine, heat exchangers etc.
BHEL is affiliated with Siemens AG, which is a Europe based electronics and
electrical engineering company. BHEL is supplied with blueprints by Siemens
which BHEL uses to manufacture Steam Turbines.

BHEL, Bhopal certified to ISO: 9001, ISO 14001 and OHSAS 18001, is
moving towards excellence by adopting TQM as per EFQM / CII model of
Business Excellence. Heat Exchanger Division is accredited with ASME ‘U’

Stamp. With the slogan of “Kadam kadam milana hai, grahak safal banana hai”,
it is committed to the customers.

BHEL, Bhopal produces Hydro, Steam, Marine & Nuclear Turbines, Heat
Exchangers, Hydro & Turbo Generators, Transformers, and Switchgears,
Control gears, Transportation Equipment, Capacitors, Bushings, Electrical
Motors, Rectifiers, Oil Drilling Rig Equipment and Diesel Generating sets.

Some Products of BHEL, Bhopal
2.1 AC Motors & Alternators
BHEL is a leading AC Machines manufacturer and in the last four decades
have supplied more than20000 HT & LT A.C. Machines for various
applications to Indian as well as Export market. The applications include
Power Plants, Nuclear Energy, Petrochemicals, Fertilizers, Refineries, Cement
& Steel Industries, Irrigation Projects, Pipelines, etc.

2.2Turbines
1) Design, Manufacturing, Erection, Commissioning and Services of :



30 MW, 120 MW Steam Turbines
236 MW Nuclear Turbines.
15000 SHP Marine Turbines
210 MW Steam Turbines.
2) Supply of Spares and Repairs of above Steam Turbines.

3) R & M and Life assessment studies of BHEL & Non BHEL TG sets.
4) Repair and Supply of Spares of 210 MW and 500 MW KWU Turbines.

5) Repair and supply of Spares for Non BHEL TG Sets.

Diversified Projects
For IPR and ISRO: Manufacturing of various components.

2.3 Hydro generator
Hydro generator is a synchronous alternator driven by a hydraulic turbine.
Motor is synchronous motor to drive pump. BHEL Bhopal is a leading supplier
of large, medium & small hydro generators, motors, bulb generators and
related service

2.4 Heat Exchanger
Different types of auxiliary heat exchangers are being manufactured at BHEL.
Depending upon application these auxiliary Heat Exchangers are named as. Air Coolers (CACW)
. Oil Coolers (Shell & tube type / Frame and tube type
(Single tube &
concentric double tube construction) / OFAF), Plug in type
. Water Cooler (Shell & Tube type)
. Hydrogen Cooler etc. (Frame and tube type).
. Air Cooler CACA (Duct and tube type)
These coolers are accessories to main equipment’s such as Generator, Turbine,
and Transformer. To ensure long life of these coolers materials for different
components is decided carefully considering its application and water
chemistry. Constructionally these coolers are very easy to maintain.

The range includes traction motors.5 Transportation Equipment BHEL's involvement in the transportation sector has been marked with rapid growth. choppers and associated control equipment. one of the largest railway networks in the world is equipped with traction equipment built by BHEL. viz. 2. BHEL has already supplied thermal sets up to 500 MW rating and has the technology to go up to 800 MW. electronic controls including software based controls extending to rolling stock and other transport applications. . boilers and auxiliaries in the country. Rehabilitation and by timely arranging the spare parts and other services.6 Renovation and Maintenance of Equipment the BHEL is the largest producer of power generating equipment including turbines. There is ample scope for improving the plant availability by cutting down the shutdown period. HSCBs. Today over85% of Indian Railways. The BHEL manufactured sets accounts for 65% of total installed capacity in India. smoothing reactors. traction generators/alternators. locomotive bogies. vacuum circuit breakers.2. inverters. master controllers. transformers. by Renovation & modernization. chopper controllers brake and door equipment. exciters. sub-station equipment. generators. converters. BHEL manufactured 500/236 MW Nuclear sets are also installed in country.

Hydro Power Plant b. followed by Hydro Power (27%). Power produced by coal covers 58% of the total power produced in India. Bio-Mass d. Nuclear Power Plant 2. then Gas turbine (11%). Solar Energy b. and then Nuclear Power (3%). Conventional Methods a. This steam has very high pressure. Wind Power c. In a Thermal Power Plant. Tidal Energy As India is a country rich in coal. which is used by the turbine to rotate the rotor which turns the generator to produce electricity. coal is burned to produce heat which in turns boils water to produce steam. Non-Conventional Methods a.There are: 1. There are many ways to produce high pressured steam which can be used . Thermal power plant are preferred over other power generating methods. Thermal Power Plant c.Overview of Steam Turbines Definition: A steam turbine is a device that extracts thermal energy from pressurized steam and uses it to do mechanical work on a rotating output shaft. .

The heat vaporizes the fluid and as the fluid changes state. Boiler: A boiler is a closed vessel in which water or other fluid is heated. Turbine: A turbine is a rotary mechanical device that extracts energy from a fluid flow and converts it into useful work. 3. 2. . Condenser: Condenser is a heat exchanger which convert steam from its gaseous state to its liquid at a pressure below atmospheric pressure.Components of a Thermal Power Plant 1. pressure increases in the boiler chamber.

Pump: The pressure in the boiler when water is boiling is very high. the shaft of the generator which is coupled with the rotor. Pump pressurizes the condensed water to the required pressure so that the water does not backflow. 5. . This in turn produces electricity using the principle of electromagnetic induction.4. also rotates. The usual pressure provided by the pump is about120% of the pressure in the boiler. Generator: An Electric Generator is a device which converts mechanical energy to electrical energy. When the rotor of a steam turbine moves.

These are commonly found at refineries. In a reheat turbine. reheat.  Casing or Shaft Arrangement  Two-Flow Rotors 1) On the basis of steam supply and exhaust conditions These types include condensing. Noncondensing.000 hp) turbines used to generate electricity.000. Steam Turbines are classified into 3 types:  On the basis of Steam Supply and Exhaust Condition. The steam then goes back into an intermediate pressure section of the turbine and continues its expansion.000 kW(2. . district heating units.75 kW (1< hp) units (rare) used as mechanical drives for pumps. Non-condensing or backpressure turbines are most widely used for process steam applications. extraction and induction. typically of a quality near 90%. and desalination facilities where large amounts of low pressure process steam are available. compressors and other shaft driven equipment. steam flow exits from a high pressure section of the turbine and is returned to the boiler where additional superheat is added. The exhaust pressure is controlled by a regulating valve to suit the needs of the process steam pressure. Reheat turbines are also used almost exclusively in electrical power plants. to1.Types of Steam Turbines Steam turbines are made in a variety of sizes ranging from small <0. at a pressure well below atmospheric to a condenser. Condensing turbines are most commonly found in electrical power plants. pulp and paper plants.500. These turbines exhaust steam in a partially condensed state.

. or left uncontrolled. steam is released from various stages of the turbine. Single casing units are the most basic style where a single casing and shaft are coupled to a generator. 2) On the basis of Casing or shaft arrangements These arrangements include single casing. tandem compound and cross compound turbines. and used for industrial process needs or sent to boiler feed water heaters to improve overall cycle efficiency. A cross compound turbine is typically used for many large applications. Induction turbines introduce low pressure steam at an intermediate stage to produce additional power. Extraction flows may be controlled with a valve. In an extracting type turbine. A cross compound turbine arrangement features two or more shafts not in line driving two or more generators that often operate at different speeds.Extracting type turbines are common in all applications. Tandem compound are used where two or more casings are directly coupled together to drive a single generator.

with a net increase in steam velocity across the stage. As the steam flows through the nozzle its pressure falls from inlet pressure to the exit pressure(atmospheric pressure. which the rotor blades. A pressure drop occurs across only the stationary blades. convert into shaft rotation as the steam jet changes direction. These jets contain significant kinetic energy.3) Impulse turbines An impulse turbine has fixed nozzles that orient the steam flow into high speed jets. or more usually. Due to this higher ratio of expansion of steam in the nozzle the steam leaves the nozzle with a very high velocity. shaped like buckets. the condenser vacuum). The steam leaving the moving blades has a large portion of the maximum velocity of the steam when leaving the nozzle. The loss of energy due to this higher exit velocity is commonly called the "carry over velocity" or "leaving loss". .

A pressure drop occurs across both the stator and the rotor. reflecting the work performed in the driving of the rotor. with no net change in steam velocity across the stage but with a decrease in both pressure and temperature. . with steam accelerating through the stator and decelerating through the rotor. The steam then changes direction and increases its speed relative to the speed of the blades. the rotor blades themselves are arranged to form convergent nozzles. It leaves the stator as a jet that fills the entire circumference of the rotor. This type of turbine makes use of the reaction force produced as the steam accelerates through the nozzles formed by the rotor. Steam is directed onto the rotor by the fixed vanes of the stator.4) Reaction turbines In the reaction turbine.

.

Depending on steam condition and power output. number of stages in steam turbine is decided. There will be drop in pressure of the steam across the fixed blade resulting to very high steam velocity at the exit of fixed blade 3. The high velocity steam then impinges on another row of rotating blades 4. .rotating A set ofblades fixed which blades rotate and rotating the rotor. Steam at high pressure & temperature is made to pass through a row of fixed blades or nozzles mounted on stationary body in Casing. The impingement high velocity steam generates driving force on mounted on the rotor of shaft these 5. 2. blades mounted on rotor is called stage of turbine.Working principle of Steam Turbine 1.

Governing system 10. functional accuracy and trouble-free operations. Coupling 8. Rotor 5. Guiding blade requires various features such as dimensional accuracy. There is a difference in their size. Stop and control valves 9. . Different types of turbines engage different type of blades.Components of a Steam Turbine Main Components: 1. design and mechanical properties to withstand the different physical conditions the blade is subjected to by the turbine. They are positioned at an angle to the direction of the incoming steam. Cylinder 4. Fixed/Guide blades 2. durability. Moving Blade 3.Control and Instrumentation Guiding Blades : These blades are fixed to the casing of the turbine. so that the steam impinges the moving blades in such a way that amount of energy transfer in the form of kinetic to mechanical is maximum. Bearing and bearing Pedestal 7. Gland Seals 6. shape.

Guiding Blades A set of fixed blades and rotating blades mounted on rotor is called stage of turbine. Moving Blades: These are the blades which are connected to the rotor. they are forced to move. which causes the rotor to rotate and produce energy in the generator. They are also designed especially for obtaining the maximum power transfer. As the steam impinges on these blades. Depending on steam condition and power output. number of stages in steam turbine is decided. Moving blade requires     Sturdy construction Corrosion resistance High efficiency Abrasion resistance .

However. blades used in high temperature (> 450 C) HP or IP applications may be made of austenitic stainless steels because they have better mechanical properties at high temperatures.Moving Blades The material used to make the blade depends on the type of turbine it is going to be used in. titanium alloys. . Low Pressure Guide Blades  Weld ability / Cast ability. These alloys are particularly suited to LP stages for a number of reasons. Since the 1960s. Other important requirements of material for blades of steam turbine HP and IP Guide Blades  Weld ability. LP blades are often. and 630.  Good room temperature proof strength.  Good resistance to the oxidation and corrosion at the same temperature. the exact type of steel chosen for a particular LP application depends on the strength and corrosion resistance required. especially Ti-6Al-4V. but not exclusively. 410.  Adequate rupture ductility. 410-Cb.  High creep and fatigue strength.  High quality surface finish to ensure smooth steam flow and to avoid subsequent pressure drop. HP and IP stage blades are generally made from 12Cr martensitic stainless steels. have also been used for LP turbine stages. made from12Cr stainless steels also.  Adequate ductility to accommodate cumulative strain due to thermal fatigue and creep during the service life. For instance. Common types of stainless steel used in LP sections include AISI types 403.  Good fatigue strength.

 Good surface finish.  Moderate damping capacity. fatigue strength and proof strength. .  Good fracture and impact toughness. High quality surface finish.  Adequate notch rupture ductility. HP And Movingand Blades  Good resistance to oxidation and corrosion.  Good room temperature.  Good Vibration damping capacity.  Good surface finish. LP Moving Blades  Good corrosion and emission resistance.  High creepIPstrength fatigue strength.

There are four sides to a blade: The blade can be right handed or left handed: .

then it means .Nomenclature of a Cylindrical Blade: If a blade is referred to as T4 is the type of profile 25 is the rhomboid width 55 is the stagger angle of the profile Some types of cylindrical blade profiles are: T4-25-55.

so that the axial forces negate each other but the tangential forces act together.Steam Turbine Rotor: The moving steam imparts both a tangential and axial thrust on the turbine shaft. This arrangement is common in low-pressure casings of a compound turbine. . but the axial thrust in a simple turbine is unopposed. To maintain the correct rotor position and balancing. This design of rotor is called two-flow or double-exhaust. The blades in each half face opposite ways (as shown). Either thrust bearings can be used for the shaft bearings. or the rotor can be designed so that the steam enters in the middle of the shaft and exits at both ends. this force must be counteracted by an opposing force.

7. HP. 8. Various type of disc heads are machined to suit the corresponding blade roots. Rotors forging are machined in STM shop. Large Difference in temperature of various parts during starting/shutdown may cause rubbing. Various blade roots are troot. distortion. Earlier all rotors has boroscopic hole at the centre due to forging technological constraint. 4. axial entry and curved axial entry. IP AND LP rotor forgings were imported earlier but now Hp and IP rotor are manufactured at CFFP Haridwar. 2.1. BHEL Bhopal all turbine rotors are with integral disc. 6. 5. fire-tree. 2-tier Blade is used in 720MW due to Baumann exhaust. 3. bend and other serious problems. . 210MW Russian design rotors manufactured at haridwar and 110 MW Czechoslovakia design rotors manufactured at Hyderabad have shrunk fitted disc on IP and LP rotors. fork and pin.

by controlling the functioning of the turbine. ensures the output given by the turbine and also control other important factors like if the turbine is working in limits prescribed to be safe.Control and Instrumentation: Control and instrumentation is a very important area for proper functioning of a steam turbine. . The operator. Through Instrumentation and Control us:  Monitor  Protect  Measure The working of a turbine.

By HWR .The scope of Control and Instrumentation is  Equipment functional requirement  Safety requirements  Customer specification requirements  Matching with the hardware platform  System Engineering  Customer/ consultants approval  H/W & S/W engineering by EDN  Primary Instrumentation Engg.

Methods of Governing: Throttle Governing In throttle controlled turbines. This can be achieved by means of governing in a steam turbine. . Variation in load affects the performance.Governing System: Turbine governing is the process of regulating the rotating speed of the output shaft connected to the generator so that it remains constant. steam flow is controlled by simultaneous opening or closing of all control valves allowing the steam to flow to the group of nozzles located on the entire periphery. so an even speed is required. The primary objective in the steam turbine operation is to maintain a constant speed of rotation irrespective of the varying load.

In this method groups of two. The actuation of individual valve .Throttle Governing Throttle Governing Nozzle Governing: In nozzle controlled turbines. three or more nozzles form a set and each set is controlled by a separate valve. steam flow is controlled by sequential opening and closing of control valves allowing steam to flow to associate nozzle groups.

Nozzle Governing .closes the corresponding set of nozzle thereby controlling the flow rate.

speed transmitter is electrical speed measuring device which sends an electrical signal to electronic controller to a hydraulic system. Signal proportional to valve opening/closure required.  Electro-Hydraulic In Electro-Hydraulic governing system.  Each rotor is individually balanced about its own axis and has a residual unbalance.PR. speed transmitter is centrifugal pump who’s Disch.Types of Governing system  Mechanical Here the speed transmitter is mechanical centrifugal type speed governor which actuates control valves through mechanical linkages. Is proportional to square of speed. 3. The PR.  During assembly of stationary and rotating parts design radial and axial clearances are achieved to ensure smooth running. Oil is sent to hydraulic governor which generates a Hyd. It is connected to a hydraulic system either hydraulically or mechanically.  Vibration is the main criteria for the smooth running of the machine. .  Hydro-Mechanical In hydro mechanical governing system speed transmitter is mechanical centrifugal type speed governor.  Hydraulic In Hydraulic governing system.  The increase in vibration level indicates that there is some problem. IP and LP rotors and generators rotors are coupled together. Pure Mechanical governing systems are not used for utility turbines now a day. The Hydraulic system is amplified as that control valves servomotors can be actuated.  These rotors rotate about a common axis which is axis of rotation.10 Vibrations/ Balancing/ Alignment of Steam Turbines  HP.

these are mechanical losses. Internal losses are connected with flow of steam through blade passages and accompanied with changes in the condition of steam. In this group.1 Internal Losses The internal losses can further be classified as  Losses in regulating valves. apart from carry over loss. turbine work is always accompanied by mechanical losses due to friction in linkage mechanism and bearings. other loss creep in.  Carry over losses.  Losses due to disc friction and windage.  Losses in moving blades. The above losses have different characteristics and can be divided into two main groups.  Losses due to axial and radial clearances.8.2 External Losses  Mechanical losses . In actual turbine. 3. the process of expansion of steam is assumed to be isentropic and the only loss which requires attention is carry over loss.  Losses due to wetness of steam.  Losses in exhaust load. which include losses in bearings and reduction gearing. as a result of friction and turbulence in steam flow. Apart from this. due to leakage of steam through various clearances etc.8. 3. External losses are those that do not directly influences steam conditions. namely external and internal losses.Energy losses in Steam Turbines In an ideal steam turbine.  Losses in nozzles.

. Losses due to steam leakage through seals. the heat energy of the steam is converted into kinetic energy. Some prefer to use the term energy centre because such facilities convert forms of heat energy into electricity. A large part of human CO2emissions comes from fossil fuelled thermal power plants. the steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was heated. or for desalination of water as well as delivering electrical power. Steam is produced in the boiler by heating water and as the steam reaches a very high pressure. efforts to reduce these outputs are various and widespread. and the rotor of the turbine rotates the generator shaft which in turns produces electricity. The greatest variation in the design of thermal power stations is due to the different fuel sources. steam is released in the turbine. for district heating. Some thermal power plants also deliver heat energy for industrial purposes. this is known as a Rankine cycle. Thermal Power Station: A thermal power station is a power plant in which the prime mover is steam driven. After it passes through the turbine. As the high pressure steam hits the blades of the turbine.

coal and nuclear power plants.Rankine Cycle: The Rankine cycle is a cycle that converts heat into work. It is named after William John Macquorn Rankine. biomass. which usually uses water. a Scottish polymath and Glasgow University professor. The heat is supplied externally to a closed loop. including virtually all solar thermal. The Rankine cycle is the fundamental thermodynamic underpinning of the steam engine. . This cycle generates about 90% of all electric power used throughout the world.

4 Steam Cycles  Sub critical Cycles .Temperature 530 to 565 °C  Supercritical Cycles .IDEAL RANKINE CYCLE- 4.Pressure up to 200 bar .Pressure up to 250 bar .

15 o c 4.  Reducing the flue gas exit temperature.Pressure > 250 bar . .  Increase in main stream pressure.  Double reheat.6 Advantages of Supercritical cycle Steam Power plant efficiency increases with increase in steam pressure and temperature.  Increase in final feed water temperature. The critical pressure and temperature for water are Pressure =225.Temperature 540 to 565 °C  Ultra supercritical Cycles .7 Measures to improve Power Cycle Performance  Increase in Main & Reheat steam temperature.5 Definition of critical conditions “Critical” is a thermodynamic expression describing the state of a substance beyond which there is no clear distinction between the liquid and gaseous phase.  Improving individual component efficiency.Temperature > 565 °C 4.  Reduction in condenser back pressure.56 kg/cm2 Temperature =374. NOX & CO2) 4. With higher cycle efficiency. (Lesser Pollutants SOX.. the supercritical cycle offers the advantage of ‘burn less fuel for the same output’ and lower emission.

0.0. .M DISTANCE FROM CENTRE-7315 mm MAXIMUM SWING OVER SPED-3048 mm HEAD STOCK FACE PLATE DIAMETER.1829 mm FACE PLATE GRIPING CAPACITY-203-1575 km 2) WOTON CNC RAM BORAR (MACHINE No.195-20 R. -20/A/2088) CONTROL SYSTEM SIMENS 8-40-D COLOUMN CROSS CONTROL.2000 mm 3) BERTHIZ VERTICAL BORING AND TUNING (MACHINE No.3700 mm .Machines in Machine Shop 1) KREVHAN ROTOR ADJUSTING (MACHINE No.8000 mm HEAD STOCK VERTICAL TRAVEL-3500 mm RAM TRAVEL-700 mm SPINDEL TRAVEL-1000 mm TABLE SIZE-2500 X 3000 mm LONGITUDINAL TRAVEL.20/A/302) SPEED. -20/A/27) LATHE SPEED.P.6-60 RPM FEED.6-16 RPM DIAMETER OF TABLE.4000 mm MAXIMUM TURNING DIAMETER-1600 mm ARM LENGTH.

OF CUTTERS:-FACE CUTTER. PARTS MADE BY THIS MACHINE:1) STEAM TURBINE CASING 2) BUTTERFLY VALVE BODY MACHINING 3) TRUNINON SHAFT 4) TABLES 5) SPHERICAL PIECE 6) SPHERICAL SUPPORTS 7) BEARINGS 8) DOOR BODY 9) SEALING RING 10) TRUNION BLOCK THEY USE CARBIDE TIP TO CUT THE JOB AND ITS VERY COSTLY ALSO. PANNEL etc. PRINCIPLE:-THIS MACHINE WORKS ON HYDRAULIC’S PRINCIPLE. SLOTTED DRILL CUTEER.066-6 mm/round DIAMETER OF TABLE-1800 mm MAXIMUM DIAMETER TURNABLE-2900 mm .5-125 RPM FEED-0. FRONT HEAD. T-SLOT CUTEER. SPINDLE. MILL CUTTER. WOVER ARM. SIDE HEAD. 5) BERBIZ VERTICAL BORING AND TURNING MACHINE (MACHINE No. No.27. 4) PLANOMILING MACHINE DIFFERENT PARTS: TABLE.-20/A/68) SPEED-2. DRILLS. FACING CUTEER.

03-69mm SPINDLE DIAMETER-102 mm LENGTH ABOVE SPINDLE CENTRE.55-1660 mm 6) VERTICAL BORER (MACHINE No. 737 DEALING SLOT-89 mm BORING CAPACITY. 7) KREVAHZ LATHE MACHINE (MACHINE No.5-20 RPM FEED.20/A/30) SPEED-0..02-6.-20/A/2018) DIAMETER OF TABLE.1270 mm MAXIMUM HEIGHT BENEATH CROSS SLIDE.1220 mm MAXIMUM SWING.914 mm VERTICAL FEED OF TOO BAR-510 mm 28.457 mm MILIMG CUTEER.152 mm .5-51 RPM FEED-0.35 mm DISTANCE FROM CENTRE-7620 mm MAXIMUM SWING OVER-1676 mm HEAD STOCK FACE PLATE DIAMETER-152 mm FACE PLATE GRIPING CAPACITY.6.HEIGHT AVALIBLE BENEATH THE ARM .2.203-1270 mm LOAD.80 TON 8) DRILING AND BORING MACHINE (MACHINE No. -20/A/2080) SPEED. .MAX. MIN. 3175.

4877 mm MAXIMUM TURNING DIAMETER.5-200 RPM HEIGHT OF CENTRE.1524 mm MAX.127 mm FACING HEAD.9) HORIZONTAL BORING MACHINE (MACHINE No.51 mm/round VERTICAL DISTANCE. HEIGHT BETWEEN RAM TOOL-3352 mm 11) MORENDO LATHE MACHINE (MACHINE No. 10) RICHARD VERICAL BORING AND TUNING MACHINE (MACHINE No.770 mm DISTANCE BETWEEN CENTRE-6000 mm SWING BED-1520 mm MAX.4955 mm MAX.48-13 RPM FEED-0.-20/A/2012) SPEED. -20/A/11) SPEED-0. -20/A/2111) SPINDLE DIAMETER.80 mm 29.158. WEIGHT ON PLATE-60 TON FEATURES:12) CNC MAIN LATHE:- .1524 mm WIDTH OF TABLE.1. WEIGHT ON CENTRE-30 TON MAX. DIAMETER OF BORING.501-102.5-200 RPM FEED-0.

1) CENTRE TO CENTRE DISTANCE. BORING CAPACITY-180 mm COLOUMNS HORIZONTAL DISPLACEMENT-7620 mm .10mm 2) CAPACITY 85 TON-80 TON 3) DIAMETER TURNABLE -2750 mm 4) MAX.127 BOZE TAPER M T -7 15) ACSIWTH R G 2 HORIZONTAL BORING AND THREDING SPEED.3657 X 1828 SPINDLE DIAMETER. RPM .1524 mm TABLE. WIDTH FROM ABOVE.175 5) SEMI MACHINED JOB COMES HERE 13) PLANER MACHINE TABLE WORKING SURFACE. DRILING CAPACITY.686 mm/round MAX. .3124 mm CROSS SLIDE MAX.1. HEIGHT.4-500 RPM FEED.75 mm MAX.3048 mm 14) HORIZONTAL BORING MILING AND TAPING MACHINE (MACHINE No.10-410 RPM FEED-0.27-508 mm/round SPINDLE DISPLACEMENT-1828 mm MAX.20/A/61) SPEED. BORING CAPACITY.7924 X 2895 mm MAX.14.

3-5-500 RPM B) HIGH SPEED SPINDL 65-2200 RPM FEED.SPINDLE HEADSVERTICAL DISPLACEMENT.64-1700 mm 7.  Shot peening facility for steam turbine blades.  Renovation and modernization and life assessment studies of BHEL make TG sets.3000 mm DISPLACEMENT OF HORIZONTAL COLOUMN ON BED.5000 mm A) MAIN BORING AND MILING SPINDLE.  Turbine oil coolers for 500MW Bhusawal TPS.  HP (High Pressure) heaters for 462 kg/cm2 for 250 Neyveli TPS.27600 mm TOTAL LENGTH OF BED.  Surface condenser for 500MW Bhusawal TPS.20/A/2002 TOTAL DISPLACEMENT OF BORING SPINDLE. . .3040 mm 16) INOCENTI MILING BORING COLOUMN MACHINE No. MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS IN BHEL BHOPAL.0.40800 mm VERTICAL DISPLACEMENT SPEED OF SPINDLE.  LP (Low Pressure) heaters for 500MW Bhusawal TPS.

p) .E Department) BHOPAL (M.T.) 15/12/2013 to 4/1/2014 Prepared and submitted by Krishna pratap singh 0131me111o34 Department of mechanical engineering Jai narain college of technology Bhopal (m.STEAM TURBINES engineering At (S.P.

CERTIFICATE This is to certify that the vocational training on Steam Turbine Engineering has been carried out by KRISHNA PRATAP SINGH. during the academic year 2014-15.) under my guidance in partial fulfillment for the award of (BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY) in (MECHANICAL ENGINEERING).D. 0131ME111034.Department) BHEL. JAI NARAIN COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY at Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) Bhopal (M. Bhopal (M.) .P.R. HARIOM PIPLE (H. Training Coordinator Mr.P.

H. a special thanks to the supporting staff. I am also very thankful to B.H.T.N.C.P) .L Bhopal.E. I wish to acknowledge all of them. HARIOM PIPLE (HRD). many friends. KRISHNA PRATAP SINGH 0131ME111034 Mechanical Engineering Department J. of B.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT My first experience of training has been successful. However.L Bhopal. family & colleagues with gratitude. BHOPAL (M. we wish to make special mention of the following.E. which gave us an opportunity to learn and firm our concepts in our desired field of interest. I am wholeheartedly thankful to them for giving us there valuable time & attention & for providing us a systematic channel for completing my training in time. under the guideline of whom I were able to complete my training. First of all I am thankful of Mr.

4 Main Components 3.1 Components Of A Thermal Power Plant 3.1 Hydro turbine 5.2 Rankine Cycle 4.11 Energy Losses 4.10 Vibration and Balancing 3.CONTENTS 1. Machines in S.M Unit BHEL.2 Types Of Steam Turbine 3.5 Critical Conditions 4.T.3 Working Principle 3.7 Measure to improve Performance 5.1 Introduction 4.4 Steam Cycles 4.3 Cycles with different unit ratings 4. Introduction of BHEL Bhopal 2. Bhopal 7. Some products which BHEL Bhopal Manufacture 3.5 Blade Terminology and Material 3. Major Development in BHEL Bhopal .6 Advantages of Supercritical Cycle 4. Thermal Power Plant 4.7 Turbine Rotor 3. Other workshops visited 5.6 Blade Profile 3. Overview of Steam Turbine 3.9 Governing Of Steam Turbine 3.8 Control And Instrumentation 3.2 foundry 6.

2.TYPES OF TOOLS USED 1. BASED ON METAL OF THE TOOL Three types of tools are used in the machine shop of the workshop of steam turbine department in BHEL. Multipoint cutting tool Example: Drill beat. The tool is single piece high speed steel having one cutting edge 2. 1 CARBIDE TOO Carbide tool is the hardest tool available for machining process in the workshop. Single point cutting tool Example: Cutting tool conventional lathe machines. It is basically used to operate on jobs manufactured from hard metals like alloy steel or stainless steel. 1. grinding wheel etc. BASED ON CUTTING EDGES OF THE TOOL Based on the number of cutting edges tools are of three types. Note: The coolant used in the metal removal processes is the solution of the cutting oil in water either in the oil to water ratio of 1:10 or 1:20 depending on the need of the amount of coolant required. 2. milling cutter. HIGH SPEED STEEL TOOL HSS are used in metals which are relatively softer than above metals. Bhopal. The carbide cutting tool can be either a carbide metal cutting tip brazed on mild steel shank or a carbide metal bid bolted over a mild steel shank. .

The shaft mounted gets rotated with the runner. All throughout its length it has numerous openings at regular intervals to allow water to impound on the blades of the runner. a hydro turbine converts the potential energy of water into the rotational energy of the turbine and eventually to electrical energy. 2 GUIDE VANES: Primary objective of the guide vanes/ stay vanes is to convert the pressure energy of the fluid into the momentum energy. 3 RUNNER: .The kinetic energy is converted to the rotational energy. (The runners perform most efficiently at specific head and pressure) (High tensile stainless steel runners are excellent for large systems or abrasive water conditions) 4 SPIRAL CASING: Spiral casing around the runner of the turbine is also known as volute.OTHER WORKSHOPS VISITE 1 HYDRO TURBINES DEPARTMEN Broadly. They also serve to direct the flow at design angles to the runner blades. Blades/buckets depending on need captures most of the energy from water. The main parts of a hydro turbine are: 1 PIVOT RING: its primary objective is to support the guide vane. These openings convert the pressure .

energy into the momentum energy just before the fluid impounds the blades of the runner. 6 STAY RING: The stay ring is the parent casing which holds the pivot ring. The shaft is coupled with the shaft of the generator which also rotates with the speed of the rotor. the guide vanes and the top cover. all mounted in the stay ring) without any friction coming in action between them and the casing. SPHERICAL VALVE : Takes more space  Expensive setup  Feasible for high pressure setup. the cross sectional area constantly decreases. connected with the pivot ring with the help of bolts. To maintain constant flow rate of water despite many openings. then top cover. The hydro power plant also uses valves to regulate the flow of water from the penstocks. The width of the stay ring is equal to the width of the guide vanes. It also supports the guide vanes. BUTTERFLY VALVE : Takes less space  Used in low pressure set ups 2. along the circumference. The runner and the shaft (mounted over the runner and coupled with the shaft of the generator) rotate in the casing (pivot ring. . Two types of valves are used: - 1. 5 TOP COVER: The top cover of the turbine sits over the upper portion of the STAY RING. then guide vanes.

This force makes the turbine rotate. The rotating shaft runs a generator and produces electricity. KAPLAN TURBINE 1. They work efficiently when there is a huge water flow available . PELTON TURBINE :Pelton turbines/wheels are suitable for power extraction. when water energy is available at high head and low flow rate. When high speed water jet injected through a nozzle hits buckets of Pelton wheel. it induces an impulsive force. This force makes the turbine rotate. Kaplan turbines derive motive force from pure reaction. FRANCIS TURBINE 3. it induces an impulsive force. 3. PELTON TURBINE 2. The rotating shaft runs a generator and produces electricit 2 FRANCIS TURBINE hen high speed water jet injected through a nozzle hits buckets of Pelton wheel. In this video we will go through working principle and design aspects of Pelton turbine.TYPES OF HYDROTURBINES 1.

such as beaches and river beds. a minimum of 98% pure silica sand must be used. a lower purity sand can be used (between 94 and 98% pure). thus. It also cannot be used with certain basic metal because it will chemically interact with the metal forming surface defect.  HSS + binder + accelerator + hardener  Used in critical and highly finished jobs . which can cause casting defects with high melting point metals. and low thermal conductivity. Its disadvantages are high thermal expansion.200 °F). Bhopal uses high silica sand as its moulding sand over the conventional use of the green sand.FOUNDRY SHOP The foundry shop in BHEL. such as steels. low cost (therein being its greatest advantage).760 °C (3. however the sands used have a lower melting point due to impurities. ilica (SiO2) sand is the sand found on a beach and is also the most commonly used sand. such as cast iron and nonferrous metals. For high melting point casting. high silica sand is used in different forms. Silica sand is the most commonly used sand because of its great abundance. however for lower melting point metals. which can lead to unsound casting. it causes silicosis in foundry worker Depending on the job require ent. The fusion point of pure silica is 1. It is made by either crushing sandstone or taken from natural occurring locations. Finally. and. 1 IVP (Indian vegetable product)  Here no backing/ air setting sand is used.

graphite oil and zirconium oxide oil are used. The graphite oil is first applied and then burnt to remove the alcohol present in it which hardens the oil film. The only difference being that zirconium oxide is water based whereas graphite oil is alcohol based. Similarly zirconium oxide is used for steel jobs. Graphite oil is used for cast iron. 4 Green sand  HSS + binder (dextrin powder) + bentonite powder (hardener) + moisture {3-4 % (seasonable)} In order to achieve high finishing. . which on reacting with sodium silicate forms silica gel which acts as binder in the sand.2 Coated sand  HSS + resin + hardener (accelerator added in hardener) 3 Carbon dioxide sand  HSS + binder {sodium silicate (6-7%)} + moisture (seasonable)  Generally 1%  8% in dry season and  Zero % moisture in rainy season. Successive oil films are coated over the mould to obtain very high finish. The carbon dioxide gas is passed through the vent holes.