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Circuits and Analog Electronics

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
6.3 Frequency Response
6.4 Power Amplifiers

References:
References Floyd-Ch-3, 5, 6; Gao-Ch7;

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)

Key Words:
Words
Construction of BJT
BJT in Active Mode
BJT DC Model and DC Analysis
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
DC Load Line and Quiescent Operation Point
BJT AC Small-Signal Model

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
This lecture will spend some time on understanding
how the bipolar junction transistor (BJT) works based
on what we have known about PN junctions. One way
to look at a BJT transistor is two back-to-back diodes,
but it has very different characteristics.
Once we understand how the BJT device operates, we
will take a look at the different circuits (amplifiers)
which we can build.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
Construction of Bipolar junction transistors

Emitter-base
junction

Base region
(very narrow)

Emitter region

Collector

Collector region

Emitter
Base

Collector-base
junction

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
Construction of Bipolar junction transistors

NPN BJT shown


3 terminals: emitter, base, and collector
2 junctions: emitter-base junction (EBJ) and collector-base
junction (CBJ)
These junctions have capacitance (high-frequency
model)
BJTs are not symmetric devices
doping and physical dimensions are different for emitter
and collector

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
Standard bipolar junction transistor symbols

Depending on the biasing across each of the junctions, different


modes of operation are obtained cutoff, active and saturation

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT in Active Mode

Two external voltage sources set the bias conditions for active
mode
EBJ is forward biased and CBJ is reverse biased

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT in Active Mode

IE IEN IEP IEN

Forward bias of EBJ injects electrons from emitter into base


(small number of holes injected from base into emitter)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT in Active Mode

IB IBN IEP

Most electrons shoot through the base into the collector


across the reverse bias junction
Some electrons recombine with majority carrier in (P-type)
base region

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT in Active Mode

IC = ICN + ICBO

Electrons that diffuse across the base to the CBJ junction are
swept across the CBJ depletion region to the collector.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT in Active Mode

IE IEN IEP IEN

IC = ICN + ICBO

IE = IB + IC
Let ICN
IB IBN
IEP

IC

---common-base current gain


IE

IE
IC (1 ) = IB + ICBO

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT in Active Mode
IE IEN IEP IEN

IC
IE

IB IBN
IEP

IE=IB+IC

IC (1 )= IB+ICBO
Let

Beta:

IC
IB

I C I B (1 ) I CBO

---common-emitter current gain

I E I C I B (1 ) I B

I C I B I CEO I B
I I
E
C

IC=ICN+ICBO

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT Equivalent Circuits

i B

iC

vBE

IB

IC

iE

V CE

VBEVon

IB

vCE

BJT DC model

iB

IE

Use a simple constant-VBE


model
Assume VBE = 0.7V

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT DC Analysis
Make sure the BJT current equations and
region of operation match
VBE > 0,
VBC < 0, VE < VB <VC
Utilize the relationships ( and ) between
collector, base, and emitter currents to solve
for all currents

I E I C I B (1 ) I B

IC I B
I I
E
C

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
Base-emitter Characteristic(Input characteristic)

i B f (v BE )

vCE C

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
Collector characteristic (output characteristic)

iC f (VCE )

iB C

iB = 40 A

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
Collector characteristic (output characteristic)

iC f (VCE )

iB C

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
Collector characteristic
Saturation
Saturation occurs when the
supply voltage, VCC, is
across the total resistance
of the collector circuit, RC.
IC(sat) = VCC/RC
Vsat
Once the base current is high enough to produce saturation, further increases in
base current have no effect on the collector current and the relationship IC = IB is
no longer valid. When VCE reaches its saturation value, VCE(sat), the base-collector
junction becomes forward-biased.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
Collector characteristic

When IB = 0, the transistor is in


cutoff and there is essentially no
collector current except for a
very tiny amount of collector
leakage current, ICEO, which can
usually be neglected. IC 0.

Cutoff

In cutoff both the base-emitter


and the base-collector junctions
are reverse-biased.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
C-E Circuits I-V Characteristics
Collector characteristic

linearity

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
Discussion of an amplification effect

vi Ri iB
vo RL iC
vCE
vBE
Ri
RL
iB
iC
With iB iC

vi vo

E.g. for common-base configuration transistor:

vo
Av
50 ~ 300
vi

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
DC Load Line and Quiescent Operation Point

Q-point
VCC

ICQ

VCEQ
DC load line

Base-emitter loop: I B
Collector-emitter loop:

VCC VBE VCC

40( A)
Rb
Rb

vCE VCC iC RC 10 iC 4k

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)
BJT AC Small-Signal Model

i B

iC

vBE

iB

iE

vCE

vbe

ib

rbe

ic

ib

vce

ie

rbe 300 (1 )

26( mV )
I E (mA)

We can create an equivalent circuit to model the transistor for small signals
Note that this only applies for small signals (vbe < VT)
We can represent the small-signal model for the transistor as a voltage controlled
current source (
) or a current-controlled current source (ic = ib).
For small enough signals, approximate exponential curve with a linear line.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.1 Bipolar junction transistors (BJTs)

BJT fundamentals:

VBE 0.7V

I E IC I B 1 I B IC
IC I B

Summary for three types of diodes:


Input
Output
Functions

C-C

C-E

C-B

IB

IB

IB

IE

IC

IC

Z at Z in

Z at Z in Z at Z in
Vat Vin Vat Vin

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers

Key Words:
Words
Common-Emitter Amplifier
Graphical Analysis
Small-Signal Models Analysis
Common-Collector Amplifier
Common-Base Amplifier

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
C-E Amplifiers
To operate as an amplifier, the BJT must be biased to operate in active
mode and then superimpose a small voltage signal vbe to the base.
DC + small signal

coupling capacitor
(only
passes
ac
signals)

vi C2 vBE iB iC iB ic RC vCE C1 vo
vi iB

iB iC

iC vO

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
C-E Amplifiers
+

Vi

Vi

Vi

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
C-E Amplifiers

Apply a small signal


input voltage and see ib

i B I B ib
vBE=vi+VBE

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
C-E Amplifiers

See how ib translates into vce.

vi = 0 IB IC VCE

vi 0

i B I B ib

iC I C iC

vCE VCE vce

iC=ic+IC

VoM ViM

f ( o ) f (i )

vo out of phase with vi

vCE=vce+VCE

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
C-E Amplifiers

Considering VC (all the capaertors are replaced


by open circuits)

Considering Vi (all the capaertors are replaced


by short circuits)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
C-E Amplifiers
Considering VC (all the capaertors are replaced
by open circuits)

Considering Vi (all the capaertors are replaced


by short circuits)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Graphical Analysis
Can be useful to understand the operation of BJT
circuits.
First, establish DC conditions by finding IB (or VBE)
Second, figure out the DC operating point for IC

VCC

Can get a feel for whether the BJT will stay in active region of operation
What happens if RC is larger or smaller?

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Graphical Analysis

vce ic ( RC // RL ) ic RL'
VCC ' VCEQ I CQ RL '
VCC

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Graphical Analysis
Q-point is centered on the ac load line:

VCC

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Graphical Analysis
Q-point closer to cutoff:

VCC

Clipped at cutoff
(cutoff distortion)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Graphical Analysis
Q-point closer to saturation:

VCC

Clipped at cutoff
(saturation distortion)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Graphical Analysis

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Small-Signal Models Analysis

Steps for using small-signal models


1. Determine the DC operating point of the BJT
in particular, the collector current
2. Calculate small-signal model parameters: rbe
3. Eliminate DC sources
replace voltage sources with shorts and current
sources with open circuits
4. Replace BJT with equivalent small-signal models
5. Analysis

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Small-Signal Models Analysis
Example 1

VC ( I B I C ) R I B R b VBE I E R e

VC VBE
IB
Rb (1 )( R Re )

IC IB,
IE = IC + IB = (1+)IB
VCE VC I C RC I E ( R Re )

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Small-Signal Models Analysis
Example 1

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Small-Signal Models Analysis
Example 2

VB

Rb 2
VCC
Rb1 Rb 2

IC I E

vs

IB

VB VBE
V B/ Re
Re

IC

VCE VCC I C ( R C R e )

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Small-Signal Models Analysis

There are three basic configurations for single-stage


BJT amplifiers:
Common-Emitter
Common-Base
Common-Collector

VE VB VC

VE VB VC

VE VB VC

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier
VCC I B Rb VBE I E Re I B Rb VBE (1 ) I B Re
VCC V BE
VCC
IB

Rb (1 ) Re Rb 1 Re

I C I B
VCC VCE I E Re VCE I C Re

VCE VCC I C Re

Note : V&o is slightly less than V&


i due to the voltage drop introduced by VBE
AV 1

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier
The last basic configuration is to tie the collector to a fixed voltage, drive
an input signal into the base and observe the output at the emitter.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier

Lets find Av
Ai

Vo I e ( Re // RL ) I b (e1 )( Re // RL )

Vi I b [rbe (1 )( Re // RL )] I b rbe I e ( Re // RL )

(1 )( Re // RL )
( Re // RL )
AV

1
Vi rbe (1 )( Re // RL ) rbe (1 )( Re // RL )
VO

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier

Lets find Av
I o RL AiI
e ( Re // RL ) (1 ) I b ( Re // RL )
(1 )( Re // RL )
Io Ib
RL
I b (rbe (1 )( Re // RL )) ( I i I b ) Rb
rbe (1 )( Re // RL ) Rb
(1 )( Re // RL ) Rb
Ii Ib
Ib
Rb
Rb

Ai

(1 )( Re // RL )
Rb
(1 )( Re // RL )

RL
(1 )( Re // RL ) Rb
RL

Ai

(1 )( Re // RL )
>>1
RL

(1 )( Re // RL ) << Rb

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier
Lets find Ri

v i ib rbe i e ( Re // R L ) ib rbe (1 )( Re // R L )
Ri

vi
rbe (1 )( R e // R L )
ib

Ri Ri // Rb [rbe (1 )( Re // RL )] // Rb Rb // ( Re // RL )

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier
Lets find Ro

I Re I I e

I I Re I e

I I Re I e I Re 1 I b

I I Re I b I b
v
v

(1 )
Re
rbe Rs // Rb

Ie
I Re

v
1
Ro
1
i 1
Re (rbe Rs // Rb ) (1 )
(rbe Rs // Rb )
Re //
1

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier

Ri [rbe (1 )( Re // RL )] // Rb

(rbe Rs // Rb )
Ro Re //
1

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Collector Amplifier

( Re // RL )
AV
1
r

(
1

)(
R
//
R
)
be
e
L
Vi
VO

Ai

(1 )( Re // RL )
>>1
RL

Ri [rbe (1 )( Re // RL )] // Rb
(rbe Rs // Rb )
Ro Re //
1

C-C amp characteristics:


Gain is less than unity, but close (to unity) since is large and rbe is small.
Also called an emitter follower since the emitter follows the input signal.
Input resistance is higher, output resistance is lower.
- Used for connecting a source with a large Rs to a load with low
resistance.

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Base Amplifier
Ground the base and drive the input signal into the emitter

VB VBE I E R e

VB

VCC
R b2
R b1 R b 2

VCE VCC I C RC I E Re VCC I C ( RC Re )

IC I E

IB

IC

VB V BE V B

Re
Re

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Base Amplifier

Ro

Ri

Av

ic ( Rc // RL ) ( Rc // RL )

ib rbe
rbe

rbe
// Re
Ri=
(1 )

RoRC

C
C
I
(
R

R
)
( RC RL ) I E
C
L
A o

1
i
rbe
(
1

)
IC
I

i
r
be

(1 )

// Re

1 sinceI E I C
For RL<<RC, Ai
(1 )

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.2 Single-Stage BJT Amplifiers
Common-Base Amplifier

RC ( R R )
I
RC
C
L
A i o

(1 )
RC RL
I i

For RL<<RC, Ai

(1 )

( Rc // RL )
rbe
rbe
rbe
//
R

Ri=
e
(1 )
(1 )
Av

RoRC

CB amp characteristics:
current gain has little dependence on
is non-inverting
most commonly used as a unity-gain current amplifier or current buffer and not
as a voltage amplifier: accepts an input signal current with low input resistance
and delivers a nearly equal current with high output impedance
most significant advantage is its excellent frequency response

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response

Key Words:
Words
Basic Concepts
High-Frequency BJT Model
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Basic Concepts

1.0V

0.5V

0V

-0.5V

-1.0V
0.5ms
V(1)

V(2)

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms
Time

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Basic Concepts

VO (t )

1.0V

0.5V

0V

-0.5V

-1.0V
0.5ms
V(1)

V(2)

1.0ms

1.5ms

2.0ms

2.5ms
Time

3.0ms

3.5ms

4.0ms

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Basic Concepts
800mV
600mV
400mV
200mV
0V
0Hz
2KHz
V(2) V(1)

4KHz

6KHz

8KHz

10KHz
Frequency

12KHz

14KHz

16KHz

18KHz

1.0V

0.5V

0V
10Hz
V(2)

100Hz

1.0KHz

10KHz

100KHz

1.0MHz

20KHz

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Basic Concepts

A v Av ( f ) ( f )

Lower cut off frequency

or

A Av ( ) ( )

Upper cut off frequency

The drops of voltage gain (output/input) is mainly due to:


1 Increasing reactance ofC s , Cc , Ce (at low f)
2 Porasitic capacetine elements of the net work (at high f)
3 Dissappearance of changing current(for trasformer coupled amp)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
High-Frequency BJT Model
In BJTs, the PN junctions (EBJ and CBJ) also have capacitances associated
with them
C

rbe

rbe

C'

C'

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier

rbe

C'

vs

There are three capacitors in the circuit.


At the mid frequency band, these are considered to be short
C' and
circuits and internal capacitors
are considered to be open
C',
circuits.

C'

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier
At low frequencies, C1, C2 are an
open circuit and the gain is zero.
Thus C1 has a high pass effect on the
gain, i.e. it affects the lower cutoff
frequency of the amplifier.

vs

1 C1 ( Rs Rb1 // Rb 2 // rbe )

f L1
2 is the time constant for C2.

2 1

2 1

---is neglected

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier

1 C1 ( Rs Rb1 // Rb 2 // rbe )
2 1

---is neglected

Capacitor Ce is an open circuit. The


pole time constant is given by the
resistance multiplied by Ce.

vs

( Rb // Rs rbe )

// Re Ce
1

e
f L 1.1 f

2
L1

f L 2 f Le
2

f Le

2 e

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier
At high frequencies, C1, C2 Ce are all
short circuit.
The frequency that dominates is the
lowest pole frequency.
vs

The time constant is neglected for C'


( RL 1 jC' )

rbe

C'

C'

C ( Rb // Rs // rbe )C

1
fH
2 C

In summary:the lower cut off frequency is determined by network capacitence.


e.g.C1 C2 , Ce The higher cut off frequency is determined by the parasitic
ferquency of the BJT. e.g. C

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier

rbe

C'

A v Avm
vs

f
,
fL

C'

(1 j

f
fL

f
f
)(1 j
)
fL
fH

f
For f L f f H ,
0 Av Avm mid - frequency
fH
f
j

f
fL
For f f L ( f f H ),
0, Av Avm
low - frequency
f
fH
1 j
fL

fL
1
For f f H ( f f L ) 0, Av Avm
High frequency
f
f
1 j
fH

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier

rbe
vs

A v Avm

fL

(1 j

L
1

2 2 L

f
fL

f
f
)(1 j
)
fL
fH

fH

H
1

2 2 H

C'

C'

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.3 Frequency Response
Frequency Response of the CE Amplifier

decade

decade

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers

Key Words:
Words
Power Calculation
Class-A, B, AB Amplifiers
Complementary Symmetry(Push-Pull) Amplifier
Biasing the Push-Pull Amplifier (OCL)
Single-Supply Push-Pull Amplifier (OTL)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
An Analog Electronics System Block

Sensor

Energy
conversion

Voltage
Amplifiers

Power
Amplifiers

Signal
Amplifiers

Load

Energy
conversion

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
The output power delivered to the load RL:

Po

Vom I om
2

1
Vom I om
2 2

The average power delivered by the supply:

1
PS
T

1
VCC iC (t )dt VCC
T

iC (t )dt VCC I C

The efficiency in converting supply power to useful output power is


defined as
P
OM 100%
PS

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Power Calculation

The DC power by
the supply

PC VCEQ I CQ (VCC I CQ RC ) I CQ
2
PS I CQ
RC
The DC power delivered to BJT by the supply

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Power Calculation
The average power dissipated as heat in the BJT:
1 T
vCE iC dt

0
T
1 T
( I CQ I m cos t )(VCEQ Vm cos t )
T 0
1
I CQVCEQ I mVm PC PCL
2

PT

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Class-A Amplifiers

Class-B Amplifiers

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Class-AB Amplifiers

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifier (Class-B)

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifier (Class-B)

2
2
V

1 VCCVon
on sin t
PT 1
sin td t
d t
0
0
2
RL
RL

Von 2 2
1 VCCVon

sin td t
sin td t

0
0
2 RL
RL

Von 2 1
1 VCCVon

sin tdt
1 cos 2tdt

0
0
2 RL
RL 2

1 VCCVon

cos t

2 RL

2
Von 2
Von
1 VCCVon

2
2 RL
2
RL
2 RL

1 VCCVon Von 2


RL
4

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifier (Class-B)
PO

I om
2

2
1 Vom

2 2 RL

Vom

POM

Assuming vo Vom sin t


1
PT 1
2

1
vCE iC d t
2

2
1 VCC

2 RL

vCE VCC vo
vO

v
0 CC O d t

RL

1 VCCVOm VOm

RL

PT 1 0 for VOm 0
VOm VCC
2
4 VCC
PT PT 1 PT 2

2
RL

2
VCC
4
PT 1

RL
4

Note: PT represents the amount of


power dissipated by the BJT as heat

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifier (Class-B)
I om

2
1 Vom

2 2 RL

Vom

2
1 VCC
POM
2
2 RL
2
V
4
VOm VCC
PT 1 CC
RL
4
2
4 VCC
PT PT 1 PT 2

2
RL

PO

2
2VCC
PE PT PO
R L
2
1 VCC
P

O 2 RL

2
2 VCC
PE
4
Note that for class A: 25 ~ 50
RL

class B: 78.5
class AB: =25 ~ 78.5

=78.5%

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Complementary Symmetry Power Amplifier (Class-B)

Crossover
distortion

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Biasing the Push-Pull Amplifier (Class-AB) (OCL)
To overcome crossover distortion, the biasing is adjusted to just overcome the
VBE of the transistors; this results in a modified form of operation called class
AB. In class AB operation, the push-pull stages are biased into slight
conduction, even when no input signal is present.

}V

CC

}V

CC

Power Calculation is the same as class-B

Ch6 Basic BJT Amplifiers Circuits


6.4 Power Amplifiers
Single-Supply Push-Pull Amplifier (OTL)
The circuit operation is the same as that described previously, except the
bias is set to force the output emitter voltage to be VCC/2 instead of zero
volts used with two supplies. Because the output is not biased at zero
volts, capacitive coupling for the input and output is necessary to block
the bias voltage from the source and the load resistor.