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# Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

, NTNU

Chapter 1 Electromagnetic Model
A field is a spatial distribution of a quantity （ a scalar or
a vector ） , which may or may not be a function of time.
A time-varying electric field is accompanied by a magnetic
field and vice versa.
（ That is , time-varying electric and magnetic fields are
coupled resulting in an electromagnetic field. ）
Under certain conditions, time-dependent electromagnetic
fields produce waves that radiate from the source.

1

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
（ Postulating the existence of electric and magnetic fields
and electromagnetic waves ）

Field → wave

（ Time-varying field ）

In the transmitting unit ,when the length of the antenna is an
appreciable part of the carrier wavelength a non-uniform
current will flow along the open-ended antenna.

2

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

This current radiates a time-varying electromagnetic field in
space, which propagates as an electromagnetic wave and induces
currents in other antennas at a distance. The message is then
detected in the receiving unit.

RS

AC

A

VS ( t )

B

RL

Fig 1-2

Fig 1-1
3

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Force → Field → Wave
（ Gravity , Electricity Magnetism ）

（ due to time-varying field ）

E  mc 2

Field ： presence of energy

Wave ： signaling or action-at-a-distance

4

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

Chapter 2 Vector Analysis
Vector Algebra
Vector representation
（ 1 ） A Vector

A

A
Where

 
A  a AA
and

aA

is a dimensionless
 unit vector

A

specifying the direction of A , i.e. , a A 
A

  
A

B
（ 2 ） Equal vector A  B  a B B where

and

aA  aB

Even though they may be displaced in space.

A

B
5

Fig 2-1

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

  
（ 1 ）A  B  C

C

A

B

Fig 2-2

   
A
（ Ex ）  B  D  C

D

C

B

A
Fig 2-3
6

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept... NTNU   Systems  （ 2 ）A  B  C  key ： C arrowhead points to that of  A  C  B  A Fig 2-4 7 Dr.Optoelectronic Lab.

especially   A  A  A  A  A2  A  Key ： the correlation of    A  A  A  A and  B  B  AB B cos AB Fig 2-5 8 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang  A .. Dept. NTNU Vector Multiplication   （ 1 ） Dot product A  B  AB cos  AB . of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang  B . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.. NTNU    （ Ex ） Find A  B  C  B  AB    Sol ： A B  C  A       A  B    A  B   C  2 2   A  B  2 A B cos AB  Fig 2-6  A 2  B 2  2AB cos  From definition   ax ax 1 9 Dr.

.e. etc..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.e. i. inner product ） has two definitions     N A  B   i  i  A  B cos  AB i 1   B is projected onto A or sum of product of their components on the same base.    i 1   3  10 Dr.. Dept..         A  B   a x A1  a y A2  a z A3  a x B1  a y B2  a z B3        Ai Bi  a x  a y  0.. NTNU Note ： Dot product （ i. Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech.

. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.. “ A cross B ”means the gingers rotate from A to B through  AB Fig 2-7 11 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU （ 2 ） Cross product    A  B  a n A  B sin  AB where  an   （ read “ A cross B ” ）   is a normal vector perpendicular to the plane containing A and B     From a right hand.

of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Note ： (1)Length evaluation    12 C   C  C  az From definition    ax ay  az    az ax  ay    ay az  ax where  ay  ax    ax  ay  az Fig 2-8 (2)Area evaluation   AB      A  B   a A A    a A B cos AB  a A ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. B sin  AB    a n A B sin  AB where    a A  a A.  a n 12 Dr.

Gao-Wei Chang ... NTNU （ 3 ） Triple product (i) Scalar triple product      A   B  C    A  a n  BC sin  BC    Volume evaluation ： A   B  C  Important identity  A          A   B  C   B   C  A   C   A  B  C  a CA n  a BC n  B Fig 2-9 13 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.

(ii) Vector triple product      A   B  C    A  a n  BC sin  BC Note ： The above vector manipulations do not involve the concepts of coordinate system.. 14 Dr. Dept.. NTNU Note ： The normal vectors for each cross product in this identity points to the interior of the volume. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Orthogonal Coordinate System Introduction Z （ 1 ） Cartesian Coordinate ： ‧A right. of Mechatronic Tech. Z) 0    Base vector a x a y a z Y X    a  a  a e. z ） 15 Dr. Dept...g.. Y. z x y Fig 2-10 (i) Point P= （ x . Gao-Wei Chang .handed system   P  (X. y .

z  (iii) Vector     A  a x A X  a YAY  a ZA Z  (iv) Vector field A（ x . y . y . y. z ） Scalar field r （ x . of Mechatronic Tech. z ） 16 Dr. Dept.. NTNU (ii) Position vector      OP  a x x  a y y  a z z   x ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .

y.. z) X Fig 2-11 17 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU (v) Vector differentials or products Vector differential line      d   ad  a x dx  a y dy  a z dz Z   0    d   a d     d   Y   ( x.Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

Gao-Wei Chang .. NTNU Vector differential surface   d s  a n ds For example ：    d s   a x dx    a y dy     a n  a x  a y ... the unit normal vector perpendicular  to the plane containing d s 18 Dr. Dept.e.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. and ds  dxdy Fig 2-12 i. of Mechatronic Tech.

of Mechatronic Tech.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.. NTNU Differential volume dv For example ：    dv   a z d z     a x dx    a y dy      a z a n  dxdydz  whrer     dxdydz a z  a n  1 19    a n  a x  a y   Dr.

Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Y .  .. of Mechatronic Tech.g. a z  a r  a  X (i) Point P   r . z   r Y Fig 2-13 (ii) Vector     A  a r A r  a  A  a z A z 20 Dr. Z)      a r . NTNU （ 2 ） Cylindrical coordinates Z ‧A right-handed system Base vectors P  ( X .. a a z Z 0    e.

Gao-Wei Chang ...) 21 Dr.  .  .where    r. i. Dept.  . A   0   then A is a position vector  (iv) Vector differentials or products Vector differential line (or length)        d   a d  a r dr  a  rd  a z dz . z     *If A  a r A r  a z A z . z  ↑ Metric coefficient for expressing vectors (∵A vector consists of its length and direction.. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. z  Scalar field V  r.e. NTNU  (iii) Vector field A  r.

.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. NTNU     d   a x dx  a y dy  a z dz Vector differential surface   ds  an ds rd For example ：    d s  (a r dr )  (a  rd ) Z    (a r  a  )(rdrd ) dz    d     a z rdrd For example ： r X  Differential volume dv  d dr Y Fig 2-14    dv  (a z dz)((a r dr )  (a  rd ))    (a z a n )rdrddz( where     a n  a r  a  a z )      rdrddz( a z  a n  a z  a z  1) 22 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

. not for length Therefore .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. so that A is the value of length 23 Dr. A should contain a metric coefficient .. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Note ： Vector representation in cylindrical coordinates     A  a r Ar  a  A   a z A z Involves the concept of metric coefficient since  a is a has vector for angle . Gao-Wei Chang .

 .  ) r Y Fig 2-15 P  ( R .  )     (b) Vector A  a R A R  a  A   a  A  24 Dr. Dept.. a   a R  a  (a) Point  P  (R ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .g. a . . NTNU （ 3 ） Spherical coordinates Z ‧A right-hand system Base vector θ R      a R . of Mechatronic Tech. . a X e.

 ) Z R sin d  θ  R (d) Vector differentials or products  d    d R dθ r Vector differential line (or length)   X d   a     a R dR  a  Rd  a  R sin  d  Fig 2-16   where   ( R . Dept.  ) Scalar field dR V ( R .. .  ) 25 Dr.. . NTNU  (c) Vector field A ( R .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang Y . .

. ( a   a R  a  ) Differential volume For example ：   a  dA  d s    dv  (a  R sin  d )  ((a R dR )  (a  Rd ))    (a   a  )R 2 sin dRd d  R 2 sin  dRd d 26 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.. NTNU Vector differential surface   d s  a n ds For example ：    d s  (a R dR )  (a  Rd )      a  RdRd .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Gao-Wei Chang . 27 Dr. NTNU Note ： (1) R ： the radius of 3-dimensional sphere Y ： the radius of 2-dimensional circle (2)Volume is not directional (3)The angle Φ is cylindrical coordinate require a metric coefficient r to convent “a differential angle change ” d to a differential length change” i..e.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. the metric coefficient corresponding to the angles θ and Φ in spherical coordinates are R and Rsinθ. of Mechatronic Tech. rd (4)Similar to (3). Dept.. respectively.

h2=1. u3)=(x. z) h1=1. h2=R. u2. h3=1 ˙ In Cylindrical coordinates (u1.. h2=r. θ. Gao-Wei Chang . Especially. NTNU Let the metric coefficients h 1. ˙In Cartesian coordinates (u1. of Mechatronic Tech.. Ø. Ø) h1=1. u3) in a general coordinate system. y. u2. u2.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. h 2. Dept. u3)=(r. h3=Rsinθ 28 Dr. h 3 correspond to the space variables (u1. z) h1=1. u3)=(R. u2. h3=1 Fig 2-17 ˙In Spherical coordinates (u1.

NTNU   (6) Dot product of A and B in Cartesian coordinates         A  B  ( a x A x  a y A y  a z A z )  (a x B x  a y B y  a z B z )  A x  B x  A y  B y  A z  Bz      A  B  a A  A (a A  B cos AB  a A  B sin  AB )  A  B cos AB       ( a A  a A  1..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. a A  a A '  0( a a   a A ' )) 29 Dr. Dept.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU   (7) Cross product ofA and B is Cartesian coordinates         A  B  (a x A x  a y A y  a z A z )  (a x B x  a y B y  a z B z )    a x ( Ay Bz  Az B y )  a y ( Az Bx  Ax B y )   a z ( Ax B y  Ay Bx )    aX aY aZ  Ax Ay Az Bx By Bz 30 Dr..

since   a r A r  a z A z and a R A R are respectively position vector. a   direction where A  length A  and A  should contain metric coefficients for representing vector. (9) Unlike the Cartesian coordinates.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . 31 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. in cylindrical coordinates and Spherical coordinates.. NTNU (8) A vector in Spherical coordinates      A  a R A R  a  A  a  A  . Dept. since a vector consists of its length and direction. expressing a position vector is trivial ..

Gao-Wei Chang . y. Dept.. z) Z x= rsinΦ y= rsinΦ θ R z=z (b) (R. θ. z)  r P Y X ∵ r = Rsinθ Fig 2-18 ∴ x= (Rsinθ)cosΦ y= (Rsinθ)sinΦ z= Rcosθ 32 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Coordinate Transforms (1) Point coordinates (a) (r. z) → (x.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. y.Φ.. Φ) → (x.

Gao-Wei Chang . the vector differentials are taken..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.Φ.)  dx   cos    dy    sin   dz   0  sin  cos  0 0  dr  0  rd  1  dz  33 Dr. NTNU (2) Vector (differential) transforms     d   a x dx  a y dy  a z dz   where   l ( x. of Mechatronic Tech. z) → (x. y . z)  d    d 0 Y dx= cosΦdr – rsinΦdΦ X dy= sinΦdr + rcosΦdΦ dz= dz Fig 2-19 (Base on the corresponding point coordinates.. y. Dept. z ) Z   (a) (r.

Let A  a x Ax  a yA y  a zAz     a r A r  a  A  a z A z We have  Ax   cos   Ay    sin      Az   0  sin  cos  0 0  Ar  0  A  1  Az  Note : Since a vector consists of its length and direction we have to consider the metric coefficient for a vector differential.. NTNU     Similarly. rdΦ. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. 34 Dr. Then we can extend the transform of a vector differential to that of a vector. e.g... Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

K. refer to D. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept..Cheng.. Φ. y. PP31-32 By dot product techniques. NTNU Note : Another solution to the vector transform (r.K. of Mechatronic Tech. θ) → (x.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. since     A  a r A r  a  A  a z A z     a xAx  a yAy  a zAz We have      A x  A  a x  (a r A r  a  A   a z A z )  a x      (a r  a x ) A r  (a   a x ) A     az  ax To see the details. z) at D.Cheng 35 Dr.

z) From the corresponding point coordinates . NTNU (b) (R. we take the vector differential ..RsinθcosΦ dΦ dz = cosθdR – Rsinθdθ  dx   sin  cos  cos cos  sin    dy    sin  sin  cos sin  cos       dz   cos 0  1  36     dR  Rd  R sin d  Dr. dx = sinθcosΦ dR + RcosθcosΦ dθ. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.. θ.RsinθsinΦ dΦ dy = sinθsinΦ dR + RcosθsinΦ dθ. Dept. Ø) → (x. y.

of Mechatronic Tech. let     A  a R A R  a  A  a  A      a xAx  a yAy  a zAz We have  Ax   sin  cos   Ay    sin  sin      Az   cos  cos  cos  cos  sin  0 37  sin   cos    AR    A     1   A  Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.. NTNU Similarly. Gao-Wei Chang ..

. the directions of these unit vectors are unchanged to represent a vector     A  a xAx  a yAy  a zAz (2)In cylindrical coordinates (r. NTNU Note : (1) In Cartesian coordinates (x. the base vector    a x . Gao-Wei Chang .e. the directions of the two unit vectors are dependent on the position on which the represented vector is located. i. i.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. 38 Dr. z).. z) . a y . Dept. a z are position-invariant.e.. y. of Mechatronic Tech.the base vectors   a r and a  are varied with position.. Φ.

e.. the component  ar  ar  A  ar expresses only the direction of a position X   a Z  A  ar r  A Y  ar vector projected onto the x-y plane for describing the location of the vector Y Fig 2-20 if A  0 When  X r Fig 2-21 39 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. the cylindrical coordinates can be easily applied to describe a position vector     i. A  a r A r  a z A z      a  A  plays an important role in representing .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Z     A  a r A r  a  A  a z A z    az A Therefore.since  aZ Z  Ais not a position vector..

.. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. Z Rsinθ θ   a a r R Z X  r  a Y    A  a r A r  a  A ^^^^ 軸向大小與方向 Fig 2-22 Fig 2-23 40 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang .  a r is change from a location to another. ie. NTNU See the top view of the cylindrical coordinate to show the above point of view.

ψ. Dept.z) is a general form for the point transform (r. NTNU The expression of vector transform (r.y.  Ax     A y   A   z A point vector  cos    sin   0  sin  cos  0 0 0 1  Ar     A   A   Z           a x x  a y y  a zz  A  a xAx  a yA y  a zAz   (A   0)  a rAr  a zAz  Ax     Ay   A   z  x  cos    y    sin   z   0  sin  cos  0 41 0 0 1  Ar   0    Az Dr..z) → (x.z) since a point in a coordinate system can be regarded as a position vector. Gao-Wei Chang .ψ.y..z) → (x.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

If a vector  A is treated as a position vector...z) zz Therefore the vector representation in (r. of Mechatronic Tech.y.z)→(x.ψ. NTNU x  r cos  y  r sin  ie.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .z) is relevant to it’s location.ψ. its representation is  a changed since r A r is changed to express a distinct radial component.. the point coordinates (r. Dept. 42 Dr.

y.θ.y.z) ←─→ A vector A in (r.ψ.ψ) → (x..z) → (x. Dept.. NTNU (3) All the argument in this Note(2) hold for vector representation in spherical coordinates.z) This is because or (R.z) → (x.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.ψ) → (x. A point p in (r.z) or (R.z)      A  a R A R  a  A   a  A  . of Mechatronic Tech. where a R means the unit  vector to indicate the position vector of the location of A 43 Dr.y. Gao-Wei Chang .θ.ψ.y.

of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.. NTNU If  A is a position vector. we have   A  a R A R (A  A   0) Fig 2-24 44 Dr.. Gao-Wei Chang .

it’s vector representations in cylindrical coordinates and in spherical coordinates are changed. Dept.. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU When the vector  A is translated and treated as a position vector. Gao-Wei Chang . and the vector  A always has no change in its direction and magnitude Z in any coordinate system.  A in Cartesians coordinates are invariant However the vector representation for ..     A  a R A R  a A  a  A     A  a R AR Y X Fig 2-25 45 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Dept...e. of Mechatronic Tech.. (60%) 2.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Compute the divergence of the curl of a vector field   B (i. (   (  B) ) and show your result. (40%) 46 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . 1. Give an interpretation of the curl of a vector field  B and illustrate its meaning in detail. NTNU  Physical meaning of curl of a vector field A Fig 2-26 Quiz #2.

direction. Consider the space rate of change of  (1 .. 2 . 3 ) and it may be constant along certain lines or surface. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept..  2 . is a directional derivative.g. the direction of 47 Dr. e. 3 ) in a specified  d . 3 ) be a scalar function (1 .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Vector Calculus •Gradient of a scalar field let of space coordinates  (1 .. Gao-Wei Chang .  2 .

and 3 48 1  d Fig 2-27 Dr. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . 3 )  1 for some 1 . NTNU Note ： Gradient: a scalar field P3  d α P2  dn P1  (1 . 2 . of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. 2 ..

of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. <Ans> The directional directive d d  d  d dn   d        al  al  al  cos   a  grad   a  l l d  al d l d dn d  d        d     an al  d   d    cos   a l  an al  dn  Where grad  d  an or dn grad  49 d  d  an dn dn Dr.. NTNU     Illustrate the meaning of gradient of Φ and grad where         ax  ay  az x y z in Cartesian coordinates.. Gao-Wei Chang .

we see that d   grad  a l d    d  grad  a l  d  grad  d  1 Total derivatives in Cartesian coordinates      d   dx  dy  dz  y z   x              a x dx  a y dy  a z dz    2    a x  ay  az x y z             d 50 Dr. NTNU From the above. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. we have       grad  a x  ay  az   x y z where         ˆ  a x  ay  a z  x y z         Note ： A  B C  A B  C       scalar   不滿足結合律 scalar     grad  d   d   grad  d  a  d  a   ∴   51 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Compare (1) with (2).. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU A vector field • Divergence of  A  div A Fig 2-28  A(X. Y. Gao-Wei Chang . Z0 ) Fig 2-30 Fig 2-29 52 Dr... Y0 . of Mechatronic Tech. Z) q (X 0 . Dept.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

Gauss’s divergence theorem

 
   Adv   A  d s
v

Fig 2-31

Helmholtz theorem ：
A vector field is determined if both its divergence and its curl
are specified everywhere.

53

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Illustrate the meaning of divergence of

A and

       
A   a x
 ay
 a z 

x

y
z 

 a x A x  a y A y  a z A z 

Y

A y

A x
A z

x
y
z

Ax

SF

SR
<Ans>

ST

dy

SL

SB

Ax 

Fig 2-32

SF flux at x 0 : A x dydz

A x 
S B flux at x 0  dx :  A x 
dx  dydz  A x  x 0  dx  dydz
      
x

a A  x  dx  a ds

x

 A x  x 0  dx   A x  x 0  

A x
x
54

x

0

Ax
dx
x

X

X 0 , Y0 , Z 0

S TB dx

Z

Consider the special case ：

dz

x

x  x 0 dx 

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Outward flux over

S F and S B

A x  x 0  dx  dydz  A x x 0 dydz 

A x
x

x x0

dxdydz

Similarly, we have the outward flux over

A y
y
A z
z

y  y0

zz0

dxdydz and outward flux over

S T and S B

S L and S R

dxdydz

Therefore, the net outward flux at point

(x 0 , y0 , z 0 )

 A x A y A z 
       


 dxdydz     A dv   ax

 ay
 a z   a x A x  a y A y  a z A z  dv
y
z   dv 
x
y
z 

 x
 

 
 

v

55

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

It follows that we can define the divergence of A

divA    A ˆ lim

 

v  0

v

where

 A x A y Az
and A ( x 0 , y 0 , z 0 ) is continuous and differentiable.
A 

x
y
z

 
d  A  d s

56

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Fig 2-33

Fig 2-34

57

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Gauss’s Divergence theorem

 
   A  dv   A  d s
v

The divergence theorem is an important identity in vector analysis.
It converts a volume integral of the divergence of a vector to a
enclosed surface integral of the vector, and vice versa.

Fig
582-35

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

y. NTNU • Curl of a vector field  Curl ： A ( x. z) Ax  Ax Ax  regarded as Ax dy y Ax dy y or 2 2dy Ax dy y Ax dy y 1dy Ax Fig 2-36 59 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

z) Fig 2-37 Fig 2-38 60 Dr. NTNU  Divergence: A ( x .. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. y.

Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Az  Fig 2-39 Az dz z Ay Ay  dy y Ax  Ax Ax dx x Ay Az Ay (Ay  )dS XZ  AydS XZ y Illustrate the meaning of curl of  A and 61  ax   A  x Ax  ay  y Ay  az  z Az Dr. Gao-Wei Chang ...

Y0 )      Ax  Az   ay      ˆ curl A y a y  z  x      Ay dx Y x  aZ ( X 0 .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Fig 2-40 <pf> Consider the special case on the x-y plane. Dept... Y0 ) Ay dx x  Z Fig 2-41 62  Ax dy y  . Gao-Wei Chang . we see that     Ay  Ax     ˆ  curl A  z a z az      x  y     Similarly.aZ X Ay     Ay  aZ  ( ) ( ) Z a z x   x Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. on the y-z plane     Az  Ay     ax     curl A   ˆ xax z    y  and on the z-x plane Ax dy y ( X 0 .

Gao-Wei Chang ...    A   a x   z       Az  Ax   a y      x  z      Ax  Ay   a z     x   y   Az   y            Fig 2-42 63 Dr. Dept. NTNU    ∴ curl A  a x curl A   x    a y curl A   y   curl A ˆ   A    a z curl A   z    ax ay az     x y z Ax Ay Az Note ：    Ay  1. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Illustrate Stokes’s theorem Consider the line integral along path a b c d on the x-y plane.       A  a x A x  a y A y and d   a x dx  a y dy Path ab ： Axdx Ay  Ay  dx  dy Path bc ：  x     Ax  dy  dx Path cd ：   Ax   y   Ax       a x  Ax  dy     a x dx  y      Path da ：  Aydy  a y Ay   a y dy       Ay Ax        A  dS xy   Ad      abcd Sxy Sxy y   x 64 Fig 2-45 Dr...

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Similarly. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang ... in the 3 dimensional case. we have circulation      A  d       A d s C S Fig 2-47 Fig 2-46 65 Dr. Dept.

. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU We may define the curl of  A     1    curlA    A ˆ lim a n  A  d C S 0 S max Where S is the area enclose by the contour C  Since A is a vector point function.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . 66 Dr. Dept.. the value of line integral    A  d  depends on the determination of the contour C C  curl A is a measure of strength of a vortex source.

Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU C ontour C O rienting the contour C in the such a w ay that the circulation is a m axim um . of Mechatronic Tech..  (Curl A ) z S  Curl ( A ) Fig 2-48  (Curl A) x  (Curl A ) y Fig 2-49 67 Dr.

NTNU (5) TWO NULL IDENTITIES (1)      V   0 It means that gradient (of a scalar field) is curl-free or invitational. (zero net circulation) <pf> By Stokes’s Theorem       V  ds   Vdl   dV  0 S       V  0 C 68 C Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . (zero net circulation) <pf> By Divergence Theorem        V     A dv  S   A ds  S1   A an1 ds  S2   A an2 ds       A  d  A  d  0 C1 C2 (∵C1 and C 2 traverse the same path in opposite directions ) Fig 2-50 69 Dr.. NTNU    (2)     A  0 It means that gradient (of a scalar field) is curl-free or invitational..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

e..e. Gao-Wei Chang .       A  ds   A  d  S C 70 Dr.  V      A  dv   A  ds S (2) Stokes’s Theorem ： Net circulation a vector field i. NTNU Note ： (1) Divergence Theorem ： Outward flux of a vector field i. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

. NTNU Divergence theorem For example.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.  v E  0    1   E  d s     Edv  S V 0 71 Q V  v dv   0 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Stokes’s theorem For example. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang ...Optoelectronic Systems Lab.  E  0      E d      E ds  0 C S 72 Dr.

Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Chap3. Static Electric Fields 73 Dr...

Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept. NTNU Cheng’s approad for static electric fields ： Two postulates ：（ in different form ）   E  v （1）  （2） E 0 0 （ Gauss’s law ）  E（ is irrotational i.. 74 Dr.e. it is conservation ） The postulate 1 can be derived later. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

of Mechatronic Tech. q is small enough not to disturb the distribution of source charges.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Two postulate of E filed in free space   1..  0 ： permittivity of free space. Dept.   E  v where 0   F E  lim q 0 q  v ： volume charge intensity of free charges. 75 Dr.

. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. NTNU ‧ Faraday Experiment in 1837 76 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.

. NTNU ＊ Definition of Electric field intensity   F E  lim q 0 q ( V m or N C ) where the force is measured in newtons （ N ） and charge q in Coulombs （ C ） 77 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

NOTE ：
1. The test charge q , of course , cannot be zero in practice ；
as a matter of fact , it cannot be less than the charge on
an electron ’e’ , where
e  1.602  10 19

（C）

2. Also , the test charge is small enough not to disturb the charge
distribution of the source

78

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

Coulomb’s law

F12  q 2 E12  a r

In 1785 , Coulomb found that

12

Where the permittivity of free space

r12a r

r12

0 

q 1q 2
4 0 r122

1
 109
36

( Fm )

12

q1
Field pointcharge

F12

q2

Testpointcharge

Fig.3-2

NOTE ： 
F12  q1q2

1
F

, 12 r 2
12
79

and

E 12 

q1 
ar
4 0 r122

12

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

3-2 Gauss’s Law

E

Consider electric field intensity
going thru
 
a differential surface dS  a n dS and the corresponding flux.
( A ssum e thatthere is no charge outside the enclose hypothetical surface S )

 
E  a rE

 
dS  a n dS
d
+q
P
A pointcharge located atP

S
Fig.3-3

80

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

 Systems
Optoelectronic

 Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
d  E  dS  Ea r  dSa n

q
 d cos 
40 r 2
q
 d
4 0

E

and  is the angle between a n and a r ,
（ i.e. dS cos 

is called the effective area ）

81

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
The total flux going thru the entire enclose surface S
   d  S

q
q
q
d 
d

 4

S
4 0
4 0
4 0

82

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Consider the point charge is located at P’ outside the closed surface S.
To evaluate flux resulting from a point source , we introduce the concept
of solid angle.

( A ssum e thatthere is no charge inside the closed hypotheticalsurface S )

dS2

r2

2
dS'2

E2

E1

dS1'
d
+q
P'

dS1

1

S

Fig.3-6

83

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

NTNU     d  E1  dS1  E 2 dS2 dS'2 dS1'     q  a r dS1 a r dS2     2  2  4 0  r1 r2  1 ( ∵ d1  2   a r dS1 1 2 1 r  d 2   ( That d1  d ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .. q is located outside S ……( 1 ) q . of Mechatronic Tech.  1  d1  d 2   0 4 0   a r dS 2 2 2 2 r  d ) d 2  d ) ∴ 0 0 ｛   ∴  EdS  S . q is located inside S 0 84 Dr. Dept.

3-7 85 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech... NTNU NOTE ： Any charged object may be regarded as a collection of an infinite number of point charges.  ar  ar dS2 dS1 d Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

3-8 86 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. NTNU Steradian or solid angle R sin  dS R  d Fig. of Mechatronic Tech..

we define steradian S  2 R 87 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU dS   Rd 2R sin   2R 2 sin d ∴ The area of a sphere ：  S  0 2R sin d  2R 2  2R 2   cos   0 2   0 sin d  4R 2 ∴ Steradian of a sphere is define as S  4 2 R In general . Dept...Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Eq(1) can be rewritten as   1 SEdS   v v dv …… （ 2 ） 0 Where  v is volume charge density and  0 is permittivity of free space . q 2 . The Eq(1) can be rewritten as   1 n qi SEdS    0 i 1 Or for a charged object with volume density  . NTNU Suppose a collection of point charges q 1 . Gao-Wei Chang . 88 Dr. q n are distributed inside enclosed surface S...….

.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. ） NOTE ： A Gauss’s surface is a hypothetical surface over which Gauss’s law is applied and it is needed for the integral form of the law . of Mechatronic Tech. Eq(2) becomes    v SEdS  v  dv  v  Edv 0 (  q ) 0  v ∴ E  （ point form of Gauss’s law ） 0 （ Usually we don’t use the differential form since the derivative does not exist at boundary points or discontinuous points. NTNU In view of the Gauss’s divergence theorem . Gao-Wei Chang . 89 Dr. Dept..

  E  ERa R q   R  Ra R Fig. （ i.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Ex ： Electric field intensity due to a point charged . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.e. the Gauss’s surface ） Due to the fact that ( electric force lines do not intersect with each other ) 90 Dr.. its electric field must be everywhere radial and has the same intensity at all points on the spherical surface ..3-9 Since a point charge has no preferred direction .

NTNU （ The choice of Gauss’s surface is very important to simplifying the integration in Gauss’s law ）   q     E d S  a E  a dS  S S R R R 0 or E R SdS  E R  4R 2   q 0 => q ER  4 0 R 2 Therefore    E  a RER  a R q 4 0 R 2 91 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang ...Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

3-10 92 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .   R  R0  R0  R Fig. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU NOTE ： Electric field intensity of an isolated point charge at an arbitrary location P ... Dept.

Thus .  and R is the position vector of field point P . NTNU  E P  a qP q   4 0 R  R 0 2  Where the unit vector a qP drawn from q to P   RR  a qP    0 R  R0  R 0 is the position vector of q . Dept.. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . we have  EP    q R  R 0    4 0 R  R o 3 93 Dr..

94 Dr.…. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. ∵ ∴    qa r E  f  q  is linear 2 4 0 r      f   a 1q 1  a 2 q 2   a 1 f  q 1   a 2 f  q 2   a 1 E 1  a 2 E 2 2. planar . spherical . NTNU NOTE ： 1. Gao-Wei Chang ... disk .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. A single （ point ） charge → Continuous charge distribution （ given charge distribution ） （ linear .

such that the normal component  of E is constant over an enclosed hypothetical surface （ called a Gauss’s surface ） ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept. NTNU Gauss’s law   v v dv SEdS   0 Gauss’s law is particularly useful in determing the E-field of charge distributions with some symmetry conditions . 95 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .

3-11 96 Dr.3-12 Fig.. NTNU  Ex ： Determine E of an infinitely long straight line charge . of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept..   E  ERa R   dS  a R dS   E  ERa R R l L Fig.

. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Sol ： Applying Gauss’s law .   q SEdS   0 Where S is a Gaussian surface L E R  2RL   l 0 => 97    E  aRER  aR l 2 0 R Dr.. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.3-13 98 Dr.. NTNU Ex ： An infinite planar charge  az A   E  a zEz S + + + + + + S L   E  a z E z Fig. Dept.

.. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. we have   q SEdS   0 where S is Gaussian surface S  A     => E Z a Z  a Z A  E Z   a Z   a Z  A  0 S E  => Z 2 0   aZ S z0 2 0  ∴ E=   S z  0 aZ 20 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Sol ： Applying Gauss’s law . Gao-Wei Chang 99 ﹛ .

Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Ex ： A parallel charged plate   EZ  a zEz S A S + + + + + + + + + + + +  E i  0 ( 相互抵消 ) Fig. Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab..3-14 100 Dr.

.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. d d  z 2 2 101 Dr. . of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Sol ： Applying Gauss’s law . Dept. we have   q SEdS   0 Where S is a Gaussian surface =>  S A   a Z E Z  a Z A  0    ∴ EZ  aZ S 0   S E Z  a Z 0  EZ  0 d 2 d  z< 2 z > .. .

. NTNU Ex ： A spherical cloud of electrons with a volume charge density  v   0 for 0  R  b （ both 0 and b are positive ）   E  ERa R - Sout - - - Sin - - R adius b - Fig.. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.3-15 102 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .

Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Sol ：  To determine E . Dept.3-16 103 Dr. we consider the following two cases ： ( 1 ) 0R b dr r Fig.. of Mechatronic Tech.

NTNU Constructing a Gaussian surface Sin inside the spherical cloud .. from Gauss’s law . Gao-Wei Chang .   Sin EdS      4 R 0 3 3 o  4 3    0  R    3  2 => E R a R  4R a R  0 =>     E   o Ra R  E R a R 3 0 104 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. we have . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.

Dept..  4 3    0   b     3   E a  4R 2 a E d S  R R R Sout 0   0 b3   aR => E  Ea R  2 3 0 R 105 . it follows that from Gauss’s law .. of Mechatronic Tech. R>b Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU (2) R>b Constructing a Gaussian surface Sout outside the spherical cloud .

NTNU Ex ： A uniform charged disk of radius b that carries a surface charge intensity  S 106 Dr... Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

. Dept. To solve this problem efficiently .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Although the disk has circular symmetry . Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. （ pending until V  Q 4 0 R is introduced ） 107 Dr. we cannot visualize a  hypothetical surface around it over which the normal component E has a constant magnitude . hence Gauss’s law is not useful for the solution of this problem . we introduce the concept if electrical potential..

. Dept.. If z >0 and z < 0 ) 1   a z s 1  z z 2  b 2  2 2 0   V = ∴ E  V  a z 1 z    a z s 1  z z 2  b 2  2 2 0 ﹛ 108    .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.z) referring to the point at infinity is s V 4 0 2 b 0 0   z r 2 r 2  1 2 drd 1 s 1 b 2 2   2  0  z  r  2 d z 2  r 2  4 0 2  1 b 1 s s 2 2 2 2 2 z  r  2  z   z  r   0 2 0 2 0  .e.0.z < 0 Dr.z > 0  . of Mechatronic Tech. z0 ( i. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Sol ： The electrical potential at the point P(0.

if a proper Gaussian surface is not found . and then obtain from  V .. NTNU NOTE ：  For determining E .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. （ 1 ） it is simplest to apply Gauss’s law if a symmetrical Gaussian surface enclosing the chargse can be found over which the normal component of the field is constant . 109 Dr.  E （ 2 ） it is simpler to find V (a scalar) first . of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept.

. of Mechatronic Tech. that is .. Gao-Wei Chang . （ This is a law of nature and cannot be derived from other principles or relations ） 110 Dr. it can neither be created nor be destroyed .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU ‧Principle of conservation of electric charge （ 1 ） Electric charge is conserved .

.. （ This principle must be satisfied at all times and under any circum stanc （ Energy stored or Work doned does not depend on the different paths wi the same starting and end points ） 111 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU （ 2 ） Electric charges can move from one place to another and can be redistributed under the influence of an electromagnetic field .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. but the algebraic sum of the positive and negative charges in a closed （ isolated ） system remains unchanged . Dept.

t. （∵ a null identity   V   0 ） NOTE ： Postulating the conservation of energy in a static electric field is similar to postulating that in a gravitational field . of Mechatronic Tech. 112 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. （ 1 ） Analogous to the concept of potential energy in mechanics . Dept.  the electric field E is conservative or irrotational . Gao-Wei Chang .    ∴   E  0（∵ cEd l  0 （ By Stokes’s thm ））      Fd l  cqEd l  0  E  V （ 2 ） There exists a scalar field V s. NTNU ‧Principle of conservation of energy in a static electric field ..

Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. NTNU 3-3 Electric potential Consider the charge in energy （ of a static electric field ） due to the movement of a unit positive test point charge q along the direction of  a differential displacement vector d l  dl   dWe  Fe  d l + + qt qf  Fe Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.3-18 113 Dr...

” ） . NTNU   Where the sign “ . as Fd l is negative （“ . the energy stored is increased （ i.e.   On the other hand .. 114 Dr. external work is needed ） and thus dW is positive . the energy stored in the field is released （ or decreased ） and thus dWe is negative ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang ） . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.” means the sign of dW is opposite to that of （Fe d l   As Fe d l is positive （“ +” ） .

the mechanical work Wm is positive . Principle of charge conservation ： +q +q -q + + - Isolated pointcharge Induced charges from dielectric 115 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.. If d l is along the direction of Fe .. Principle of energy conservation ： Wm  We  const   dWe  dWm  Fe d l => dWm  dWe  0 => 3. NTNU NOTE ：   1. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . 2.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech. P2 We   P 1     P Fe d l   P qEd l 2 1 116 Dr. NTNU Electric potential （ cont’d ）  In moving a unit charge from point P1 to point P2 . the external work Wm must be done against the field and the energy stored in the electric field .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. in an electric field E . Dept.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. Let’s define the difference of potentials at P1 and P2 P   We V12  V2  V1    P Ed l q 2 1 Usually the zero potential point is taken at infinity . due to the principle of conservation of energy in electric field . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Many paths may be followed in going from P1 to P2 . The potential at P2 （ or any point P ） is denoted by    P   V  V2    Ed l （ or dV  Ed l ） or E  V 2   （ This implies   E  0 ∴ E is conservative ） 117 Dr..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.3-19 118 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech... NTNU  Ex ： A test point chargeq 0 is moved from infinity to the position vectorr   qa r E 4 0 r 2 + +q  r q0  dl Fig. Gao-Wei Chang .

Dept.  q V 4 0 r  dr  q q 1  r 2  4 (1)r  4 r 0 0  r   ( a r  a l  1 and dl=-dr ) 119 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. . NTNU Sol ：   q V    Ed l  4 0 r Where   ar ( ) dl  a l  r 2 r l  l r.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech..

3-20 ∴ The electric potential V of a point at a distance r from a point charge q referred to that at infinity. NTNU V  “+” E Fig. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. q V 4 0 r 120 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech..

、、、 ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Electric potential due to charge distribution The electrical potential at r due to a system of n discrete charges q1. y the sum of the potentials due to the individual charges ： 1 n qk V   ' 4 0 k 1 r  rk  r1   r  r1 q1  r q2 distance Fig. 、、、 ..3-21 121  r2   r  r2 x Dr.qn located at r1' . Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.q2.rn' is by superposition . r2' .

.3-22 122 Dr.. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Ex ： An electric dipole ： It consists of equal and opposite point charges +q and –q separated by a small distance d  az P R+  R +q   R  aRR R-   a dd  d d << R -q  d   cos   2 Fig. of Mechatronic Tech.

of Mechatronic Tech. we write d R   R  cos  2 123 and d R   R  cos  2 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU The potential V at P ： V For q  1 1     …. Dept. （ 1 ） 40  R  R     d  R ...

. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Form Eq （ 1 ） . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. we have V q  40 d cos   d  R 2   cos    2  2  qd cos   2 40 R 1  1   d  cos   2R      a R  a d  a R a d cos   cos    a R  cos    V   2   P  aR  40 R 2 1 1   R2    where P  qd is called the electric dipole moment  qd  V  V    E  V  a R  a  a 2 cos   a sin  R  3 R R 4 0 R 124 Dr.

. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Ex ： A linear electric quadru-pole P r.  r1 +q + r  -2q d r2 - +q + Fig. . Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang ..3-23 125 Dr.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. using the approximation method similar to that for V an electric dipole . NTNU The electrical potential at P （ by superposition ） 1  q  2q q      4 0  r1 r r2  Assume d << r ..  1  E  V  4 r 1 V  3 r V 1 r n 1 and  1 E  n2 r where n represents the number of independent displacements between any two opposite charges 126 Dr. Dept. we have 1 2qd 2  3 cos 2   1 V  3  4 0 r 2 For electric multiples . Gao-Wei Chang ..

1 s ds ' V  4 0 S r dq ' surface （ 3 ） For a volume charge distribution.dq) ' length （ 2 ） For a surface charge distribution.. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU ＊ Electric potential due to continuous charge distribution （ 1 ） For a line charge distribution..e. 1 v dv ' V 40 v r dq ' volum e 127 Dr. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . 1 ldl' V  4 0 L r (i.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Material media in static electric field consists of atoms In general ， we classify materials ， according to their electrical properties （ or energy bands of atoms ）， into three types ： （ 1 ） Conductors 128 Dr.

of Mechatronic Tech.3-25 （ 3 ） insulators ( or dielectric ) 129 Dr. Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU （ 2 ） semiconductors E  hf Energy gap ( typically 1ev ) Fig..

. we find that there are allowed energy bands for electrons .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU It is found that  In good conductors the conduction current J takes place as an external  electric field E is applied   J  e e E ( C onduction current) conductivity In terms of the band theory of solids . Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech. each band consisting of many closely spaced discrete energy states ( between these energy bands there may be forbidden regions or gaps where non-electrons of the solid atom can reside ) 130 Dr.

（ 2 ） In semiconductors . causing conductor.. NTNU （ 1 ） Conductors have an upper energy band partially filled with electrons or an upper pair of overlapping bands that are partially filled so that the electrons in those bands can move from one to another with only a small charge in energy. 131 Dr. the energy gap of the forbidden regions is relatively small and small amounts of external energy may be sufficient to excite the electrons in the filled upper band to jump into the next band . Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept... so conduction could not normally occur because of the exisrence of a large energy gap to the next higer band. 132 Dr. NTNU （ 3 ） Insulators or dielectrics are materials with a completely filled upper band .

NTNU Polarization of a dielectric material N o E-field applied Electron cloud - - + - - - - U npolarized atom Polarization ( due to exertion of C olum bs s force )  E - - + - - - -q +q - + - Polarized atom d Electron cloud Positive m ucleus Fig. of Mechatronic Tech... Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.3-27 133 Dr.

. electric dipoles ) Where n is the number of the induced dipoles per unit volume and the numerator represents the vector sum of the induced dipole moments contained in a very small volume v 134 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. we define a  polarization vector P   Pk nv  k 1 P  lim v o v electric dipole m om ent ( Induced bound charges appear in pair i.. Dept.e. NTNU To analyze the macroscopic effect of induced dipoles .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept.3-28 Where the R is the distance from the elemental volume dv to a fixed field point 135 Dr.. NTNU   The electric potential corresponding to dP  Pdv  aR  R +q +     dP  a R P  a R dv dV   2 4 0 R 4 0 R 2 d   1 P  aR V dv  2 v 4 0 R -q - Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .. NTNU The effects of the induced electric dipoles  ps （ 1 ） Equivalent polarization surface charge density The bounded charge distributed over a specified surface S 136 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.. q b  P  a n S     or dq b  P  a n dS  PdS 137 ） Dr. NTNU   （ That is ..

Gao-Wei Chang .. remaining charge  qb ） （ surface charge   q b  Sdq b  SP  a n dS    q r  q b    P  dS  v  P  dv ( by D ivergence thm ) S  vpv dv    ( i.e.. of Mechatronic Tech.   dq b    P  a n dS    P  dS ) S S   (  q b  P  a n S )     pv  P …… （ 1 ）（ 即   P   pv ） （∵ The total charge of the dielectric after polarization must remain zero ） 138 Dr. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU （ 2 ） Equivalent polarization valume charge density pv The net charge remaining within the volume V is bounded by S q b .

Dept.e SP  a n dS  vPdv ) 139 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.. NTNU Total charge  S ps dS  v pv dv     SP  a n dS  vPdv  0    ( i.

.. D ielectric + + - + + + - + + - + - - + - - + - + - - + - + - + - - + - + - + - - Fig.3-30 140 + Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Electric flux density and dielectric constant The electric field intensity due to a given source distribution volume density of free charges  v in a dielectric .

we have   0 E  P   v  Now we define a new fundamental field quantity . Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech. （ 2 ）   D   v …. the electric flux density     or electric displacement P such that D   0 E  P …. NTNU  1 E    v   pv  0   Using Eq(1) .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. （ 3 ） 141 Dr.

of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.   pv  P  By Gauss’s law . NTNU or    vDdv  v v dv  q f  s D  dS ….. E    v   pv  142 0   =>   0 E  P    v Dr.. Dept. （ 4 ） Eq(4) another form of Gauss’s law . states that the total outward flux of the electric displacement over any closed surface is equal to the total free charge enclosed in the surface.

Dept. Gao-Wei Chang ..3-33 143 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU  P + + + + + + + + + + +  E  EP - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + - +  Ei induced electric field -     E decreased to becom e E i  E  E P D ielectric Fig. of Mechatronic Tech.

. of Mechatronic Tech.3-32    D unchanged （∵ including P  q b d 144 ） Dr. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU  v  E0  E m edium Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. r ∴X e  0 ）（∵P  0 Where r  1 X e   o ） is called relative permittivity or dielectric constant and  is the absolute permittivity . （ often called simply permittivity ） 145 Dr. From Eq(2)     D   0 1  X e  E   0  r E  E    1 （ for conductors .. NTNU When the dielectric properties of the medium are linear and isotropic we have   （ conductor ：J  E   P  0XeE   X e 0E   insulator ：D  E ） current density electric displaceme Where X e is a constant called electric susceptibility . Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept.

NTNU Boundary conditions for electrostatic fields To investigate the relations of the field quantities at an interface between two media . Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. （ 1 ） A conductor-free space interface free space ( or dielectric1 ) a + + h d W + + E1t + c conductor ( or dielectric2 ) b Fig. of Mechatronic Tech.3-34 146 Dr.. Dept..

and the height ab  dc  h sides ad and bc are parallel to the interface . where the width ad  cb  W .  v  0 and E  0  Under static conditions . Gao-Wei Chang . To see this . of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. as shown in Fig. until all the charges reach the surface  in such a way that . the surface of a conductor is an equipotential surface under static condition . the field exerting a force on the charges and making them move away from one another . Dept. NTNU Inside a conductor . 147 Dr. let’s construct a small path abcd . the E field on a conductor surface is everywhere normal to the surface .. In other words .3-34 .

NTNU  Since E is conservation ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. We construct a Gaussian surface in the form of a thin pillbox as shown in Fig. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. we have   abcd Ed l  E t W as h  0  （∵   E  0 ） ∴ Et  0 That is the tangential component of  E on a conductor surface is zero under static conditions . of Mechatronic Tech.3-35 . 148 Dr. To evaluate E n ..

Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU free space ( or dielectric1 ) S h conductor ( or dielectric2 ) Fig...3-35 Using Gauss’s law . we have   S S SEdS  E n S   0 S or E n  0 149 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.

Dept.3-34 since E is conservative . NTNU （ 2 ） A dielectric1-dielectric2 interface  In Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Gao-Wei Chang . we have       abcd Ed l  E1  W  E 2   W   E1t  W  E 2 t  W  0      ∴ E 1t  E 2 t . of Mechatronic Tech. a n   E 1  E 2   0 150 Dr.

NTNU  This states that the tangential component of an E field is continuous across an interface . of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .3-36 151 Dr.. Dept..  E1t  E1 n W a b 1 2 h d c W  E2t  E2n Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.3-37 152 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... we apply another form of Gauss’s law   a n 2 D1n  a t 2 D 2 n  D1 an2   S2  a n 2 S S dielectric1 dielectric2 a n1   S1  a n1S  D2 Fig. NTNU To evaluate E n . Gao-Wei Chang .

. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. NTNU       SDdS   D1a n 2  D 2 a n1  S     a n 2  D1  D 2  S  S S   ∴ a n 2   D1  D 2    S or D 2 n  D1n   S       a n 2 a n 2 D1n  a n 2  a n 2 D 2 n   S => 153 D 2 n  D1n   S Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

154 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. NTNU Capacitances and capacitors （ Capacitances ： due to the property of equipotential of a conductor ） A conductor in a static electric field is an equipotential body （ due to overlapping of the conduction band and valence band of its atom ） and that charges deposited on a conductor will distribute themselves on its surface in such a way the electric field inside vanishes ..

S  E （ or the total charge Q ） increases by k when increases by a factor of k ） 155 Dr. sine （ 1)  E  V  E （ increasing the potential V by a factor of K increases by K ） （ 2 ） The boundary condition at a conductor-free space interface   S E  an 0 （ as a result.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU The potential of the surface of an isolated conductor is directly proportional to the total charge on it ..

The capacitance of a capacitor is a physical property of the two conductor system . of Mechatronic Tech. It depends on the capacitor and on the permittivity of the medium .. which consists of two conductors separated by free space or dielectric media . we define capacitance Q C V  Of considerable importance in practice is the capacitor （ or condenser ） . the radio Q V remains uncharged ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Therefore . For the isolated conducting body . Dept. 156 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .

Gao-Wei Chang ..3-38 157 Dr..…………… Fig. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Ex1 ： Determine the capacitance of a parallel-plate capacitor y y1  d y0  0 + + + …………… +  E area A  dl - - S  .

Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Sol ：   ∵ V10   y Ed l d     0 E  dya y y1 0 S      0   a y  dya y  0  d  d S y S   0 0 0 ∴ C Q Q Q A    V V10 Q  d d A  158 Dr. Dept..

of Mechatronic Tech.3-39 159 Dr.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. NTNU Ex2 ： Determine the capacitance of a cylindrical capacitor a  l  E b G aussian surface S Fig.

. NTNU Sol ： By Gauss’s law . Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. we have （ neglecting the fringing effect of the field near the edges of the conductors ）     E  dS  S  2b  l       a r E r  a r dS  a r E r a r 2rl  S  2b  l   S b ∴ E  ar r   b S b  Vba   a Ed l   a a r     a r  dr r b r 1 b  S  ln r  S b  ln   a a b 160 Dr.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Dept. Charges in motion that constitute current flow .) Question: How about the problems of current flow in a good insulator? 161 Dr. NTNU Chap. (Problems of current flow in a conductive medium are governed by Ohm’s law. 4 Steady Electric Currents Electrostatic problems. Gao-Wei Chang . Field problems associated with electric charges at rest. of Mechatronic Tech.

Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . 162 Dr. are not governed by Ohm’s law ） : (1) Electron beams in a cathode-ray tube (2) Violent motions of charged particles in a thunderstorm...Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Two types of electric current: (Caused by the motion of electric charges) (1) Convection current (2) Conduction current Convection current ： The result of hydrodynamic motion involving a mass transport..

. which may wander from one atom to another in a random manner is produced. NTNU Conduction current ： As an external electric field is applied on a conductor.. of Mechatronic Tech. an organized motion of conduction (or valence) electrons. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. dissipating part of their kinetic energy as heat ： thermal radiation. 163 Dr. The conduction electrons collide with the atoms in the course of their motion. Dept. This phenomenon manifests itself as a damping force or resistance. to current flow.

.  ( In a dielectric (or an insulator) the electric displacementis D given by D  E Where  is called permittivity. Dept.e.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.) Recall that A good condutor  J  E A good insulator C onduction band V alence band Energy gap >> 1ev Fig.. NTNU   The redation mbetween conduction current density J （ and electric field intensityE mgive us a point form of Ohm’s law). of Mechatronic Tech.   J  E Where  is a macroscopic constitutive parameter of the medium called conductivity   . Gao-Wei Chang . i.4  3 164 Dr..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab..4  4 165 Dr. NTNU Fig.. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

4  6 166 Dr.4  5 Conduction current Metallic conductor is filled with free electrons. NTNU Convection current:  Point charge(s) moving with a velocity v in free space. Fig .  Under the influence of E conduction electrons collide with atoms and consequently conduction current produces. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang ... Fig.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. each of charge q.4  7 167 Dr. across an element of surface ΔS with a velocity  through the surface s The amount of charge passing Where N is the number of charge carriers per unit volume and the vector quantity   S  an  s  u   s = a n s From Eq(1).. we have Fig.Convection current: Consider the steady motion 　 of one kind of charge carriers. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Current density and Ohm’s law 1. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .

NTNU In field theory. Gao-Wei Chang . ) so that   I  J  s 168 Dr. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. and we shall introduce the concept of current density  J   v    2 (where  v  Nq . is free charge per unit volume. of Mechatronic Tech. we are usually interested in events occurring at a point rather than within some large region...

. NTNU Where  e is the electron mobility measured in ( m 2 / v  s ) ( This is because conduction currents are the result of the drift motion of charge carriers under the influence of applied electric field intensity. Gao-Wei Chang .4  10 4 5.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. of Mechatronic Tech.2  10 3 1. Dept.2  10 3 169 Dr.) Table the electron motilities for some conductors Conductor e (Unit in m 2 / v  s ) Copper Aluminum Silver 3.

. we have J    e  e E  E (Point form of Ohm’s law) Where the negative quantity  e   N e is the volume charge density of the drifting electrons and the conductivity     e  e (A/vm or Siemens per meter(s/m)) 170 Dr.2 0. NTNU 6 4 5. of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.2 Tab .4 5.2 electron m obility 2 0. Gao-Wei Chang .2 3. Dept.4  1 10 3  m 2 / v  s    From Eqs (4) and (5) .4 0 electron m obility Each in copper alum inum silver 3.

.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU For semiconductors. conductivity  both electrons and holes ： depends on the concentration and mobility of where the subscript h denotes hole. Gao-Wei Chang .  e  Ne   Nq 171 Dr.

Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Equation of continuityand kirchhoff’s current law Conservation of charge ： Electric charges may not be created or destroyed (just transferred from one place to another) 172 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech...Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . we have   v V  J  dv   V t dv For arbitrary choice of V.. the net charge Q in V must decrease at a rate that equals current By Divergence theorem.4  8 173 Dr. it follows that   v J    1 t Fig . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Continuity of current ： If a net current I flows across an enclosing surface （封閉面） out of the bounded volume V.

174 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Qi  Qo  0  Qo  Qi dQo dQ  o dt dt O utw ard current Thatis . ） Equation (1) becomes Thus. I  Qi I dQ dt Qo Qi  Qo  Q  Q  0 Fig .4  9 This point relationship derived from the principle of conservation called the equation of continuity (of current). of Mechatronic Tech.. of charge is For steady electric currents charge density does not vary  v with time.. 　  0 （  v t  J  0 is fixed.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. steady currents are divergenceless or solenoidal. Dept.

175 Dr. by Divergence theorem. we have. NTNU Over any enclosed surface. Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . Please calculate the time it tables to reach （取得，抓到） an equilibrium. of Mechatronic Tech.. <Ex>consider that charges introduced （引進） in the interior （內部） of a conductor will move to the conductor surface and redistribute （重新分佈） themselves 0 in such a way asto inside under equilibrium （平衡，均勢） E  0and v make conditions. Which can be written as I j  0   2 j Equation (2) is an expression of kerchief’s current law.

. the equation of continuity becomes Where is the conductivity of the conductor In a simple medium. Gauss law   From the above eqs. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU <Pf> : From Ohm’s law.. we have   E  v  　 176 Dr. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

Dept.8  10 ( s / m) 12 . For a good conductor such as copper.. of Mechatronic Tech. 177 Dr..85  10 ） ( F / m) 7 19 constant    /   1.ε≒  0 （ like vacuum no electric dipole  8.a very short time indeed. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Where  0 is the initial charge density at t=0. NTNU  ( /  ) t    e v 0 It can be readily obtained that (c/m 3).53  10 sec .   5.

.)      The work ΔW done by Ein moving a charge q a distance is w  Fe     qE  Which corresponds to a power   F  l W  t     W dl P  lim  qE  q  E u t 0 t dt     dl F  l lim  qE t 0 t dt 178 Dr. conduction electrons conductor under go a drift motion macroscopically. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . (Energy is thus transmitted from the electric field to the atoms in thermal vibration. and they collide with atoms on lattice sites. NTNU Power dissipation and joule’s law  E Under the influence of an electric field ..

Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Fig .4  10 The total power delivered to all the charge carriers in a volume is dv 179 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

the total electric power converted into heat is 　   P   E  J  dv Which is known as Joule’s law.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .. For a given volume V. NTNU 　 and     dP   dPi  E ( N i qi ui )dv  E  J  dv i i P    E  J (w) v Is thus the point form of a power density under steady-current conditions. of Mechatronic Tech. V 180 Dr.

we have P=I R(w) 2 181 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU <Ex> Show that in a conductor of a constant cross section ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. we have P=I2R(w) <Pf> ：  dWhere     dv  ds  d  is measured in the direction of  ds  d Fig .. Dept.4  11 Since V=RI .

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.. NTNU Governing equation for steady current density.. Basic quantity ： Current density vector 182 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .

.4  13 at on interface between two different conductors J 1t J 2t  1  2 or J 1t  1  J 2t  2 183 Dr.4  12 2 1 ) Fig . NTNU Governing eqs    (1)   J  0 or SJds  0  means J is divergence less.. J 1n  J 2 n ( A / m 2 )  (2)   ( J /  )  0 or (∵   E  0 1   C  Jdl  0   J  and E Fig . At an interface between two different conductors. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang J1t J 2 t  1  2 . of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

NTNU Resistance calculations R=     V  LEdl  LEdl       I  Jds  Eds S S <Ex> Derive the voltage-current relationship (i.. as shown below. Dept. and uniform cross section S.e. length l. 184 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.. Gao-Wei Chang . resistance) of a piece of homogenous material of conductivity σ.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

.4  14 185 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU <Sol> ： The potential difference or voltage between terminals 1 and 2 is V12  E   Where  V12   0    Ed       E  a E and   a The total current is   I   Jds  J  S    E  S S ∴ V12  R  ( ) I S Fig .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept..

Dept. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Chap 5 Static Magnetic Fields in Free Space 186 Dr..

of Mechatronic Tech.distance) due to (  Wave   motion   ) Energy transfer Poyting's thm (or Energy flow) 187 Dr. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .at . NTNU About Magnetic Field Field and Wave Electromagnetics due to (  Field    existance    ) Force exertion Maxwell's Equations (action .a ...

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech... NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space ＊ A magnetic field can be cause by （ 1 ） a permanent magnet （ like the magnetized lodestone ） （ 2 ） moving charges （ 3 ） a current flow 188 Dr.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space I I (a) (b) 189 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept...

NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space A magnetic field can be characterized by a so-called magnetic flux density  B .which is defined in terms of  Fm experienced by a moving charge q . Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang ... of Mechatronic Tech.i.    Fm  qu  B 190 (N) Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.e.

teslas = 10 4 Gauss  （ Here .. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. B has been not yet defined ） 191 Dr.. NTNU 5-2 Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space  where u (m/s) is the velocity of the moving charge and is measured in webers per  B 2 square meter (Wb/ m ) or teslas (T). Gao-Wei Chang .

. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.. NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space ＊ Lorentz’s force equation  When a test charge q is placed in an electric field E  and it is also in motion in a magnetic B the total electromagnetic force on it is       F  Fe  Fm  q (E  u  B) ……(1) which is called Lorentz’s force equation 192 Dr.

NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space Magnetic force is a kind of transverse force analogous to the electric force （ or Coulomb’s force ） 193 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Dept.

.Magnetic forceFm is a transverse  Fm is perpendicular force found by Oersted. NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space Note ：    Fm This phenomenon is （ 1 ）B and u are perpendicular to  found by Oersted. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.Specifically   to both B and u 194 Dr.. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. NTNU Static Magnetic Field in the Free Space （2） 195 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

to be     ( q2u 2 )  ( q1u1  ar12 ) ……(2) Fm12  k m 2 r12    k m ( q1u1  ar12 ) B r122 196 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.Introductory Engineering Electromagnetics. Gao-Wei Chang .1971 ）  The magnetic force Fm12 exerted by a charge q 1 on the other charge q 2 is found by indirect experiments. involving steady current system. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Charges ＊ Law of magnetic force between two moving point charges （ Popovic ..

NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Charges (the permeability of a vacuum) in MKSA system.. ） q1  u1  B  B   r12  a r12  r12 q2   F u 2 m12  u1 Testm oving charge q1 197  Fm12  u2 Field m oving charge q 2 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. and   r12  a r12  r12 is the vector length from q 1 to q 2 （ Equation(1) may be compared with Coulomb’s law in electrostatic fields.. Gao-Wei Chang .

. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Charges ＊ The concept of magnetic field  magnetic flux density B from Eqs(1) and (2) we can see that       0 q1u1  ar12 Fm12  q2u2   2 4  r 12  where      q2u2  B      0 q1u1  ar12 B 4 r122 is the definition of the flux density vector produced by a point  u1 charge q 1 moving with a velocity 198  q 1 u 1： field moving charge  q 2 u 2： test moving charge Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

    0I  ad s B  2  dB  0 2 0 s 2  a 2   0I  s    1 2 2 2a  (s  a ) 2      0  3 a s2  a 2 2 0I 2a 199 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Charges  0I B 2a r  s2  a 2   0 Ids sin  dB  4 r2      0 I  sin d s B  2  dB  0 2 0 r 2 sin   sin       . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept...

Dept. In a good insulator (or dielectric). （ 2 ） Since charge q t is stationary according to the law of magnetic force between two moving point charges the magnetic force on q t is also zero. of Mechatronic Tech. （ 1 ） The moving charges inside the conductor are compensated so that there is no appreciable electric field outside (nor in side) the conductor.. it will be acted on neither by the electric force nor by the magnetic force. ） Dr. （ In metallic conductors. induced charges are called bound charges.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. charge carriers are called conduction electrons. NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Charges Note ： If a test charge q t resides at a fixed location outside the current-carrying conductor.. Gao-Wei Chang 200 .

consisting of two very thin C1 I1  dl1 conducting loops(wires) carrying filamentary  r1 currents I1 and I 2 respectively.. NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Loops ＊ Ampere’s law of force Consider two idealized complete circuits C1 and C 2 .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. he found that in free space.    ( I 2 d 2 )  ( I1d 1  aR ) c2 c1 R2   where R  a R R   F12  0 4  F12 (I 2 ) is linear 201 Dr. C2    R  r2  r1  dl2  r2 O In Ampere’s extensive experiments. Gao-Wei Chang I2 . of Mechatronic Tech..

As a result. in a conductor. i. of Mechatronic Tech.. ）     J  E (i. For example.. Gao-Wei Chang . J  E )   v  E .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. charges forming steady current are moved by both electric force and magnetic force. the magnetic force is much small than the electric force. 202 (see popovic ) Dr.e.. the average drift velocity  v is governed by the electric field  intensity E . NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Loops This equation is referred to Ampere’s law of force and it constitutes the foundation of magnetostatics. where  is the mobility of the charges. （ Usually. However.. the magnetic force due to two moving charge acting on them is very relatively small.e.

q moving with velocities n    u 1 .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. the total magnetic force  Fm on a test charge  q t moving with a velocity u t   q u  0 i i  arit    2 ……(3) rit  i 1 4     Fm  qt  ut      qt ut  B n 203 Dr. u 2 …….u n 。 According to the superposition principle. Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept. NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Loops Suppose n charges q1、q 2 . …….. of Mechatronic Tech..

of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.. q n toward the test charge  0 B 4 and n    q i u i  a rit i 1 2 it r qt ……(4)   rit  a rit  rit 204 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Force between Two Loops Where  a rit are with vectors directed ( at the time instant considered ) from charges q1、q 2 ... ……..

Dept. of Mechatronic Tech... NTNU Biot-Savart Law ＊The magnetic field of steady electric current ： The Biot-Savart law (for conduction current) Suppose that the number of free charges per unit volume of a conductor is N 。 Then ， inside a small volume v ， there are Nv charges moving with the same velocity  v ， since v is supposed to by very small 。 Equation (4) becomes   Nq  u  ar V  2 r V    J a  0  2 r V 4 V r  0 B 4 205 ……(5) Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .

. Dept. NTNU Biot-Savart Law where    J  Nqu   V  u represents the current density vector at point inside the volume element v and  V is volume charge density 。 If V is assumed to be “ physically small ” the magnetic flux density due to the steady current in the conductor is given by  0 B 4  V   J  ar dV ……(6) 2 r 206 Dr.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Biot-Savart Law where  is the unit vector directed from the volume element dv r  towards the fixed point at which B is being determined. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. 207 Dr.. v' V  J   r  ar  r qt Position of a testing point  ar a small charge q t in the field of charges moving inside a conductor..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.    Suppose the cross-section area of the wire is S and then V  S  d   where d  is the vector differential element of the wire Equation (6) yields    0 I d  a r B 4 C r 2 208 Dr.. NTNU Biot-Savart Law Filam entary current I ＊ Biot-Savart law (cont’d)   r  ar  r  0 B 4  V J   J  ar dV ……(6) 2 r Field point In practice ， the current is very often flowing thru thin conducting wires. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .

of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . 209 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. NTNU Biot-Savart Law where the current element     I  d   J   a n  S  d      J   S  d    J  dV and   S  a n  S This important formula is known as the Biot-Savart law..

of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Biot-Savart Law Note ：    0 J  ar B dV ' 2  V 4 r      J  ar  S  d   0  4 C r2      0  J  S  d  ar  4 C r2    0 I d  a r  4 C r 2    0 I d  a r  r  4 C r3 210 Dr. Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. NTNU Biot-Savart Law 【 EX 】 Find the magnetic flux density  B at a point located at a distance r from the current-carrying straight wire ， as shown below 。 <sol> The distance vector from the source element dz' to the field point p is    R  ar  r  (  a z  z ' )        d  R  a z dz   ar r  a z z   a rdz 211 Dr.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.

Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech...Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU Biot-Savart Law By applying Biot-Savart law ， we have   0 I B  a 4   a  L 0 I z rdz ' L  z' r  3 2 2 2 L L 2r L2  r 2 （∵ dB  0 I 4  0 I 4        z' p   d  a R   2 R    d   a R   3 R  R  Z ' R 2 Id l  a z  dz ' source elem ent  1 2 2 ）  a z  dz ' r  ar  r Field point -L 212 Dr.

z <sol> From the preceding example..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. with side W carrying a direct current I.. Dept. we have    I B  4a z 0  2  W    2   W/2  W   2   2  W   2   2 O  2 2 0 I  az W W B 的方向和迴路中電流的方向遵循右手規則 (homework or exercise) Dr. Gao-Wei Chang 213 I . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Biot-Savart Law 【 EX 】 Find the magnetic flux density at center of a planar square loop .

of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... <sol> We apply Biot-Savart law to the circular loop   d   abd     R  azz  arb  R   z 2  b2  1/ 2  214 Dr. NTNU Biot-Savart Law 【 EX 】 Find the magnetic flux density at a point on the axis of a circular loop of radius b that carries a direct current I. Gao-Wei Chang .

of Mechatronic Tech...  0 I B 4  2 0  az z b 2 d  2 b  2 3/ 2   az  0 Ib 2 2 z b 2 215  2 3/ 2  Teslas  Dr. Dept.        d   R  a  bd    a z z  a r b   a r bzd   a z b 2 d  (differential length vector  distance vector in free space)  a z component of this cross product since the We need only consider the  a r component is canceled due to cylindrical symmetry. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Biot-Savart Law  Recall that R is the vector from the source element  d  to the field point P.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.y. Gao-Wei Chang .z) 216 Dr. z)  J V    r  ar  r P(x. y.z) is the position vector of the field point p ( x .. NTNU The Curl and Divergence of B  ＊ The curl and divergence of B Recall  0 B 4   whereB  B(r ) and   J ar v r 2 dv   J  J (r)  r(x.y.

Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... NTNU The Curl and Divergence of B Since  ar  1     2 r  r   0   1  B  J     dv We have  4 v  r ……(1) From the vector identity   J  1  1       J    J ……(2) r r  r it follows that   0  J   dv B    4 v  r 217 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .

.. Therefore     B    (  A)  0  ∴   B  0 for determining B 218 Dr. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU The Curl and Divergence of B In space change rate   B  ( 0 4  J V ' r dv') ……(3) Let’s define the vector magnetic potential  0 A 4  J V ' r dv' ……(4) Where the source coordinates are primed.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. suppose the stationary current I in a thin wire It appears tha vector magnetic potential  0 A 4  J V ' r dv'   0 I d   4 L ' r According to Helmholtz’s theorem.. we need to  further evaluate B  for B determining Dr. Dept.. NTNU The Curl and Divergence of B Furthermore. Gao-Wei Chang 219 . a vector field is determined if both its divergence and its curl are specified everywhere Therefore. of Mechatronic Tech.

of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. 220 Dr. Dept.. NTNU The Curl and Divergence of B Note ： Since it is found that   B  ( 0 4  J V ' r dv') We thus define the rector magnetic potential  0 A 4  J V ' r dv' Where the source coordinates are primed.

dS  B  0  ∴   B  0 anywhere 221 Dr.. NTNU The Curl and Divergence of B   Therefore   B    (  A)  0 (due to the null identity)  or   B  0 (any where) Source free  Thad is. of Mechatronic Tech.B is rotational.. Gao-Wei Chang .  That is. Dept.B  B  0 is rotational.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Ampere’s circuital law    2      A      A   A         ax  ay  az x y z 2 2 2   2 2 2 x y z 2  2V  2V  2V V 2  2  2 x y z 2        2  V   a x  a y  a z  y z   x  2 2 2          a x  a y  a z  V   2  2  2  V y z   x  x y z  222 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .

(1)     Jdv'   0       A       v ' 4   r       J  0        dv ' 4  v '  r    223 … (2) Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Consider     2   B       A      A   A … (1) from vector identities . where and    2    A  a x  Ax  a y  2 Ay  a z  2 Az 2     A  a x Ax  a y Ay  a z Az 1. The first term on the right hand side of Eq .. Dept.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang ..     1 1  J   J        J  … (3a) r  r r  or         ' 1  J    J     r  r … (3b)          r  a x  x '  a y  y '  a x y z. of Mechatronic Tech..' ) 224 Dr. Dept. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law From vector identities . z  z ' (  r   x  x '   y  y '   z  z ' 2 2 2  1 2 and  ' is the differentiation with respect to the source coordinate  x ' . y ' . z.

. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law From vector identities . Gao-Wei Chang .   '    J   '   J    r     J 1 1 '      J     r r  r   … (4) ( for any source element the field point is specified ) 225 Dr..

) Eqs ... steady current) . Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.e. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Eqs . (3b) and (4) yields       J 1 '  ' J            J  r   r r   (Since   J  0 '   … (5) is a necessary condition for static magnetic fields (i. . (2) and (5) yields  0      A    4       ' v' 226   J  dv' r  … (6) Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .

   J  ds ' 0 227 Dr.. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law From Divergence theorem . . of Mechatronic Tech.e. Dept.all ' currents are enclosed inside S ) its normal component is always equal to zero .. Gao-Wei Chang . it follows that  0     A    4     J  s ' r ds ' … (7) where S ' encloses the volume V ' .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.  Since J is the volume current density ( i.

Gao-Wei Chang ...Optoelectronic Systems Lab. (1) . NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Equation (7) becomes      A  0 …(8) This is a general form for Coulomb condition .  0  A 4 2  v'   2   0 J  dv'  r 4 228  2 1 v ' J    r  dv' … (9) Dr. For the second term on the right side of Eq .  A  0 2. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.

2  0 2 we have 2 2  1  0 r   2  1   2   1   1   2  r r  r    0 r  r r       (  2  for r0 )  1   0 . the field point must be located inside  r the volume V ' and it is infinitely close to a source 2 For   element .. 229 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law ' If the field point P is not located inside the volume V 1   ( i.. .e. r   x  x '   y  y '   z  z ') . of Mechatronic Tech.

. the field point is infinitely close to a source point ( i. but 230   r '  r ) Dr. and r'  r .. . z  z' Therefore . if r is located inside the volume V ' i. Gao-Wei Chang . y  y' ). NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law r  0 .e. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. x  x' . Eq . . . as V '  0 ) ( By Divergence theorem .e.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. (9) becomes  0  A 4 2  2 1  0 J   dv '    v ' 4  r    J  1  2 A  0  '  '   4 v '0  r  '2  1  v '0 J    r  dv'   J  ' 1  dv'  0  d s '    s '  0 4  r  ( ∵ J is constant .

of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law we have    J 2 A  0 4    ar '  ds ' s '0 r '2   ( ar '  ar )  0 J ' ds ' '  d  (  d   )  4 s '0 r '2   0 J … (10) 231 Dr.

Gao-Wei Chang . (1) and (10) . of Mechatronic Tech. We have     B   0 J … (11) which is called Ampere’s circuital law .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law From Eqs .. ) 232 Dr.. ( or simply called Ampere’s law .

of Mechatronic Tech. by Stokes’s theorem . Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. (10) . Gao-Wei Chang .          B ds   Bdl   0  Jds '   0 I s c … (12) s where the surface S is enclosed by the contour C . from Eq . 233 Dr.. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Also .    A   0  J 2 is called a vector Poisson’s equation . In addition .

of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law In Cartesian coordinates .. Dept.      A  a x   2 Ax  a y   2 Ay  a z   2 Az 2 where and  2 Ax    0  J x … (11a)  2 Ay    0  J y … (11b)  2 Az    0  J z … (11c) 234 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

. Dept.   0 J A   dv' v ' 4 r 235 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. the solution for Eq . Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Hence .. (11a) is Ax  0 J   x  dv' 4 v ' r ∴Consistently . of Mechatronic Tech.

of Mechatronic Tech... Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law Note : In a static electric field  v E  0 ( Point form only valids for the point having v ) 0 236 Dr.

. NTNU Ampere’s Circuital Law In a static magnetic field     B  0  J ( Point form only valids  for the point having  0  J ) 237 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.. NTNU Chap 6 Magnetic Dipole & Behavior of Magnetic Materials 238 Dr. Dept..

. Gao-Wei Chang . 239 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept. NTNU Magnetic Dipole ＊ Magnetic Dipole Let’s evaluate the magnetic flux density at a distance point of a small circular loop of radius b that carries a current I ( a magnetic dipole ) .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Dipole We choose a spherical coordinate system s.. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. . ) is located in the yz plane for convenience 2 240 Dr.. the field point  p ( R. Dept.t.

. NTNU Magnetic Dipole It is intended to find the vector magnetic  0 I A 4 and then (∵  dl ' R L   B   A  0 I B 4 analogous to 1 4 0  l dl  R  is determined analogous to E  V   dl  aR1 L ' R12 ) 241 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetic Dipole From the top view of the small loop or    dl '  (-a x sin  ' a y cos  ' )dl '    dl '  (-a x sin  ' a y cos  ' )bd '    a x dl ' ' b p  dl ' '  ay '  ax 242 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech.

NTNU Magnetic Dipole    I A  a x 0 4  2 0 b sin  ' d ' R1     0 Ib 2 sin  ' d ' A   a  2  2 R1 or  a ( the y component is canceled due to the source element I dl ' is symmetric to the y axis ) The law of cosine gives R12  R 2  b 2  2bR cos  ' or R12  R 2  b 2  2bR sin  sin  ' ( left as an exercise ) 243 Dr.. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang ..

Gao-Wei Chang .  1 ) 2 R   b   0 Ib 2 A   a ( 1  sin  sin  ' ) sin  ' d '   2R 2 R 244 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. NTNU Magnetic Dipole It follow that  1 1 b 2b   1  2  sin  sin  '  R1 R  R R  2 1 1 2b    1  sin  sin  '  R1 R  R  or ( assuming ∴ R 2  b 2 1 1 2 2  1 b  1  sin  sin  '   R R  2 b i..e. Dept.

Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Dipole    0 Ib 2 A  a sin  2 4R as a result   0 Ib    (a R 2 cos  a sin  ) B   A  3 2 4R 245 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.. NTNU Magnetic Dipole Note ： The vector magnetic potential can be rearranged as    0m  aR A 4R 2 法線方向是 where     2 m  a z Ib  a z IS  a z m  az 方向 is defined as the magnetic dipole moment 246 Dr.

Dept. 247 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetic Dipole also . of Mechatronic Tech.We can rewrite the magnetic flux density vector as  0m    B a 2 cos   a R  sin   3 4R Comparing with the similar expressions for the electric dipole in static fields . we have and where   P  aR V  4 0 R 2  E  V  P    a 2 cos   a R  sin   3 4 0 R    p  qd  qda z  p  a z is the electric dipole and the magnetic dipole are also similar.. Gao-Wei Chang ..

NTNU Magnetic Dipole + X - M agnetic dipole Electric dipole 248 Dr. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech... Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. J ms  Suppose the orbiting electrons in a material cause circulating currents and form microscopic magnetic dipoles .. The application of an external magnetic field causes both an induced magnetic moment due to a change in the orbital motion of electrons and an alignment of the magnetic dipole moments of the spinning electrons Let’s define a magnetization vector Nv   M  lim v '0 249  m k 1 k v' Dr. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density ＊ Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density J mv . Dept.

.. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.27 10 24 J/T 2me Dr. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density where m k is the magnetic dipole moment of an atom and N stands for the number of atoms per unit volume . e e  T 2r e 1   IA   r 2  er 2r 2 3  2 e  spin   9.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.27 1024 J/T 2me I S L  mer B  250 e  9. of Mechatronic Tech.

. of Mechatronic Tech.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density   since dm  Mdv' . we have    0 M  a R dA  4 R 2  dv 0  1  M   ' ( )dv ' 4 R (∵ ∴ 1 1  ' ( )  2 aR R R   0 A   ' dA  v 4 )  ' 1  ' M   dv   v'  R ( where v ' is the volume of the magnetized material )      M ' 0 M ' '  0 ' dv    ( ) dv 4 v R 4 v ' R ' 251 Dr.

of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density  (  From the vector identities .. Gao-Wei Chang .  '     M R      1 '  ' 1   M    M R  R  1 '  ' 1    M  M    R  R  J mv  0 '  M 0  dv'  v ' 4 R 4 252   J ms M  an' S ' R ds' Dr. Dept.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density Define the equivalent magnetization volume current density vector   '  J mv    M ( analogous to  pv     P ) and the magnetization surface current density     J ms  M  a n ' ( analogous to  ps    P  an ( For notational simplicity. we omit the primes ) Consider    J mv    M      253 )  Bi   0  Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.

Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density   ( compared to Ampere’s law   B   0 J in free space )   where the internal flux density B is produced by M  In addition . Dept. we see that due to the free current density J        Be    J 0   where Be denotes the external magnetic flux density 254 Dr... of Mechatronic Tech.

e.. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density Thus . the resultant magnetic flux density in the presence of  a magnetized is changed by an amount Bi ； i.. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.        B     Be  Bi    0  J  J mv  Note ： The application of an external magnetic field causes both (1) an induced magnetic moment in a magnetic material (2) an alignment of the internal dipole moment and 255 Dr.

of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept. NTNU Magnetization and Equivalent Current Density Fig .. The induced magnetic dipole moment are partially aligned  along dl by an Externally applied magnetic field magnetic dipole moment   m  Ids   dl 256 Dr.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability ＊ Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability since the magnetic flux density  B in the magnetic material      1 can be express by   B  J  J mv  J    M 0 257 Dr... of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .

NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability We define the magnetic field intensity  H    B  H M 0   Thus . Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept.   H  J ( A m2 ) ( another form of Ampere’s law )  where J is the volume density of free current 258 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

259 Dr. we have  S     (  H )ds   J  ds S     Hdl  I C where C is the contour bounding the surface S and I is the total free current passing thru S . of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability According to Stokes’s theorem .

. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. the magnetization vector   M  xm H 260 Dr.. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability   H  ds  H C S The above formula holds in a nonmagnetic as well as a magnetic medium When the magnetic properties of the medium are linear and isotropic.

. 261  ( H/m Dr. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability where xm is a dimensionless quantity called magnetic susceptibility  Therefore . B        0 ( H  M )   0 (1  x m ) H   0  r H  H where the dimensionless quantity  r  1  xm   0 is called the relative permeability of he medium and ) is known as the ( absolute ) permeability. of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability Note ： x e : electric susceptibility xm : magnetic susceptibility  r : relative permittivity r : relative permeability  r  1  xe  r  1  xm    0 r   0  r 262 Dr.. Gao-Wei Chang .

Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Electric dipole vs Magnetic dipole  S +  d X - I Electric moment   P  qd   m  I S Magnetic moment 263 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability Note ： 1. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .

. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability Electric charge vs X (no magnetic charge)   P   0 xm E + - + - + - + - + - + - + - + -  Ed    Ei  E0  Ed 264 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.

of Mechatronic Tech. The magnetic field intensity H is introduced as the basic quantity of the fields. Dept.. the generalized Ampere’s law    H  J holds across any media 265 Dr.. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability  2.

Dept.  aR 1  Since '    2 R  R 266 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Recall that the potential due to the polarized dielectric   P  aR 1 V  dv' 2  V ' 4 0 R   where R  a R R is the distance vector from dv' to a fixed field point. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability 3..

Dept.. of Mechatronic Tech..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability it follows that   1 P   '   dv' V '  R      P 1 1   V ' '  dv' V ' 'Pdv' 4 0  R  R  1 V  4 0    ( By the vector identity ' f  A  f  ' A  A  ' f   )  pv      'P  dv' 1 P  a 'n 1  ds '  4 0 S ' R 4 0 V ' R 267  ps Dr.

. NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability  where a' n is the outward normal from the surface element   ds '  a ' n ds ' of the dielectric + - S’ + + V’ - D ielectric 268 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech..

NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability Therefore ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. the electric potential due to a polarized dielectric 1 V  4 0 where  pv and  V'  pv 1 dv' R 4 0  S'  ps R ds '   'P ( polarized volume charge density )  ps    P  a n ( polarized surface charge density )  1 ∵   E    v   pv  0       0 E    v  P in the dielectric      v     0 E  P   D 269 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .

since   P   0 xe E . Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability where    D   0 E  P is called electric displacement vector .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. we have     D   0 E   0 x e E   0 1  x e  E     0  r E  E 270 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept..

NTNU Magnetic Field Intensity and Relative Permeability 4.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Polarization & Magnetization Polarization Magnetization 271 Dr.

(1)Diamagnetism if  r  1 (  m  0 and  m  0 ) (The word “dia” in Greek mean “across”) (2)Para magnetism... if  r  1 (  m  1 ) 272 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . if  r  1 (  m  0 and mean “along”) m  0 ) (The word “Para” in Greek (3)Ferro magnetism. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials Magnetic Materials can be roughly classified into three main groups in accordance with their  r values. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

.. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 273 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.

Gao-Wei Chang . Dept..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 274 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials
(1) Diamagnetic materials:

B appl  0,

As

( ie, no external magnetic field )

m orb  m spin  0 ( for an atom )
as

B appl

is applied,

B int  B appl

and B int  B appl

This is because the induced magnetic moment always apposes the applied field
according to Len’s law of electromagnetic induction. As a result, the magnetic flux
density is reduced.
The effect is equivalent to that of a negative magnetization ( ie,  m  0 ) and it
is usually very small. For diamagnetic materials,copper,lead,……etc.
m

m

5

is of the order of -10.
275

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials
(2) Para magnetism materials:
As B appl  0, m orb  m spin is small
as B appl

is applied, m orb  m spin

is aligned in the direction of the applied

field.
s.t. B int  B appl and B int  B appl

However, the alignment process is impeded by the forces of random thermal
vibrations; as a result the paramagnetic effect is temperature dependent in contrast
to that of diamagnetic materials.For paramagnetic materials, e.g, aluminum,
tungsten,…..etc.  m is usually of the order of -10-5.
276

5

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

(3) Ferro magnetic materials:
As

B appl  0,

m spin  m orb
As

B appl is applied

B int  B appl

Due to the postulate of magnetized domains proposed by Weiss in 1907 (Called
Weiss’ domains)

277

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

(a)

(b)

Fig. schematic of an unmagnified (a) paramagnetic and (b) ferromagnetic material.
The arrows qualitatively show atom magnetic moments.

278

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

15

16

These domains, each containing about 10 or 10 atoms and usually
5
having the linear dimension of about
10 m, are fully magnetized in the
sense that they contain aligned magnetic dipoles resulting from spinning
electrons even in the absence of an applied magnetic field.
There are strong coupling forces between the magnetic dipole
moments of the atoms in a domain, holding the dipole moments in
parallel.
atoms thick called a domain wall.

279

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

Fig. (a) unmagnetized
(b) magnetic-domains translated
(c) magnetic-domains rotated ferromagnetic materials
Above a certain temperature, called the curie temperature, the thermal vibrations
completely prevent the parallel alignment of molecule magnetic moments, and

ferromagnetic materials become paramagnetic. This temperature is 770 C for iron

280

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Dept. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 281 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech.

NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials  B b Br c d a g 0  H f e H ysteresis loop in B -H plane for ferrom agnetic m aterials 282 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.

Dept. m spin  m orb As B appl is applied B int  B appl (5)Ferromagnetic materials As B appl  0. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials (4)Anti ferromagnetic materials As B appl  0.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... m spin  m orb As B appl is applied B int  B appl 283 Dr.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept.. Schematic atomic spin structures for (a) ferromagnetic. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials Fig. Gao-Wei Chang . and (c) ferrimagnetic materials 284 Dr. (b) antiferromagnetic.

For convection currents. ( which does not satisfy ohm’s law)the amount of moving charges     q  Nq (u t )  s   v u  s  t  l  q      J  s ( J   v u ) t    I  J  s  S  l 285 Dr. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials Note （ 1 ） 1. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang ..

S)     J    e  e E  E where  e   Ne and conductivity     e  e 286 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 2. we write the drift velocity. For metallic conductors. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.   ue    e E   Where e is the electron mobility measured in (m2/V. (which leads to ohm’s law and KCL) the volume current density vector    J   N i qi u i    i u i i i where more then one kind of charge carriers qi drifting with different velocities vi ...For conduction currents.

Equation of continuity   dQ d I   J ds       v dv dt dt V S     flowing outward current negative decreasing net charge rate ( where Q is locally existing charge) By Divergence thm.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.    d S Jds V J dv   dt V  v dv  d  J    v dt 287 Dr. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 3.. Gao-Wei Chang ..

Lorentz Force equ. speed v go thru a magnetic field B Magnetic force acting on the moving charge due to the convection current is negligible 288 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech.  A point charge moving at a const..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials Note （ 2 ） .static magnetic field Fm  (qu )  B …………. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .

testing charge in motion (convection current) According to Lorentz’s force equ. NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 2.. Dept.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. B 0  4   q1u1  ar12 r12 2 is called magnetic flux density Ampere’s law of force {for conduction current (specifically filamentary currents)} 0 ( I 2 d 2 )  ( I1d 1  aR) where R  aR  R F 12    2 c 2 c 1 4 R 289 Dr. law of magnetic force between two moving point charges Fm12  k m  where    (q2u2 )  (q1u1  ar12 ) 0 km  4 r12 2 …….

Optoelectronic Systems Lab... NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 3. of Mechatronic Tech. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .Biot-Savart law: ( B due to large amount of charges in motion)specifically free charges per unit volume of a conductor is relative to a specified location (or a field point ) B 0 4 N q u  ar v v 2 r  0 4 J  ar v r 2 v Where J  N q u  v u   B 0 4 d J  ar c r 2 dv 290 Dr.

Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Behavior of Magnetic Materials 4.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Dept.Point charge q qu com pared to com pared to N q dv   v dv(  d) ( N q dv) u   v u dv  J dv  J   S  d   Id  291 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

0
N q u  ar
B

v

5.Since
2
4 v
r
(

we have

r  ar  r

 0
B
4

is the distance vector from the source element

N q u or

J to a specified field point)

( J  dv)  a r
v r 2

or B   0
4

L

 
( I dl )  ar
r

2

(Biot-Savart law)

analogous to

(   d)  a r
1
(  v dv)  ar
1
E
E

or
4 0 v
r2
4 0 L
r2
 For source element (a point charge in motion)

 q u  ar
B 0
4
r2

or

 N q u  ar
B 0
v as v  0
2
4
r
292

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

By superposition, we obtain the Biot-Savart law as formulated above
Also, for the source element (a point charge) in a static electric field

E

1 q ar
4 0 r 2

or

E

Again, by superposition

1 N q ar
v as
2
4 0 r

v  0

E

due to a volume distribution of charge or it due to a line charge is obtained
as show above, respectively.

293

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
Behavior of Magnetic Materials

6.The vector magnetic potential

A

0
4

J
V 1 r dv

0
A
4

or

I d 
V  r

analogous to the electric potential

1
4 0

V

v
V  r dv

or

for a point charge

1
V
4 0
V

 v d 
L r

q
4 0 r

By superposition, we obtain the above eq.
for a volume charge distribution or for a line charge.
294

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

Chap 7 Time-Varying Fields and
Maxwell’s Equations

295

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU

induction
From Lorentz’s force eq., the magnetic force
exerted on the conductor shown in the figure is
expressed as

 
Fm  qu  B  qEi

 is denoted as impressed electric field intensity.
Ei
  
 dw
 dw
d
 d
 Ei  u  B  (aw
)  (  )  ( aw
)  (as  )
dt
ds
dt
ds

dw d
d
dw

(

)  ( aw  as )  (
)(
)( al )
dt ds
l  dw
dt

 
d
  
 Ei  
or
Ei  dl    B  ds

dt
t 
L

where

296

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Optoelectronic Systems Lab., Dept. of Mechatronic Tech., NTNU
By Stokes’s thm, for an arbitrary area

 

B 
L Ei  dl   (  Ei )  ds   ( t )  ds

We see that
B where the subscript i is omitted is called Faraday’s law
 E  
t
of EM induction.
In addition, the voltage across the terminals a and b of the conductor

  d
Vab    ( Ei  dl ) 
a
dt
b

can be applied to that of a coil with N turns.

Nd
di
Vab 
L
dt
dt
297

Dr. Gao-Wei Chang

Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU where the polarities of the voltage are plus and minus on the terminals a and b.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. of Mechatronic Tech.. respectively and the inductance L is defined as Nd L di  298 Dr. Dept.

Fm  qu  B .. Dept. moving with a velocity v .e. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques Hall effect Consider   a uniform magnetic field B  a z B0 and a uniform direct current flows in the y-direction:   B  a z B0    J  a y J 0  Nqu   J  ay J0 z d where N is the number of charge carriers per  unit volume.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.   J  ay J 0  y o Vn x b    B  a z B0 It can be observed that (1)The magnetic force tends to move the charge carriers in the positive x-direction. Gao-Wei Chang .. and q is the charge on each charge carrier. creating a transverse electric field.   (i. the same direction as that of 299  J   F 　 is 　 transverse 　 to 　 B . m ) Dr.

of Mechatronic Tech. Thus. Gao-Wei Chang 300 0 . Dept.     Eh  ( a y u0 )  a z B0  a x u0 B0 A transverse potential (denoted as Vh and called Hall voltage) appears across the sides of the material. In the steady state.. d d Dr. we have   0  Vh    Eh dl    a x u0 B0  a x dx  u0 B0 d for electron carriers. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques (2)This will continue until the transverse field is sufficient to stop the drift of the charge carriers. the net force on the charge carrier is zero:       or Eh  u  B  0 Eh  u  B      ( Fm  Fe  0  qu  B  qEh  0)  This is known as the Hall effect.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. and Eh is called the Hall field.

Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept.. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques The Hall effect can be used for measuring the magnetic field and determining the sign of the predominant charge carriers (distinguishing an n-type from a p-type semiconductor).Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Forces on current-carrying conductors Recall that   F12  0 I 2 I1   c2 c1 4    dl2  (dl1  a R12 ) R122 It is an inverse-square relationship and should be compared with Coulomb’s law of force between two stationary charges.  dl1 I1   a R12 R12  R12  dl 2 I2 301 Dr.

B  B  B   into B  perpendicular and B// parallel to the plane of // 302 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. . Dept. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques Torques on current-carrying Conductors Consider a small circular loop of radius b and carrying a current I in a uniform magnetic field of flux density B  B//  dl1 dl sin   B o I   dl x T  dl 2 (b) (a )  It is convenient to resolve B the loop. of Mechatronic Tech.e.. i. Gao-Wei Chang .

of Mechatronic Tech.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . B//   The differential torque produced by dF1 and dF2 is    dT  a x (dF )2b sin   a x ( Idl sin   B// )2b sin    dT  a x 2 Ib 2 B// sin 2 d   (  dF  dF1  dF2 and 303   dl  dl1  dl2  bd ) Dr.. B tends to expand the loop but exerts no net force to move the loop and // produces a torque that tends to rotate the loop about the x-axis in such a way as to align  the magnetic field (due to I) with the external field.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques   B Obviously.

304 Dr. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques The total torque acting on the loop is then          2 2 2 2 T   dT  a x 2 Ib B//  sin d  a x I (b ) B//  a y I (b )  a z B//  m  B 0  ( sin 2 d  0 where  ) 2   a y  isanthe unit vector of the surface of the loop. we have and     m  a y I (b 2 )  an I (b 2 )  an I  s    T  m  B　　 ( N  m) The principle of operation of direct-current (d-c) motors is based on this equation. Gao-Wei Chang ..        m  B  m  ( B  B// )  m  B// Therefore. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech..

. Thus That is. say the z axis.    F  dl  dwmg  wmg  dl  F  wmg If the ckt is constrained to rotate about an axis. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques Forces and torques in terms of stored magnetic energy The principle of virtual displacement is an alternative method of finding magnetic forces and torques. (1)System of circuits with constant flux linkages:   The mechanical work F  dl done by the system is at the expense of a decrease in the stored magnetic energy.. where F denotes the force under the constantflux condition. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. the mechanical work done by the system will be (T ) z d and (T ) z   305 wm 　　 ( N  m)  Dr. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. Let’s explore it in the following two cases.

. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.since We have k dwmg  1 1 I d   dws  k k 2 2    dw  FI  dl  dwmg  (wmg )  dl or  FI  wmg ( N ) If the ckt is constrained to rotate about the z-axis. Gao-Wei Chang .. the z-component of the torque acting on the ckt is (TI ) z  wm  ( N  m) 306 Dr. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques (2)System of circuits with constant currents Since dws   I k d k is the energy supplied by the system source k (dwk  vk ik dt  ik d k 　 dws   dwk   I k d k for ik  I k ) k We have dws  dw  dwmg In addition. Dept.

of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.. NTNU Magnetic Forces and Torques (1) In electrostatic field (2) p  v i 307 Dr..

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. B1  1 H 1 and B2   2 H 2 . B2 n   B1n following the directions we assume. since (  B  0) by divergence thm          B dv  B  d s  B  ( a  s )  B  (  a 1n n 2n n s )  0   v s     Assuming B1n   an B1n and B2 n   an B2 n 1  B1   an 2  an  B2t h  0  B 1t 2 We have     (an B1n )(an s )  (an B2 n )(an s )  0  B2 n  B1n   B (Note that we may assume 1n   an B1n  B1n   a n1   a n  B2 n  B2   and B 2 n   an B2 n As a result. the normal component of B is continuous across an the interface. Dept. )  Therefore.       For linear media. we have 1 H 1n   2 H 2 n Dr. NTNU Boundary Conditions for Magnetic Fields (1)The normal components of magnetic field  by divergence theorem.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang 308 .

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang  ax . the tangential component of H is discontinuous across an interface where a free surface current exists.. NTNU Boundary Conditions for Magnetic Fields (2)The tangential components of magnetostatic field   Since (  H  J ) by Stokes’s thm        (  H )ds   Hdl   Jds  I s c   an 2  an  H1  H 1n b s 1     H  dl  H1t  w  H 2t  w  J sn w abcda      ( a x H1t )(a x w)  (a x H 2t )(a x w) h  0 2  a H1t  H 2t c w d   H 2 H 2n     an 2  ( H 1  H 2 )  J s  H 1t  H 2t  J sn ( A / m) or  where an 2 is the outward unit normal from medium 2 at the interface. currents are defined by volume current densities and free surface current do not exist on the interface. Dept. (However. when the conductivities of both media are finite.) 309 Dr.  Thus.. of Mechatronic Tech.

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. respectively. C1 and C2 bounding surfaces S1 and S2. Gao-Wei Chang .   B1  ds1 ( H ) 310 Dr. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech.   12   B1ds2 ( Wb) S2 S1 C2 s2  From Biot-Savart laws (determining B1 due to the filamentary current I1) I1     I dl 'a R B1  0 1  4 c ' R 2 N  N L12  2 12  12  2 I1 I1 I1  N L11  11  1 I1 I1  s1 C1 Two magnetically coupled loops  s2   B1  ds2 Note: L↑ means energy increasing stored in a magnetic field... NTNU Inductances and Inductors Consider two neighboring closed loops.

I Sol ：   2   B d l  ( a B )( a      rd )  2rB   0 NI c b h 0  NI  B  0 2r dr r a    0 NIh b dr  0 NIh b   0 NI     Bds   (a )(a hdr )   ln s s 2r 2 a r 2 a  N  0 N 2 h b L   ln I I 2 a (H ) 311 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab... Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Inductances and Inductors <Ex>Find the self-inductance of a closely wound toroidal coil.

NTNU Inductances and Inductors Cause :  1Q  2Q Effect :  1V  2V I1 Cause : 1I1  2 I1 Effect : 11  21 Capacitance: (involving the concept of charge storage) Inductance: (involving the concept of flux linkage) 312 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang .. of Mechatronic Tech.

of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. NTNU Inductances and Inductors Loosely wound L small Tightly wound L large Tightly neighboring C large Loosely neighboring C small 313 Dr..

this work required is stored as magnetic energy. of Mechatronic Tech. 314 Dr.. an electromotive force (emf) is induced to oppose the current charge. Gao-Wei Chang .. Dept. At the same time.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. The work that must be done to overcome this induced emf is I1 w1   v1i1dt  L1  i1di1  0 where v1  L1 1 L1 I12 2 di1 is the voltage across the inductance. dt Obviously. NTNU Magnetic Energy Consider a single closed loop with a self-inductance L 1 in which the current i1 increases from zero to I1.

. respectively. C1 and C2 carrying currents i1 and i2.     Note : dw f  Fe dl  qEdl   qdv   dwe  dwe  qdv Consider　q  cv. which are initially zero and are to be increased to I 1 and I2. 　ch arg e　case. of Mechatronic Tech. 　dwe  qdv C1 or for constant voltage case i1  we  v1 dwe  vdq In the constant voltage case. 　We 　have　dwe  cvdv 1 2 cv 　　 ( Assume　we  0 　initially ) 2 For　constsnt . Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. p dwe dq v  vi dt dt 1 i 315 Dr. NTNU Magnetic Energy Now consider two closed loops. Dept.

NTNU Magnetic Energy To find the amount of work required.. we consider the following three cases: Case1: Keeping i2  0 and increasing i from zero to I1 1 The work required in loop C1 w1  1 L1 I12 2 The current i1 linking with magnetic flux 1  11  12 316 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept.

. some of the magnetic flux due to C1 giving rise to an induced emf that must be overcome i2 loop will link with di2 v  L i 21 by a voltage 21 dt in order to keep 1 constant at its value I 1. NTNU Magnetic Energy Case2: Keeping i1 at I1 and increasing i2 from zero to I 2 Because of mutual coupling.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . This work involved is I2 w21   v21 I1dt  L21 I1  di2  L21 I1 I 2 0 317 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.

w22  1 L2 I 22 2 The total amount of work done in raising the currents in loops C1 and C2 from 0 to I1 and I2. the stored magnetic energy is 1 2 wm  2 LI 　　　 (J ) 318 Dr.. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang . NTNU Magnetic Energy Case3: At the same time..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 wm  w1  w21  w22  L1 I1  L21 I1 I 2  L2 I 2   L jk I j I k 2 2 2 j 1 k 1 1 2 2 wm   L jk I j I k 　　 (J ) 2 j 1 k 1 For a current I following in a single inductor with inductance L. Dept. respectively. a work w22 must be done in loop C2 in order to counteract the induced emf is increased from o to I2.

... we have    E  0. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.( M 2) t    H  0..( M 3)   (B  0 H )   E   H  0 .......... of Mechatronic Tech..... NTNU Wave Equations In free space...( M 1)   H   E  0 ........( M 4) t 319 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang .

we see    2   (  E )  (  E )   E That is It follows  (   E  0)  2    E 2   (  E )   E    0 0 2 t   2 2   1  E  E 2 2  E  .. Gao-Wei Chang . we have      (  E )    0 (  H ) or t  2   E   (  E )    0 0 t 2 According to the vector identities........ NTNU Wave Equations From (M2) and (M4). Dept.(W 1)  E   0 0 2 or 2  t t where the real number   (  0 0 ) 1 2 320 Dr. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab.

t )  U m sin(kx   (t )) 321 Dr.     U ( x.. Let’s use the notation U   stand for E or H . we can obtain the same Eq(W1).(W 2)  t 2 Assume which is called wave eq.. t )  a xU x  a yU y  a zU z For one-dimensional cases.. Dept.. z. NTNU Wave Equations  In a similar fashion.. y.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang to .. one kind of the sols to Eq(W2) is U ( x. It appears that  1 2   U  2 2 U ...

Optoelectronic Systems Lab. t )  U sin( kx   (t )) X m U ( x . Gao-Wei Chang z .. of Mechatronic Tech. y . Dept. t )  a u  a u  a u x x y y z     U a  u a  u a  u 2 z 2 x 2 x y 2 y z U  U ( x. z .. NTNU Wave Equations     U ( x.t) Um X X -U m 322 Dr.

NTNU Wave Equations 2  T V (t )  Vm sin(t ) U (t )  U m sin( kx   (t ))  1  3  10 ( m / s )  8 0 0 Vm T t -V m 323 Dr.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept... of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .

Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang . Equation of continuity 324 Dr. Dept.. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations Faraday`s law of electrom agnetic induction Electrostatic m odel (m odified) M agnetostatic m odel (m odified) Electrom agnetic m odel(due to tim evarying field) : M axw ell`s eqs. of Mechatronic Tech.

Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. 325 Dr.. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations Electrostatic model   E  0   E   0   B  E   t This means that a changing magnetic field induces an electric field..

Dept... Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations Magnetostatic model  B  0     B  J     (  B )  0     J 0   J    0 t V 326 Dr.

..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. Dept. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations Q Q  0 0 Q i i Q Q       dv t t t O i V   QO  I   Jds     Jdv Z V t    J   t  v Q V O 327 Dr.

NTNU Maxwell’s Equations      B  0       H   0    J      J  (  D )  0 t   D   (J  )0 t    D   (  B )  0    (  ( J  )) t 0 328 Dr. Dept.. Gao-Wei Chang ..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. of Mechatronic Tech.

Dept. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations   D  E 0    v     H   0    J  t     D      H      J    t      D  H  J  t    E  H  J  t 0 329 Dr..Optoelectronic Systems Lab.. Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech.

Gao-Wei Chang . of Mechatronic Tech. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations   B  E   t    D  H  J  t    D  v  B  0 330 Dr.. Dept.Optoelectronic Systems Lab..

..Optoelectronic Systems Lab. NTNU Maxwell’s Equations  d E  d    C dt   dD H  d   I  C S dt  ds   D  ds  Q s   B  ds  0 s 331 Dr. Dept. of Mechatronic Tech. Gao-Wei Chang .

NTNU Acknowledgement Thanks to 王奕淳、林漢璿等人 For typing the lecture notes Adjust ：林裕軒 2005/10/20 333 Dr. Gao-Wei Chang . Dept.. of Mechatronic Tech.Optoelectronic Systems Lab..