Agile Project Management




Define the traditional systems
development life cycle (SDLC) and
describe the 7 major phases within
Compare and contrast the various
component-based development
Describe the self sourcing process
as an alternative to the traditional



Discuss the importance of
prototyping and prototyping within
any systems development
Describe the outsourcing
environment and how outsourcing



The preceding slide – Kodak 35mm
film sales dropped from $7 billion in
2004 to an estimated $1.9 billion in
Many retailers no longer process
35mm film
Web sites like SnapFish, Photo
Bucket, and Flickr are now the norm

3. 2. Do you own a 35mm camera? Last time you had 35mm film processed? Will smartphones spell the end of digital cameras? Do you know someone who owns a 35mm camera? What do they use it for? .CAMERAS USE FILM? 1.

INTRODUCTION    Information systems are the support structure for meeting the company’s strategies and goals New systems are created because employees request them New systems are created to obtain a competitive advantage .

you have 3 “who” choices… 1. 3. Insourcing – IT specialists inside your organization Selfsourcing – do-it-yourself approach many end users take with little or no help from IT specialists Outsourcing – a third-party organization (i.INTRODUCTION  When developing a new system..e. 2. let someone do the work and pay them for it) .

a structured step-by-step approach for developing information systems 7 distinct phases Also called a waterfall methodology. an approach in which each phase of the SDLC is followed by another. from planning through implementation .INSOURCING AND THE SDLC    Systems development life cycle (SDLC) .

SDLC Phases & Major Activities .

SDLC as a Waterfall Methodology .

Define the system to be developed   You can’t build every system. which may be expressed as critical success factors Critical success factor (CSF) .create a solid plan for developing your information system Three primary planning activities: 1.Phase 1: Planning   Planning phase . so you make choices based on your organization’s priorities.a factor simply critical to your organization’s success .

Phase 1: Planning 2.occurs when the scope of the project increases Feature creep .clearly defines the high-level system requirements Scope creep .a written definition of the project scope and is usually no longer than a paragraph .occurs when developers add extra features that were not part of the initial requirements Project scope document . Set the project scope     Project scope . individual who is an expert in project planning and management.represent key dates for which you need a certain group of activities performed . when.Phase 1: Planning 3. and timeframes    Project plan . defines and develops the project plan and tracks the plan to ensure all key project milestones are completed on time Project milestones . and who questions of system development Project manager .defines the what. Develop the project plan including tasks.

Phase 1: Planning Sample Project Plan .

Phase 2: Analysis  Analysis phase . and document the business requirements for the proposed system .involves end users and IT specialists working together to gather. understand.

the detailed set of knowledge worker requests that the system must meet in order to be successful Business requirements address the “why” and “what” of your development activities Joint application development (JAD) . sometimes for several days.Phase 2: Analysis  Two primary analysis activities: 1. to define or review the business requirements for the system .knowledge workers and IT specialists meet. Gather the business requirements    Business requirements .

Phase 2: Analysis 2. so prioritizing is important Users sign off on this document which clearly sets the scope for the project . Prioritize the requirements    Requirements definition document – prioritizes the business requirements and places them in a formal comprehensive document Again. you probably can’t do everything.

. If you find errors. the cost is huge. fix them immediately.Phase 2: Analysis Take time during analysis to get the business requirements correct. In later stages. The cost to fix an error in the early stages of the SDLC is relatively small.

build a technical blueprint of how the proposed system will work Two primary design activities: 1. software.Phase 3: Design   Design phase . and telecommunications equipment required to run the system . Design the technical architecture  Technical architecture .defines the hardware.

Design system models   This includes GUI screens that users will interface with. database designs (see XLM/C). ensuring that the IT people are designing a system to meet your needs . report formats. etc Starting with design. you take on less of an active participation role and act more as a “quality control” function. software steps.Phase 3: Design 2.

take all of your detailed design documents from the design phase and transform them into an actual system Two primary development activities: 1.Phase 4: Development   Development phase . Build the technical architecture Build the database and programs  Both of these activities are mostly performed by IT specialists . 2.

verifies that the system works and meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase Two primary testing activities: 1. Write the test conditions  Test conditions .Phase 5: Testing   Testing phase .the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step .

Perform the testing of the system     Unit testing – tests individual units of code System testing – verifies that the units of code function correctly when integrated Integration testing – verifies that separate systems work together User acceptance testing (UAT) – determines if the system satisfies the business requirements .Phase 5: Testing 2.

Write detailed user documentation  User documentation .Phase 6: Implementation   Implementation phase distribute the system to all of the knowledge workers and they begin using the system to perform their everyday jobs Two primary implementation activities 1.highlights how to use the system .

runs over the Internet or off a CD-ROM Workshop training .is held in a classroom environment and lead by an instructor . Provide training for the system users   Online training .Phase 6: Implementation 2.

Phase 6: Implementation  Choose the right implementation method     Parallel implementation – use both the old and new system simultaneously Plunge implementation – discard the old system completely and use the new Pilot implementation – start with small groups of people on the new system and gradually add more users Phased implementation – implement the new system in phases .

monitor and support the new system to ensure it continues to meet the business goals Two primary maintenance activities: 1. Build a help desk to support the system users  2. Help desk .a group of people who responds to knowledge workers’ questions Provide an environment to support .Phase 7: Maintenance   Maintenance phase .

Using already-developed components Building new components as needed .COMPONENT-BASED DEVELOPMENT   The SDLC focuses only on the project at hand Component-based development (CBD) – focuses on building small self-contained blocks of code (components) that can be reused across a variety of applications 1. 2.

Component-Based Development Methodologies    Rapid application development (RAD) Extreme programming (XP) Agile methodology .

Rapid Application Development (RAD)  Rapid application development (RAD) (also called rapid prototyping) emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system to accelerate systems development   Prototypes are models of software The development team continually designs. develops. and tests the component prototypes until they are finished .

Rapid Application Development (RAD) Build new software components Use alreadyexisting software components .

breaks a project into tiny phases and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete .Extreme Programming (XP)  Extreme programming (XP) .

Agile Methodology  Agile methodology .a form of XP. aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components .

which are the same as small selfcontained blocks of code . use.SoA – An Architecture Perspective  Service-oriented architecture (SoA) – perspective that focuses on the development. and reuse of small self-contained blocks of code (called services) to meet all application software needs   All CBD methodologies adhere to an SoA Services are the same as components.

SELFSOURCING    Selfsourcing (end-user development) – the development and support of IT systems by end users with little or no help from IT specialists Do-it-yourself systems development approach Can relieve IT specialists of the burden of developing many smaller systems .

Selfsourcing Approach    Is similar to traditional SDLC Big exception is that design. and – in this case – continually refining those models until they become the final system . and implementation are replaced by the process of prototyping Prototyping is the process of building models. testing. development.

Selfsourcing Approach .

Selfsourcing Advantages     Improves requirements determination Increases end user participation and sense of ownership Increases speed of development Reduces invisible backlog  Invisible backlog – list of all systems that an organization needs to develop but never get funded because of the lack of organizational resources .

Selfsourcing Disadvantages     Inadequate end user expertise leads to inadequately developed systems Lack of organizational focus creates “privatized” IT systems Insufficient analysis of design alternatives leads to subpar IT systems Lack of documentation and external support leads to short-lived systems .

The Right Tool for the Job  End users must have development tools that:     Are easy to use Support multiple platforms Offer low cost of ownership Support a wide range of data types .

PROTOTYPING   Prototype – a model of a proposed product.used to convince people of the worth of a proposed system . or system Prototyping . service. or system   Proof-of-concept prototype .prove the technical feasibility of a proposed system Selling prototype .the process of building a model that demonstrates the features of a proposed product. service.

2. Identify basic requirements Develop initial prototype User review Revise and enhance the prototype .The Prototyping Process  The prototyping process involves four steps: 1. 3. 4.

The Prototyping Process .

Advantages of Prototyping      Encourages active user participation  Helps resolve discrepancies among users Gives users a feel for the final system Helps determine technical feasibility  Helps sell the idea of a proposed system .

Leads the project team to forgo proper testing and documentation.Disadvantages of Prototyping    Leads people to believe the final system will follow. . Gives no indication of performance under operational conditions.

at a specified cost.OUTSOURCING   Outsourcing – the delegation of specified work to a third party for a specified length of time. after insourcing and selfsourcing . and at a specified level of service The third “who” option of systems development.

OUTSOURCING  The main reasons behind the rapid growth of the outsourcing industry include the following:      Globalization The Internet Growing economy and low unemployment rate Technology Deregulation .

Outsourcing Options  IT outsourcing for software development can take one of four forms: 1. 2. Purchase existing software Purchase existing software and pay the publisher to make certain modifications Purchase existing software and pay the publisher for the right to make modifications yourself Outsource the development of an entirely new and unique system for which no . 4. 3.

Outsourcing Options .

the selfsourcing process looks similar to the traditional SDLC Big exception here is that you “outsource” most of the work to another company .Outsourcing Process   Like selfsourcing.

you’ll develop two vitally important documents – a request for proposal and a service level agreement .Outsourcing Process When outsourcing.

Outsourcing – RFP  Request for proposal (RFP) – formal document that describes in excruciating detail your logical requirements for a proposed system and invites outsourcing organizations to submit bids for its development    In outsourcing. you do that with an RFP Therefore. the RFP must be very detailed Some RFPs can take years to develop . you must tell another organization what you want developed.

it is the legal agreement between you and the vendor and specifically identifies what the vendor is going to do (and by when) and how much you’re going to pay Supporting SLA documents – service level specifications and service level objectives – contain very detailed numbers and metrics .Outsourcing – SLA  Service level agreement (SLA) formal contractually obligated agreement between two parties   In outsourcing.

Onshore outsourcing . 2. 3.the process of engaging another company within the same country for services Nearshore outsourcing .contracting an outsourcing arrangement with a company in a nearby country Offshore outsourcing .contracting with a company that is geographically far away .Outsourcing Options  There are three different forms of outsourcing: 1.

Offshore Outsourcing  Primary outsourcing countries are:       India China Eastern Europe (including Russia) Ireland Israel Philippines .

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing  Advantages:       Focus on unique core competencies Exploit the intellect of another organization Better predict future costs Acquire leading-edge technology Reduce costs Improve performance accountability .

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Outsourcing  Disadvantages:     Reduces technical know-how for future innovation Reduces degree of control Increases vulnerability of your strategic information Increases dependency on other organizations .