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Otto Cycle


Give background information about Otto Cycle

Further detail such as:




Invented in 1862 by Beau

de Rochas
In 1861 Jean Joseph Etienne
Lenoir created a doubleacting engine

Ran on illuminating gas

4% efficiency

In 1862 Nicolaus August


Tested a Lenoir engine


Created an engine to
increase efficiency and

Increase efficiency by
compressing fuel mixture
prior to ignition

Failed in creating the an

improved Lenoir Engine

History Cont.

In 1876 Nicolaus August Otto

and Eugen Langen created a
combustion engine

First engine to compress

fuel mixture prior to
Highest efficiency of its

In 1883 Otto and Langen

created the first high-speed

In 1885 Otto and Langen

created the first automobile
to be equipped with an Otto

Vehicle Model Daimler


First vehicle powered by

an internal combustion

Used a four stroke engine

based on Ottos design

Otto Cycle: What it is

The ideal gas cycle

for sparkignition,reciprocating
, internal combustion
engines [source is
thermo textbook]

Rotates a crank shaft

to produce useful
work output

Can be 4 stroke or

If 4 strokes,

exhaust, and
intake strokes

Cycle Diagrams

Cycle Diagrams

Cycle Diagrams-PV

Cycle Diagram-TS


2 Stroke
Involves just a power

stroke and compression

Simple, inexpensive,

high power to weight and

power to volume ratios
(good for smaller engines
Generally less efficient

than a 4 stroke

Advantages of a 2 stroke
spark ignition engines
Simpler configuration as compared to a 4 stroke

engine [2]
Produce about twice as much power as

compared to a 4 stroke engine.

This is due to the fact that a 2 stroke engine has a

power stroke in every revolution. [2]

Disadvantages of 2
stroke spark ignition
Short engine life

This is due to a lack of a dedicated lubrication

system, which causes the parts of a 2 stroke engine
to wear down much faster. [2]

Many 2 stroke engine applications involve high

RPMs. The more revolutions an engine experiences,
the faster it will wear out. [2]

Disadvantages of 2
stroke spark ignition

Require more oil

2 stroke engines require about 4 ounces of (expensive) oil per liter of

gas. [2]

Less fuel efficient [2]

High amounts of pollution

Pollution comes from the combustion of the oil. As a two stroke engine
becomes more worn, it can produce huge clouds of oily smoke. [2]

The other reason for pollution is the fact that the air/fuel mixture leaks
out through the exhaust port each time it is loaded into the
combustion chamber. [2]

4 Stroke Engine

Involves compression,
expansion, exhaust, and
intake strokes

Mixture of mechanical and

chemical methods to drive
the piston and crankshaft

Advantages of a 4 stroke
Spark Ignition

More torque [3]

Although a 2 stroke engine is known for producing higher

amounts of speed and power, a 4 stroke engine shows
more torque at low RPMs than 2 stroke engines. The extra
torque has to do a lot with the efficiency of the fuel burn. A
4 stroke engine uses almost all of its fuel to impart power
to the crankshaft.

More reliable and relatively quieter operation.

Advantages contd
Longer Life

Cleaner operation as compared to 2 stroke engines.

Four stroke engines last much longer and use less oil than 2 stroke engines. The
more revolutions an engine performs, the quicker it will wear out. Four stroke
engines are typically designed for low RPM applications, which results in a longer
life. [3]

A 4 stroke engine has a dedicated oiling system that is kept separate from the
combustion chamber, which ensures that the only thing burning in the engine is
gasoline. [3]

More Fuel efficient [3]

4 stroke engines have a dedicated intake, power and exhaust stroke, which keeps
fuel-to-exhaust crossover at a minimum.

Disadvantages of a 4
stroke Spark Ignition
Cannot achieve high compression ratios as

compared to the Diesel Cycle. This is due to the

fuel prematurely igniting. [1]
Produce only half as much power as a 2 stroke

engine because a 4 stroke engine has only one

power stroke every two cycles. [2]
More complicated and higher maintenance costs

as compared to 2 stroke engines. [2]


Otto engines are

about 30% efficient.

30% of the energy

generated by
combustion is
converted into useful
rotational energy at
the output shaft of
the engine.

The remainder being

losses due to friction,
engine accessories,
and waste heat.

Power Output?

The maximum amount of power generated by an engine is determined by the maximum amount of air

The amount of power generated by a piston engine is related to its size (cylinder volume), in four-stroke
design, volumetric efficiency, losses, air-to-fuel ratio, the calorific value of the fuel, oxygen content of the air
and speed (RPM).

The speed is ultimately limited by material strength and lubrication. Valves, pistons and connecting rods suffer
severe acceleration forces. At high engine speed, physical breakage and piston ring flutter can occur, resulting
in power loss or even engine destruction.

Ring flutter compromises the seal between the ring and the cylinder wall which results in a loss of cylinder
pressure and power.

If an engine spins too quickly, valve springs cannot act quickly enough to close the valves. This is commonly
referred to as 'valve float', and it can result in piston to valve contact, severely damaging the engine.

At high speeds the lubrication of piston cylinder wall interface tends to break down. This limits the piston
speed for industrial engines to about 10 m/s.

Otto cycle

There are a number of

ways to recover some of
the energy lost to waste

The use of a Turbocharger

in Diesel engines is very
effective by boosting
incoming air pressure and
in effect provides the
same increase in
performance as having
more displacement.

Real World Applications

The Mack Truck company ,decades ago, developed a

turbine system which converted waste heat into
kinetic energy which was fed back into the engine's

In 2005, BMW announced the development of the

turbo-steamer, a two stage heat recovery system
similar to the Mack system that recovers 80% of the
energy in the exhaust gas and raised the efficiency
of the Otto engines it is applied to by 15%.

Potential ImprovementsTurbocharger

Turbine driven device,

increases efficiency and
power by forcing more
air/fuel into combustion

Turbine is driven by exhaust


Commonly used on vehicle

and construction equipment


Pros:-Makes use of otherwise wasted energy from

exhaust to drive turbine
-Higher adiabatic efficiency than superchargers
-Does not place direct mechanical load on engine

Cons:- Engine must reach sufficient speed to spool

turbine, i.e. there is spool lag

Solution: twin charge through use of a supercharger

and turbocharger both


The Kruse Limited Temperature Cycle is

implemented in spark-ignition direct injection
engines to inject fuel at variable quantities and at
multiple points in compression and power strokes
thereby reducing charge temperature and
increased maximum power.

The Engine Cycle Analysis charts below

compare a standard Otto cycle process
at 10:1 with a Limited Temperature
Cycle process at 16:1. The point to note,
despite the difference in compression
ratios, is that for similar levels of power
and efficiency the peak combustion
temperature for the LTC process is
2,453 R below that of the Otto process.


The efficiency of the engine used affects the rate

of CO2 emission. Otto cycle more efficient than a

gas turbine and jet engine.


[1] Cengel, Yunus. "Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach , 8th Edition."

Thermodynamics 8th Edition Yunus Cengel 0073398179 9780073398174. McGraw Hill
Education, n.d. Web. 12 Nov. 2014.
[2] Brain, Marshall. "How Two-stroke Engines Work" 01 April 2000. <> 12 November 2014.
[3] Rowe, Richard. "The Advantages of 4 Stroke Engines." EHow. Demand Media, 14
Apr. 2010. Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <>.
[4] Sclar, Deanna. "The Pros and Cons of Diesel Engines." For Dummies. Wiley, n.d.
Web. 12 Nov. 2014. <>.