.WHAT ARE WORLD ENGLISHES ? Any language variety of English including those developed by communities in which English was not indigerous in modern history.


4. where English is ( historically) the first language. As traditional . 2. 5. around 350 million ENL speakers around the world. cultural and linguistic bases. Countries like: UK . Canada 3.ENL ENGLISH AS NATIVE LANGUAGE 1. Not one single variety differences in territories (e. Language of people born and raised in countries .g : UK and US ) . USA .

. Singapore. Countries former colonised by British. English serves official purpose within country in law. 2. Bangladesh Nigeria . also worldwide around 350 million speakers. 4. English gained importance in administration.ESL ENGLISH AS SECOND LANGUAGE 1. 5. 3. education and government. People living in territories like India .

Nowadays used for communication with other non-native speakers. 2. Example for EFL : Germany . 3. For speakers of EFL . English serves no purpose in own country.EFL ENGLISH AS FOREIGN LANGUAGE 1. Historically learned for communication with ENL speakers. 4.


according to Jenkins (2009). a number of World Englishes scholars have found restrictions with the model: 1) The model only bases on geographic and historical characteristics without considering how speakers currently use English. over the past few years. 2) English may be the first language of many people in some regions in the outer circle rather than the only usage for official purposes. Denmark and Switzerland are in transition from being a foreign language to a secondary language. . 3) The English in some countries such as Argentina.Kachru’s “Three circle model of World Englishes” (1985a) has greatly contributed to the demonstration of sociolinguistic changes of English. Belgium. Yet.

languages). or it will converge so that differences across groups of speakers are largely eliminated.[5] .The Future of World Englishes -Two scenarios have been advanced about English's future status as the major world language: it will ultimately fragment into a large number of mutually unintelligible varieties (in effect.

. .-Due to British and American imperialism. A particular local variety of English become a symbol of national unity. the USA’s dominant economic power encourages English to be medium of communication for international trade. -English become a common language for communication between different races. English become the medium of the countries main institution.Throughout the 20th century .

It is also medium used in broadcasting. over 80% of it is in English.Among all the information stored in electronic retrieval systems. _ English is the main language of popular music.-Most of the scientific . . _ English is the language of international air traffic contral and the leading language of international tourism. computers and others. technological and academic information in the world in written in English.