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You are on page 1of 41

Objectives

Describe the basic concept of an oscillator

Discuss the basic principles of operation

of an oscillator

Analyze the operation of RC and LC

oscillators

Describe the operation of the basic

relaxation oscillator circuits

Introduction

Oscillator is an electronic circuit that

generates a periodic waveform on its

output without an external signal source. It

is used to convert dc to ac.

Oscillators are circuits that produce a

continuous signal of some type without the

need of an input.

These signals serve a variety of purposes.

Communications systems, digital systems

(including computers), and test equipment

make use of oscillators

Introduction

An oscillator is a circuit that produces a repetitive

signal from a dc voltage.

The feedback oscillator relies on a positive

feedback of the output to maintain the

oscillations.

The relaxation oscillator makes use of an RC

timing circuit to generate a nonsinusoidal

Sinesignal

wave

such as square wave

Square

wave

Sawtooth

wave

Types of oscillators

1. RC oscillators

Wien Bridge

Phase-Shift

2. LC oscillators

Hartley

Colpitts

Crystal

An oscillator is an amplifier with positive

feedback.

Ve Vs V f (1)

V f Vo (2)

(3)

Vo AVe

AVs V f AVs Vo

Vo AV s A Vo

1 A Vo AV s

Vo

A

Af

Vs 1 A

In general A and are functions of

frequency and thus may be written as;

Vo

A s

Af s s

Vs

1 A s s

A s s is known as loop gain

s gain becomes;

A sloop

WritingT s the

A s

Af s

1 T s

Replacing s with j

A j

A f j

1 T j

and T

j A j j

At a specific frequency f0

T j0 A j0 j0 1

At this frequency, the closed loop gain;

A j0

A f j0

1 A j0 j0

will be infinite, i.e. the circuit will have

finite output for zero input signal oscillation

Thus, the condition for sinusoidal

oscillation of frequency f0 is;

A j0 j0 1

This is known as Barkhausen criterion.

The frequency of oscillation is solely

determined by the phase characteristic of

the feedback loop the loop oscillates at

the frequency for which the phase is zero.

The feedback oscillator is widely used for

generation of sine wave signals.

The positive (in phase) feedback

arrangement maintains the oscillations.

The feedback gain must be kept to unity to

keep the output from distorting.

Oscillators

1. The magnitude of the loop gain must be

unity or slightly larger

A 1 Barkhaussen criterion

2. Total phase shift, of the loop gain mus t

be Nx360 where N=0, 1, 2,

RC Oscillators

RC feedback oscillators are generally

limited to frequencies of 1 MHz or less.

The types of RC oscillators that we will

discuss are the Wien-bridge and the

phase-shift

Wien-bridge Oscillator

It is a low frequency oscillator which

ranges from a few kHz to 1 MHz.

Wien-bridge Oscillator

The loop gain for the oscillator is;

R2

T s A s s 1

R1

where;

R

Zp

1 sRC

and;

1 sRC

Zs

sC

Zp

Z Z

s

p

Wien-bridge Oscillator

Hence;

R2

T s 1

R1

Substituting for s;

R2

T j 1

R1

1

3 sRC 1 /sRC

1

3 jRC 1/jRC

R2

T j0 1

R1

3 j0 RC 1/j0 RC

Wien-bridge Oscillator

Since at the frequency of oscillation, T(j)

must be real (for zero phase condition),

the imaginary component must be zero;

1

j0 RC

0

j0 RC

Which gives us;

1

0

RC

Wien-bridge Oscillator

From the previous equation;

R2

T j0 1

R1

3 j0 RC 1/j0 RC

R2

1 1

R1

1

3

or

R2

2

R1

R2/R1 must be slightly greater than

2.

Wien-bridge Oscillator

With the ratio;

R

R1

then;

R2

K 1

3

R1

oscillation

K < 3 : decreasing oscillations

Phase-Shift Oscillator

The phase shift oscillator utilizes three

RC circuits to provide 180 phase

shift that when coupled with the 180 of

the op-amp itself provides the necessary

feedback to sustain oscillations.

The gain must be at least 29 to

maintain the oscillations.

The frequency of resonance for the this

type is similar to any RC circuit oscillator:

1

fr

2 6 RC

Phase-Shift Oscillator

vi

C

v1

v2

v2

v1

R

sRC

v1

vi

1 sRC

sRC

v2

vi

1 sRC

R2

v3

vo

vo R2

A( s )

v

R

3

3

sRC

v3

vi

1 sRC

v3

sRC

(s)

vi

1 sRC

Phase-Shift Oscillator

Loop gain, T(s):

R2

T ( s ) A( s ) ( s )

sRC

1 sRC

Set s=jw

R2

T ( j )

jRC

1 jRC

( jRC )(RC )

R2

T ( j )

2 2 2

2 2 2

R 1 3 R C jRC 3 R C

2

Phase-Shift Oscillator

To satisfy condition T(jwo)=1, real

component must be zero since the

2 2 2 imaginary.

numerator

1 3ispurely

R C 0

1

0

the oscillation frequency:

3RC

( j / 3 )(1 / 3)

o Rin2 equation:

Apply

w

T ( j )

R2 1

R 0 ( j / 3 ) 3 (1 / 3)

R 8

R

To satisfy 2condition

T(jw

will

spontaneously begin

o)=1

8 circuit

oscillating & sustain oscillations

R

Phase-Shift Oscillator

1

fo

2 6 RC

R2

29

R

at least 29 to

maintain the

oscillations

LC Oscillators

Use transistors and LC tuned circuits or

crystals in their feedback network.

For hundreds of kHz to hundreds of MHz

frequency range.

Examine Colpitts, Hartley and crystal

oscillator.

Colpitts Oscillator

The Colpitts oscillator is a

type of oscillator that uses an

LC circuit in the feed-back

loop.

The feedback network is

made up of a pair of tapped

capacitors (C1 and C2) and an

inductor L to produce a

feedback necessary for

oscillations.

The output voltage is

developed across C1.

The feedback voltage is

developed across C2.

Colpitts Oscillator

KCL at the output node:

Vo Vo

Vo

g mVgs

0

1

1

R

sL

sC1

sC2

- Eq

(1)

voltage divider

produces:

1

sC2

Vo

1

- Eq

sC sL

(2)

2

Vgs

1

2

eq(1):

Vo g m sC2 1 s LC 2

sC1 0

Colpitts Oscillator

Assume that oscillation has started, then

2

Vo0

s

LC2

1

3

s LC1C2

s C1 C2 g m 0

R

R

Let s=j

1 2 LC2

g m

j C1 C2 2 LC1C2 0

R

R

must be

1

o

zero

C1C2 - Eq

(3)

L

Imaginary component:

C1 C2

Colpitts Oscillator

both real & imaginary component must be

zero

2

LC2

1

Imaginary component:

- Eq

gm

R

R (4)

Combining Eq(3)

C2 and Eq(4):

gm R

C1

to initiate oscillations Cspontaneously:

g m R

C1

Hartley Oscillator

The Hartley

oscillator is almost

identical to the

Colpitts oscillator.

The primary

difference is that the

feedback network of

the Hartley oscillator

uses tapped

inductors (L1 and L2)

and a single

capacitor C.

C

Hartley Oscillator

the analysis of Hartley oscillator is

identical to that Colpitts oscillator.

the frequency of oscillation:

1

o

L1 L2 C

Crystal Oscillator

Most communications and digital applications

require the use of oscillators with extremely

stable output.

output Crystal oscillators are invented to

overcome the output fluctuation experienced by

conventional oscillators.

Crystals used in electronic applications consist of

a quartz wafer held between two metal plates

and housed in a a package as shown in Fig. 9 (a)

and (b).

Crystal Oscillator

Piezoelectric Effect

and exhibits a property called the piezoelectric

applied across the crystal, it vibrates at the

frequency of the applied voltage. In the other

word, the frequency of the applied ac voltage is

equal to the natural resonant frequency of the

crystal.

vibration. This phenomenon is called

piezoelectric effect.

Crystal Oscillator

Characteristic of Quartz

Crystal

frequencies;

f1 which occurs when XL = XC. At this

frequency, crystal offers a very low

impedance to the external circuit

where Z = R.

antiresonance) frequency f2 which

occurs when reactance of the series

leg equals the reactance of CM. At this

frequency, crystal offers a very high

impedance to the external circuit

CM

Crystal Oscillator

The crystal is connected as a series

element in the feedback path from

collector to the base so that it is excited in

the series-resonance mode

BJT

FET

Crystal Oscillator

Since, in series resonance, crystal impedance is the

smallest that causes the crystal provides the largest

positive feedback.

Resistors R1, R2, and RE provide a voltage-divider

stabilized dc bias circuit. Capacitor C E provides ac bypass

of the emitter resistor, RE to avoid degeneration.

The RFC coil provides dc collector load and also prevents

any ac signal from entering the dc supply.

The coupling capacitor CC has negligible reactance at

circuit operating frequency but blocks any dc flow

between collector and base.

The oscillation frequency equals the series-resonance

1 by:

frequency of the crystal and

is

given

f

o

2 LCC

Unijunction Oscillator

The unijunction

transistor can be used in

what is called a

relaxation oscillator as

shown by basic circuit as

follow.

The unijunction oscillator

provides a pulse signal

suitable for digital-circuit

applications.

Resistor RT and capacitor

CT are the timing

components that set the

circuit oscillating rate

UJT

Unijunction Oscillator

Sawtooth wave

appears at the

emitter of the

transistor.

This wave shows

the gradual

increase of

capacitor voltage

Unijunction Oscillator

The oscillating frequency is calculated as

follows:

1

fo

RT CT ln1 / 1

intrinsic stand- off ratio

Typically, a unijunction transistor has a

stand-off ratio from 0.4 to 0.6

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