Why is population different?

Learning Objective: To understand the
factors that causes differences in

Todays Task
Create a concept map identifying the
relationships between:
• Health
• Education
• Social Provisions
• Cultural Factors
(use pages 145 to 152 to help)

Comparing Countries
Create a scatter graph contrasting Infant
Mortality Rate and Birth Rate with GNP.
In
fa
nt
M
or
tal
ity
Ra
te

Bi
rt
h
Ra
te

GNP

Plenary
Suggest at least three reasons the
relationship you have identified on your
scatter graph.
Support your ideas with evidence.

The Demographic Transition
Model

Learning Objective: To be able to identify
the key stage of the DTM and their relation
to countries.

What is the DTM?
It is a model showing the changes in a
country’s birth rate, death rate and
total population over time.
It also shows if there is a population
increase or decrease over time.

Stages 1 – 3 tend to be LEDCs and stages 4 and 5 tend to be

Stage 1
BR and DR high giving small population growth
BR high because :
-No birth control or family planning
- High IMR means more children born in hope some survive
- Children work on land and support parents in old age
DR high because :
-Disease and plague
- famine, uncertain food supplies, diet
- little medical science, few doctors, hospitals, drugs

Stage 2
BR high. DR falling rapidly giving rapid
population growth

Fall in DR because
- Improved medical care : vaccinations, hospitals, doctors,
new drugs and scientific inventions
- Improved sanitation and water supply
- Improvements in food production
- Improved transport to move food, doctors etc
- A decrease in child mortality

Stage 3
BR fall rapidly. DR continue to fall slightly.
Slow population increase.
Fall in BR due to :
- Family planning
- Lower IMR means less children being born
- Increased industrialisation and mechanisation means less
labourers needed
- Emancipation of women
In UK gradual process. Quick and sudden process in LEDCs.

Stage 4
Both BR and DR stay low.
Steady population growth

Stage 5
2 groups of countries have entered
Stage 5 since mid 1990s.
- Some European countries where the
birth rate has fallen below replacement
level
- Some countries in Southern Africa where HIV / AIDS
has caused a rapid rise in the death rate – will these
stay in Stage 5 or return to Stage 1?

Strengths of the
model
• It shows changes through time
• It describes what has happened in the UK
• Many other countries in Europe and North
America went through similar stages as
they industrialised
• Some NICs such as Singapore and South
Korea went through similar stages, though
faster
• It helps explain what has happened and
why it has happened in that particular
sequence

Limitations of the
model
• It is based on the experience of industrialised
countries and is not relevant to non industrialised
countries
• It assumes stage 3 follows industrialisation. Not
always the case. Factors causing DR to fall have
been imported from developed countries so have
occurred much more quickly
• It assumes Stage 4 follows decades after Stage 3.
Not the case. In some countries is held back and
in others occurs more quickly e.g. China
• Original model has been adapted to include a 5th
stage
• Does not predict the future

Plenary

For labelling axes – birth and death rate (per 000 per year) – (1); for
total population/size of population and time (1). For correctly
labelling birth rate line, death rate line and total population (1). In
addition, the stages should be labelled by name not number i.e.
High stationary, Early expanding, Late expanding, Low stationary,
zero or declining population – (1 per 2 correct stages) Vertical lines
marking stages are valid (1 per 2 correct stages)
(must extend from top to bottom) and aspects such as natural
increase/decrease could also be named (not just change) (1). 4x1

To what extent does Malaysia fit the demographic
transition model for the time period shown in Figure
6? (6 marks)
Malaysia appears to have been in stage 2 in 1960 as there
was a significant gap between the births and deaths that
continues until 1980/1990. Growth was at its highest in
1980. The birth rate falls slightly by 1990, but the rate of
population growth slows only slightly as the death rate also
falls. However, the trend of falling birth rate is maintained
and there is a greater fall by 2000 that continues until 2007.
A corresponding slower fall in the death rates means that
rate of natural increase falls. There is clearly a change in
stage and Malaysia has now reached stage 3. Projecting
current trends would suggest that stage 4 will ultimately be
reached, although the speed at which the birth rate has
fallen has reduced in the last seven years. Total population
reflects changes in birth and death rate with increase
slowing down in current century, suggesting progression
through stage 3 and a move towards stage 4.

Population change in the
UK

Learning Objective: To understand the
causes of population change in the UK.

Task
1. On your A3 sheet draw a neat sketch of
the DTM for the UK.
2. In pairs you have to research the UK at
one stage of DTM, you will present your
information to the rest of the class.

Plenary

Population Structure

Learning Objective: To understand how we
can show the age-sex structure of
populations.

Task
1. What is a population pyramid?
2. Find the definitions of the following terms:
Dependency Ratio
Support Ratio
Juvenility Index
Old Age Index
3. Using the data draw and label the key
features of the population pyramid for the
UK.

Plenary

(b) To what extent does Malaysia fit the demographic transition
model for the time period shown in Figure 6? (6 marks)
Malaysia appears to have been in stage 2 in 1960 as there was a
significant gap between the births and deaths that continues until
1980/1990. Growth was at its highest in 1980. The birth rate falls
slightly by 1990, but the rate of population growth slows only slightly
as the death rate also falls. However, the trend of falling birth rate is
maintained and there is a greater fall by 2000 that continues until
2007. A corresponding slower fall in the death rates means that rate of
natural increase falls. There is clearly a change in stage and Malaysia
has now reached stage 3. Projecting current trends would suggest that
stage 4 will ultimately be reached, although the speed at which the
birth rate has fallen has reduced in the last seven years. Total
population reflects changes in birth and death rate with increase
slowing down in current century, suggesting progression through stage
3 and a move towards stage 4.
Level 2 (5-6 marks)
Clear purposeful description linked to model. Has overview of changes /
stages – possibly 2 present and others not yet gone through. Evidence
in support. Appropriate assessment of ‘to what extent’ using evidence.

Population Links

Learning Objective: To
identify and understand
the links between the DTM
and population pyramids.

Card Sort!!!!
1. Match the population pyramids to the
descriptions.
2. Add the information on to your work
sheet annotating the DTM.

Task
Using the text book complete Activity 18
on page 166.

Plenary

Migration

Learning Objective: to understand the
reasons and costs/benefits of migration.

Task
Research the cost and benefits of
migration to both the countries gaining
and losing people.
You need to prepare a short presentation
to give to the group.

Figure 6 shows population migration change in countries in
the European Union (EU) between 2004 and 2005.

Describe the
pattern shown in
Figure 6.
4 marks

Only areas of decline are in eastern Baltic/ countries that have joined
since 2004 (1) states of Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia and Poland - there is
a
clear cluster here (1) for recognition of this.
There is a band of countries going n.w. to s.e. from Denmark to
Hungary
where there is a cluster of countries experiencing relatively low gains approx 0.5 - 2‰ (1).
Some in this area are relatively high e.g. Czech Republic (1).
Many western European countries have significant increases - the
highest being on the edges - Ireland, Italy and Spain (1).
Portugal is relatively low in contrast (1).
Southern Europe is relatively high - Spain, Italy and Cyprus have the
highest figures (1). Greece is relatively low in this region.
The countries joining in 2004 tend to have lower rates of migration
change (1) and indeed half experience a loss of population (1). Malta
and
Cyprus may be viewed as exceptions to this (1).
The above offer possible responses relating to pattern.
Recognition of exceptions is valid.
Credit any valid point that relates to pattern.
4x1

Suggest reasons for this pattern. 5 marks
Areas of net migration gain result of - pull factors - attractions of
these
countries with regard to jobs, housing prospects, e.g. UK, Belgium,
Italy.
Some countries may seek to recruit foreign workers to supplement
their
workforce. Some may gain due to proximity to those who appear to
be
supplying migrants - e.g. Austria, Czech Republic.
Areas gaining in southern Europe such as Spain, Malta and Cyprus
could
be the result of retirement migration due to good weather.
France has relatively low gain due to migration in contrast to
surrounding
countries. This may be due to government policy.
Areas of greatest migration loss likely to be result of push factors such
as high unemployment; relatively poor economic areas by European
standards.
Level 1 (1-3 marks)
Reasons that are suggested are general.

Population and Resources

Learning Objective: To identify and
understand the links between population
and resources and how this relationship

Malthus: Pessimistic Approach
Identified that population
grows exponentially and food
grows arithmetically.
This would eventually lead to
famine unless population
growth was restrained.
Did not work because of:
• Agricultural revolution
• New trade with North
America
• Emigration of people to
North America and Australia

Boserup: Optimistic Approach
Identified that people
adapt to their
circumstances and needs.
This would include:
• Shorter fallow periods
• Increased use of
fertiliser
• Irrigation
• More than one crop a
year
• Mechanisation of farming
• More scientific approach

This means that population
can continue to grow and
that resources will be
available to maintain the
growth.

Club of Rome: Limits of Growth
Read the extract and identify the following
information (use 3 colours to highlight!!):
1. What assumptions have they made to create
the model?
2. What happens in the model?
3. What can the model teach us about future
behaviour?
Add annotations justifying why you highlighted
each factor.

Plenary
“The limits of growth is as irrelevant as
Malthus”, discuss.

Ageing Populations

Learning Objective: To identify and
understand the issues related to ageing
populations.

Task
Create an mind map identifying the key
issues linked to an aging population.
Focus on the following key areas:
• Healthcare
• Pensions
• Housing
Use pages 168 to 171 to help.

Pos
it

Pos
i
ive

tive
a
g
Ne
H
ou
s

in

g

on
i
s
Pen

Ageing
Populations
a
hc
alt
He
re
e
v
i
it
s
Po

tiv
e

Ne

ga
ti v

e

ve
i
t
ga
Ne

s

How is the population changing in the
UK?
Using page 168/169 describe how the
population in the UK is changing, use
specific fact and figures where possible.

Plenary

Youthful Populations

Learning Objective: To understand and
apply the issues associated with youthful

Tasks
1. Identify and add evidence of a youthful
population in Iran.
2. Add key statistical information about
Iran to your work sheet.
3. What reasons are there for a youthful
population in Iran?

Education

Urbanisation

Work

Migration

Key Facts

Plenary
What is the future
for Iran?
How does the
populations pyramid
change you idea?

France's Pro-natalist Population
Policy

Lesson Objective: To evaluate [make an
appraisal by weighing up the strengths and
limitations] France's pro-natalist policy.

France's Pro-natalist Population
Policy
France has employed various policies to try to reconcile
family life with women working. It has some of the most
extensive state-funded child care in Europe.
Mothers can take 16 weeks paid maternity leave for the
first child, rising to 26 weeks for the third child. There is
also a total of 26 months parental leave.
In 2005 the government pledged more money for
families with three children in an effort to encourage
working women to have more babies.
Child care facilities are subsidised by the government.
Younger children are entitled to full-day childcare
(crèches). For children aged two to three there are preschool programmes for which families pay on a sliding
scale.
Birth rates: 1.9 - the second highest fertility rate in

In 1939, the French passed the “Code de
la famille”, a complex piece of pro natalist
legislation.
The pro natalist methods in the policy
included:
• Offfering cash incentives to mothers
who stayed at home to care for children.
• Subsidising holidays.
• Banning the sale of contraceptives
(repealed in 1967).












Incentives offered in the policy included:
Payment of up to £1064 to couples having their third child.
Generous maternity grants.
Family allowances to increase the purchasing power of three child
families.
Maternity leave on near full pay for 20 weeks for the first child to 40
weeks or more for the third child.
100% mortgage and preferential treatment in the allocation of three
bedroom council flats.
Full tax benefits to parents until the youngest child reaches 18.
30% fare reduction on all public transport for three child families.
Pension schemes for mothers/housewives.
Child-orientated development policies e.g. provisioning of creches,
day nurseries etc.
Depending on the family’s income, childcare costs from virtually
nothing to around €500 a month for the most well off of families.
Nursing mothers are encourage to work part-time or take a weekly
day off work.

Report Preparation Exercise
Produce a report with a maximum length of two
sides of A4, including at least one data visualization.
Your report must include sections that:
• Outline the French population situation that
required a pro-natalist population policy to be
implemented.
• How the population policy works. How are the
French population encouraged to increase the
fertility rate?
• How successful has the population policy(ies)
been?

Plenary

To evaluate [make an appraisal by weighing up
the strengths and limitations] China's antinatalist policy.

To evaluate [make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and
limitations] China's anti-natalist policy.

What is China’s One child policy?

Plenary

To evaluate [make an appraisal by weighing up the strengths and
limitations] China's anti-natalist policy.

Examiners Report
Some candidates, especially when China was
used, described the population policy per se
without going on to assess to what extent it
had been successful and to provide evidence in
support. Candidates should be reminded that it
is the evidence that makes the assessment
valid and not just an unsupported opinion. The
best were purposeful and considered evidence
of success, the reduction of the population
versus aspects that were unsuccessful, such as
gender imbalance.

For China, expect reference to ‘later, longer, fewer’
strategy of 1974-1979, the introduction of the one
family – one child policy in 1979 and its enforcement
via granny police, fines, enforced abortions and
sterilisations. The policy has been relaxed in some
areas. An assessment of its success may refer to the
size of China’s population – 1.7 billion in 2007 – 25%
less than without the policy; a growth rate of 0.6% by
2006, the fact that a less coercive approach could now
be adopted may be evidence of its success.
Conversely, there are problems of female infanticide,
the development of ‘the little emperor syndrome’ and
the ageing population that will be present in 2025,
following the baby boom of the 1950s.

Why are cities so great?

Learning Objective: To understand the
factors causing cities to grow and the

Cities?
Using the text book make notes under
the following headings:
• What makes cities grow?
• Why move to cities?
• Why do birth rates fall in cities?
• Why do death rates change?

Case Study: Colombia
Using the text book complete the case
study for Colombia, make sure you
cover the following five areas:
• Push factors
• Pull factors
• Social impacts
• Economic impacts
• Environmental impacts

Plenary

Social Welfare

Contrasting Locations
These case studies are all about how
the social welfare (well being of the
people) of populations is influenced by
where they live within a settlement.
The characteristics of a settlement
area affects the environment in which
people live and hence their lifestyles,
and local governments have to
respond to any issues that result.

Implication for social
welfare
Social Welfare
• The well being of communities linked to
the access to jobs, housing, healthcare,
education and the freedom to practice
your culture and beliefs.
Social Benefits
• The benefits someone receives from
the state to allow them to live to a
reasonable standard.

Social Welfare
Social welfare is not spread equally, it
can be more or less available:
• In different parts of a city
• To people from different social
classes
• To different ethnic groups
• To different age groups
• To different genders or sexual
orientation

Task
Create a 4 paragraph report linked to
social welfare in Tyneside:
1. Description of Byker Ward (inner-city
area)
2. Description of Jesmond (suburbs)
3. Description of Longhorsley (rural
area)
4. Compare and contrast the needs of
each area, why would they be
different?