Communication Circuits

Ahmed Muhammed Almanasreh
EE Dept.

Course Outline
 Ch1: Introduction
 Ch2: AM Review
 Ch3: AM Circuits
 Ch4: FM Review
 Ch5: FM Circuits
 Ch6: Radio Transmitters
 Ch7: Communication Receivers
 Ch12: Data Comm

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Ch1: Introduction
 Importance of comm.
 History

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Analog:
AM,FM

Tx
Elements of comm.
system
Mode
Digital:
of Tx

PM,PCM
In
Mod

Amp

Mux

Carrier
Channel

Frequency

Amp

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Wire vs
Wireless
Amp

Out

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Introduction

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Channel
Line (wire)

Radio (wireless)

Advantages:

Advantages:

Low path loss
Low interference
Path charac. Are stable
BW reuse is simple

Disadvantages:

Cheap and quick to implement
Wayleaves and planning is
simple
Inherent BC potential
Mobile
Networks easily reconfigured

Disadvantages:

Laying lines is expensive
Path loss is large
Wayleaves and planning is
Interference is a serious
cplx
problem
Complex BC
BW reuse is not easy
No mobility
Path charac. Are variable
Difficult network
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1-3 Types of Elect. Comm.
 3 categorizations:
 One-way or 2-way
 Analog-digital
 Baseband-modulated

 Simplex-duplex
 Analog: definition,
examples
 Digital: examples
 Baseband: examples
 Modulation:
 Practical realization
 Channel utilization
 Better performance
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Applications & EM Spectrum

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Band Designations
 Bandwidth: signal,
equipment, channel
 More applications,
more development,
more channels, high
frequencies
 BW is proportional to
f
 Spectrum
assignment

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Ch2: AM & SSB



Modulation: definition
AM with sine waves
Math representation
AM with digital signals:
ASK, OOK, multilevel,
QAM

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2-2 Modulation index
 Index, m=Vm/Vc
 Index measurement
 Percentage of modulation

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2-3 Sidebands
 Lower and upper sidebands
 Frequency and time
domains
 BW
 Harmonics
 Power distribution



PT= PC + PLSB + PUSB
PUSB = PLSB = PC (m2)/4
AM efficiency
PT = PC(1+ m2 /2)

 100% mod is difficult in
practice
 No constant amplitudes

 Applications: AM radio
broadcasting, CB radio, TV
BC, aircraft comm,
modems
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Power calculations
 Involves antenna charac impedance, and
current measurements (RF current meters)
 Assume unmodulated carrier produces 2.5 A,
RA=73 , and m=70% then
PC = IC2RA=456.25 W
IT=IC (1+m2/2)1/2=2.789 A
PT =IT2RA=PC (1+m2/2)=568 W

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2-5 SSB Communications
 To increase efficiency,
suppress carrier: DSB-SC
 More efficiency, eliminate
redundancy: SSB-SC
 Time and frequency signals
 DSB is easy to generate
but difficult to recover
 SSB benefits:
 Saves spectrum
 Higher eff – greater
distance
 Less noise
 Less fading

 No RF signal is transmitted
if no signal is present
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SSB
 Time and frequency domain
signals
 SSB power:
no carrier
sinusoidal modulation
voice modulation: peak
envelope power (PEP) at
voice amplitude peaks
PEP = Vrms2/R
In terms of modulator circuit
Average power, Iavg=PEP/(3 or 4)
 Applications:
SSB: telephone, 2-way radio
(military, CB radio, amateurs)
DSB: FM and TV stereo
 VSB
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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators
 Two basic ways to produce
AM
 Analog Multiplication
 Nonlinear Mixing

 Analog Multiplication
 Consider the AM curve, Fig 2.1
 Math representation
 AM: passing a carrier through a
ct with gain proportional to
modulating signal
 Low level: Differential amplifier,
voltage divider PIN
 High level Ex: Collector mod.
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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: DAM
 Differential Amplifiers
Fig. 3.4a
Operation
Math rep.
Balanced or differential
output
 Single-ended op
 2 ops are 180o out of
phase
 Gain is function of IE



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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: DAM
 Differential Amplifier
Modulator
 Fig. 3.4b
 Operation
 Modulating signal varies
gain
 Modulating signal amplitude
determines carrier
amplitude
 Results in AM?
 Tuned ct is required at
output

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: DAM
 Differential Amplifier
Modulator
 Improved version, Fig. 3.5
 Practical IC ct
 Linear operation is required

 Characteristics




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High gain
Good linearity
100% mod. Is possible
Low level modulation
Freq. to 10s of MHz

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: PIN diode
 PIN Diode
 Diodes for HF
 Variable resistance
 Concept as a mod.

 PIN Diode Mod.
 Figure 3-6a
 Operation

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: PIN diode
 PIN Diode Mod.
 Fig. 3.6b
 Enhanced configuration
 Maintains constant ct
impedance

 Characteristics
 High frequency: VHF, UHF
 High attenuation

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: High level

 Amplification is required
early before
transmission
 Fig. 3-7
 Linear amplification
should be used not to
distort the signal
 Amp. Class: A, AB. Or B

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: Collector High level
 Modulation takes place
at final RF stage of Tx.
 Fig. 3-8
 Class C amp is used
 Operation
 100% modulation
requires voltage applied
to collector = 2xVcc (Fig
3.9)

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators: Collector High level

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Ch3: AM Circuits
3.1: Modulators:
Nonlinear mixing
 FET: Square law response
 Fig. 3-1

 Diode Mod.



Fig 3.2
Operation
Waveform rep.
Tuned ct

 Limitations using math
analysis
 Up to Square term only
 Wc>3Wm
 No 100% modulation

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