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Management

Chapter 1
Introduction to Management and
Organization

Chapter Objective

Introduction of managers and management
Who are the managers and what the
management is
What the managers do and what the
organization is
Why it is important to study the
management

WHO ARE MANAGERS
Traditional View
They were the organizational members who
told others what do and how to do.
Features
1.
It was easy to distinguish between managers and
non managerial employees.
2.
The non managerial means that they had to work
directly on the task and no one was reporting to
them.

Need for redefining the Managers
The changing nature of organization and work
has blurred the clear lines of distinction
between managers and non managerial
employees.
Many traditional non managerial jobs now
include managerial activities.

Manager (Definition)  A manager is some one who works with and through other people by coordinating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals. .

it is about helping others do their work and achieve. . It may involves the activities of people from different departments and even the people outside the organization.Manager    A manager’s job is not about personal achievement. It may involves coordinating with the activities of a single person or a department.

3. First Line Managers Lowest level of management. Manage the work of non managerial employees who are directly or indirectly involved in the production. . 2.Classification of Managers  1. They are also called supervisors.

Project Manager or Division Manager. They use to manage the work of first line managers. . They may be called Regional Managers.Middle Managers    Managers between the first line and top managers. Plant Manager.

They are responsible for making the organization-wide decisions. They establish the goals and plans that affect the entire organization.Top Managers    Managers at the top level or near the top level of the organization. .

What is Management (Definition)  Management is coordination work activities so that they are completed efficiently and effectively with and through other people. .

. It is also referred to “doing the things right” means no wastage of resources which are scarce.Efficiency    Getting the most output from the least amount of inputs. Efficiency is concerned with the means of getting the things done.

Effectiveness      It refers to doing the right things. Effectiveness is concerned with the ends or attainment of goals. Effectiveness means completing activities so that organizational goals are attained. Poor management means inefficiency and ineffectiveness or to be effective with inefficiency. . Good management takes both efficiency and effectiveness hand to hand.

What do Managers do Three specific categorization    Functions approach Roles approach Skills approach .

MANAGEMENT FUNCTIONS     Planning Organizing Leading Controlling .

Planning    It involves defining goals establishing strategies for achieving those goals and developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities. .

5. 4. It is management function that involves in determining What tasks are to be done Who is to do them How the tasks are to be grouped Who reports to whom And where decisions are to be made . 3.Organization  1. 2.

3. 4. 2. Management function that involves Motivating subordinates Influencing individuals or teams as they work Selecting the most effective communication channels Or dealing in any way in employee behavior issue .Leading  1.

Taking correcting action if necessary  1.Controlling 2. . Management function that involves Monitoring of actual performance Comparing actual to standard 3.

Mintzberg’s Management Roles    Interpersonal Roles Informational Roles Decisional Roles .

Acknowledge mails. obliged to perform a number of routine duties of a  Leader:Responsible for motivation of subordinates.  head. staffing. . doing external board work performing other activities that involves outsiders. Performing virtually all activities that involve subordinates. training and associated duties  Identifiable Activities Liaison:Maintains a self developed network of outside contacts and informers who provide favors and information.Interpersonal Rolls Description  Figurehead: Symbolic  legal or social nature.  Greeting visitors signing number of documents.

   Disseminator: Transmit information received from outsiders or from subordinates to members of the organization. strategy. Holding informational meetings. Holding board meetings. .  Identifiable Activities Spokes Person:Transmit information to outsiders on organization’s plan. giving information to the media.Informational Roles Description  Monitor:Seeks and receives wide variety of internal and external information to develop thorough understanding of organization and environment.  Reading periodical reports and maintaining the personal contacts. action and results. making phone calls to relay information.

Negotiator Responsible for representing the organization at important negotiations. Organizing strategy and review sessions involving the disturbance and crisis. Any activity that involves the budgeting and programming of the subordinate’s work.     Identifiable Activities Organizing strategy and review sessions to develop new programs. Resource Allocator Responsible for the allocation of organizational resources of all kinds – making or approving all significant organizational decisions.Decisional Rolls Description  Entrepreneur    Searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates improvement projects to bring about changes Disturbance Handler Responsible for corrective action when organization faces important and unexpected disturbance. Participation in union contract negotiation. .

Katz    Technical Skills Human Skills Conceptual skills .Management Skills by Robert L.

Technical Skills   Knowledge and proficiency in certain specialized field. These skill are more important at lower level of management as they have direct dealing with the employees doing the organizational work directly. .

Human Skills     The ability to work well with other people individually and in a group. It is most appropriate at middle level management. It is most important because managers directly deals with other. motivate and build enthusiasm and trust. . The managers with good human skill can get out the best because they know how to lead.

These skills are more appropriate at top level. . understand the relationship among its sub units and visualize how the organization fits in to broader environments. Using these skills managers must be able to see the organization as a whole.Conceptual Skills    The ability to think and to conceptualize about abstract and complex situations.

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Management skills By American Management Association     Conceptual Skills Communication Skills Effectiveness Skills Interpersonal Skills .

Recognizing problem area and implementing solutions.Conceptual Skills       Ability to use information to solve business problems. Understanding of organization's business model. Understanding of business and usage of technology. Selecting critical information from masses of data. . Identification of opportunities for innovations.

written or graphic form. spoken format. Presentation skills . and subordinates. peers. Listening and asking questions.Communication Skills      Ability to transform ideas into words and actions. Presentation skills. . Credibility among colleagues.

Reviewing operations and implementing improvements. Project management. Multitasking: working at multiple tasks parallel. . Setting and maintaining performance standard internally and externally. Negotiating skills.Effectiveness Skills         Contributing to corporate mission and objectives. Customer focus. Time Management.

. Networking outside the organization. cooperation and commitment.Interpersonal Skills      Coaching and mentoring skills. Diversity Skills: Working with diverse people and cultures. Networking within the organization. Working in teams.

How the Manager’s Job is changing CHANGE Changing Technology (Digitization) INCREASED THREAT TOSECURITY IMPACT OF CHANGES Shifting organization boundaries Virtual workplace More Mobile work place Flexible work arrangement Empowered employees Risk Management Work life –Personal Life Balance Restructured work place Discrimination concerns Globalization concerns Employee Assistance .

CHANGE INCREASED EMPHASIS ON ORGANIZATIONAL AND MANAGERIAL ETHICS INCREASED COMPETITIVENESS IMPACT Redefined values Rebuilding Trust Increased accountability. Customer Service Innovation Globalization Efficiency/productivity. .

accessible. .IMPORTANCE OF CUSTOMERS TO THE MANAGER’S JOB    Employees play a big role in customers satisfaction. prompt in responding to customer needs and willing to do what is necessary to please. knowledgeable. Managers are beginning to feel and understand that delivering a good and consistent service is essential in today’s competitive environments and employees are important part of that equation. To make an organization customer responsive the employees should be friendly and courteous.

The Managers have to create and encourage the environment in which employees feel free to innovate.IMPORTANCE OF INNOVATION TO MANAGER’S JOB    Nothing is more risky that being non innovative. Innovation means doing things differently. . exploring new territories and taking risks.

 All organizations develop some structures so that their members can do the work. This purpose is expressed in terms of goals.  It is composed of people.WHAT IS AN ORGANIZATION A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. STRUCTURE)  Each organization has a distinct purpose. PEOPLE.  .it takes people to perform what is necessary to achieve the organizational goal. CHARACTERSTICS (GOAL.

Technology. departments and work units. . The world has changed. economic.THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION The concept of organization is changing. political. clearly identifiable divisions. it is no longer appropriate to assume that organizations are structured. societal. changes have created an environment in which successful organization must embrace new ways to get the work done. global.

THE CHANGING ORGANIZATION TRADITIONAL ORGANIZTION        STABEL INFLEXIBLE JOB-FOCUSED WORK IS DEFINED BY JOB POSITIONS INDIVIDUAL ORIENTED PERMANENT JOBS COMMAND ORIENTED NEW ORGANIZATION          MANAGERS ALWAYS MAD DECISIONS   RULE ORIENTED DYNAMIC FLEXIBLE SIKLLS FOCUSED WORK IS DEFINED IN TERMS OF TASKS TO BE DONE TEAM ORIENTED TEMPORARY JOBS INVOLVEMENT ORIENTED EMPLOYEES INVOLVEMENT INDECISION MAKING CUSTOMER ORIENTED .

Laterals and networked relationships.The changing organization     RELATIVELY HOMOGENEOUS WORKFORCE WORKDAYS DEFINED AS 9 TO 5 HIERARCHICAL RELATIONSHIPS WORK AT ORGANIZATIONAL FACILITY DURING SPECIFIC HOURS  Diverse work force. Work any where any time.  Work days have no time boundaries.   .

The Management is needed at all types and sizes of organizations. at all levels of organizations. .UNIVERSALITY OF MANAGEMNT We study Management because of its universality. in all organizational areas in all the countries and around the globe.

You will either manage or be managed.REALITY OF WORK   An other reason of studying the management that after completing your studies you will start your career. . One can get great insight of the way your boss behave or organizational working by studying management.

Support. allowances and bonuses. Have to be creative and imaginative. . Work with variety of people.REWARD OF BEING A MANAGER          To create an environment where organization member can work to the best of their abilities. Help other finding meaning and fulfillment. Good Managers need of organization. Appropriate compensation in forms of salaries. Receive recognition and status in the society. coach and nurture others. Play a role in influencing the organization outcome.

Motivate workers in chaotic and uncertain situations. Successfully blend knowledge. and experiences of a diverse work group. ambitions. skills. Often have to do with limited resources.Challenges of being a Manager       Hard Work. . Have to deal with variety of personalities. Success depends on other work performance.