# Three-Phase AC machines

Resource 2

THREE-PHASE CAGE ROTOR INDUCTION MOTORS

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

Aims
1. To understand the principle of the operation of the motor
2. To describe the construction of a cage rotor induction commercial
motor
3. To understand the factors that affect the performance of the
motor

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

Objectives
At the end of this lesson you should be able to:

Describe the principle of the rotating magnetic field
Describe the principle of rotor cage induction
Describe the construction of a commercial stator
Describe the construction of a commercial cage rotor
Explain and calculate synchronous speed
Explain and calculate fractional slip
Describe the effect upon the performance of the motor by
connecting the stator in star and delta
• Performance simple calculations involving electrical and mechanical
parameters that describe the performance of the motor
• Describe the performance curve for a cage rotor induction motor

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Simple stator made of 3 pole pairs of coils around iron pole pieces
A’

Iron Pole
Pieces

C

Iron
Stator
Ring

B

B’

• Current enters coil
A and leaves coils A’
• Magnetic flux set
up in coils with
North Pole at the
bottom and South
Pole at the top

Phase
Coils

C’
A

Phase connections

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Changing which coils are energised alters direction of magnetic flux
A’

A’

A’
N

C’

C’
A

AA’ energised

S

C’

S

B’

N

B’

B

N

S

B

B

C

C

C

A

CC’ energised

A

BB’ energised

B’

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

1. Principle of Operation
Energising two sets of coils together in sequence

Compass settles half way between poles

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Sequence produces one complete rotation of the magnetic field
1. CC’ & B’B
2. AA’ & B’B
3. AA’ & C’C
4. BB’ & C’C
5. BB’ & A’A
6. CC’ & A’A
7. CC’ & B’B

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Three-Phase supply provides the correct sequence for stator coils
1. CC’ & B’B
2. AA’ & B’B
3. AA’ & C’C
4. BB’ & C’C
5. BB’ & A’A
6. CC’ & A’A
7. CC’ & B’B

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Three-Phase supply provides the correct sequence for stator coils
1. CC’ & B’B
2. AA’ & B’B
3. AA’ & C’C
4. BB’ & C’C
5. BB’ & A’A
6. CC’ & A’A
7. CC’ & B’B

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
Rotor cage added in the centre of the stator field
Cage rotor

Copper end ring

Cage conductors

Three-Phase AC Machines
Resource 2

Three-phase Cage Rotor
Induction Motors

1. Principle of Operation
As magnetic field rotates, cage conductors cut lines of magnetic flux

This induces currents in cage conductors
Induced currents produce magnetic field in rotor
Magnetic field in rotor attracted towards rotating stator field
Rotor turns in same direction as stator field but slower