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Internal Forces

Chapter Objectives

To

sections for determining the internal

loadings in a member.

To generalize this procedure by

formulating equations that can be

plotted so that they describe the

internal shear and moment

throughout a member.

Chapter Outline

Internal

Forces Developed in

Structural Members

Shear and Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Relations between Distributed

Load, Shear and Moment

Developed in Structural

Members

The

mechanical member requires the

material to be used to be able to

resist the loading acting on the

member

These internal loadings can be

determined by the method of sections

Developed in Structural

Members

Consider

To determine the internal loadings acting on the

cross section at C, an imaginary section is

passed through the beam, cutting it into two

By doing so, the internal loadings become

external on the FBD

Developed in Structural

Members

Since

equilibrium before the sectioning,

equilibrium of the segment is maintained

by rectangular force components and a

resultant couple moment

Magnitude of the loadings is determined

by the equilibrium equations

Developed in Structural

Members

Force

beam at the cut session and V, acting t

angent to the session are known as

normal

or axial force

and the shear force

Couple moment M is

referred as the bending

moment

For

Developed in Structural

Members

moment resultant will act at the section

Ny is the normal force, and V x and Vz are

the shear components

My is the torisonal or

twisting moment, and

Mx and Mz are the

bending moment

components

Developed in Structural

Members

For

resultant loadings will act at the

geometric center or centroid (C) of

the sections cross sectional area

Although the magnitude of each

loading differs at different points

along the axis of the member, the

method of section can be used to

determine the values

Developed in Structural

Members

Since

of multi-force members, each of these

members will generally be subjected to

internal shear, normal and bending loadings

Consider the frame with the blue

section passed through to

determine the internal loadings

at points H, G and F

Developed in Structural

Members

FBD

At each sectioned member, there is an

unknown normal force, shear force and bending

moment

3 equilibrium equations cannot be used

to find 9 unknowns, thus dismember

the frame and determine

reactions at each connection

Developed in Structural

Members

Once

its appropriate point and apply the 3 equilibrium

equations to determine the unknowns

Example

FBD of segment DG can be used to determine

the internal loadings at G

provided the reactions of

the pins are known

Developed in Structural

Members

Procedure for Analysis

Support Reactions

Before the member is cut or sectioned,

determine the members support reactions

Equilibrium equations are used to solve for

internal loadings during sectioning of the

members

If the member is part of a frame or

machine, the reactions at its connections

are determined by the methods used in 6.6

Developed in Structural

Members

Procedure for Analysis

Free-Body Diagrams

Keep all distributed loadings, couple

moments and forces acting on the

member in their exact locations, then pass

an imaginary section through the member,

perpendicular to its axis at the point the

internal loading is to be determined

After the session is made, draw the FBD of

the segment having the least loads

Developed in Structural

Members

Procedure for Analysis

Free-Body Diagrams

Indicate the z, y, z components of the force

and couple moments and the resultant

couple moments on the FBD

If the member is subjected to a coplanar

system of forces, only N, V and M act at the

section

Determine the sense by inspection; if not,

assume the sense of the unknown loadings

Developed in Structural

Members

Procedure for Analysis

Equations of Equilibrium

Moments should be summed at the section

about the axes passing through the centroid or

geometric center of the members crosssectional area in order to eliminate the unknown

normal and shear forces and thereby, obtain

direct solutions for the moment components

If the solution yields a negative result, the sense

is opposite that assume of the unknown

loadings

Developed in Structural

Members

The

is a two force member

It is subjected to both

bending and axial load

at its center

By making the member

straight, only an axial

force acts within the

member

Developed in Structural

Members

Example 7.1

The bar is fixed at its end and is

loaded. Determine the internal

normal

force at points B and C.

Developed in Structural

Members

Solution

Support Reactions

FBD of the entire bar

By inspection, only normal force

Ay acts at the fixed support

Ax

= 0 and Az = 0

+ Fy = 0; 8kN NB = 0

NB = 8kN

Developed in Structural

Members

Solution

FBD of the sectioned bar

No shear or moment act

on the sections since

they are not required for

equilibrium

Choose segment AB and

DC since they contain the

least number of forces

Developed in Structural

Members

Solution

Segment AB

+ Fy = 0; 8kN NB = 0

NB = 8kN

Segment DC

+ Fy = 0; NC 4kN= 0

NC = 4kN

Developed in Structural

Members

Example 7.2

The circular shaft is subjected to three

concentrated torques. Determine the

internal

torques at points B and C.

Developed in Structural

Members

Solution

Support Reactions

Shaft subjected to only collinear torques

Mx = 0;

-10N.m + 15N.m + 20N.m TD = 0

TD = 25N.m

Developed in Structural

Members

Solution

FBD of shaft segments AB and CD

Developed in Structural

Members

Solution

Segment AB

Mx = 0;

=0

-10N.m + 15N.m TB

TB = 5N.m

Segment CD

Mx = 0;

TC 25N.m= 0

TC = 25N.m

Beams

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

support loadings perpendicular to their axes

Beams straight long bars with constant

cross-sectional areas

A simply supported beam is pinned at one end

and roller supported at

the other

A cantilevered beam is

fixed at one end and free

at the other

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

For actual design of a beam, apply

- Internal shear force V and the bending

moment M analysis

- Theory of mechanics of materials

- Appropriate engineering code to determine

beams required cross-sectional area

Variations of V and M obtained by the method

of sections

Graphical variations of V and M are termed as

shear diagram and bending moment diagram

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Internal shear and bending moment

slopes will be discontinuous at points

where a distributed load changes or where

concentrated forces or couple moments

are applied

Functions must be applied for each

segment of the beam located between

any two discontinuities of loadings

Internal normal force will not be

considered

Load

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

perpendicular to the beams axis

and hence produce only an internal

shear force and bending moment

For design purpose, the beams

resistance to shear, and particularly

to bending, is more important than

its ability to resist a normal force

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Sign Convention

To

force and bending moment acting on the

beam

Positive directions are denoted by an

internal shear force that causes

clockwise rotation of the member on

which it acts and by an internal moment

that causes compression or pushing on

the upper part of the member

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Sign Convention

A

positive moment

would tend to bend

the member if it were

elastic, concave

upwards

Loadings opposite to

the above are

considered negative

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Support Reactions

Determine all the reactive forces and

couple moments acting on the beam

Resolve them into components acting

perpendicular or parallel to the

beams axis

Moment Equations

and

Diagrams

Procedure for Analysis

Shear and Moment Reactions

Specify separate coordinates x having an

origin at the beams left end and extending to

regions of the beams between concentrated

force and/or couple moments or where there

is no continuity of distributed loadings

Section the beam perpendicular to its axis at

each distance x and draw the FBD of one of

the segments

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

V and M are shown acting in their positive

sense

The shear V is obtained by summing the

forces perpendicular to the beams axis

The moment M is obtained by summing

moments about the sectioned end of the

segment

Moment Equations

and

Diagrams

Procedure for Analysis

Shear and Moment Diagrams

Plot the shear diagram (V versus x) and the

moment diagram (M versus x)

If computed values of the functions describing

V and M are positive, the values are plotted

above the x axis, whereas negative values

are plotted below the x axis

Convenient to plot the shear and the bending

moment diagrams below the FBD of the beam

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Example 7.7

Draw the shear and bending moments

diagrams for the shaft. The support at A is a

thrust bearing and the support at C is a

journal bearing.

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Solution

Support Reactions

FBD of the shaft

Solution

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Fy 0;V 2.5kN

M 0; M 2.5 xkN .m

Solution

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Fy 0;2.5kN 5kN V 0

V 2.5kN

M 0; M 5kN ( x 2m) 2.5kN ( x) 0

M (10 2.5 x)kN .m

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Solution

Shear diagram

internal shear force is always

positive within the shaft AB

Just to the right of B, the

shear force changes sign and

remains at constant value

for segment BC

Moment diagram

Starts at zero, increases

linearly to B and therefore

decreases to zero

Moment Equations

and Diagrams

Solution

Graph of shear and

moment diagrams is

discontinuous at points of

concentrated force ie, A, B,

C

All loading discontinuous

are mathematical, arising

from the idealization of a

concentrated force and

couple moment

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

Consider

beam AD subjected to an

arbitrary load w = w(x) and a series of

concentrated forces and moments

Distributed load assumed positive when

loading acts downwards

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

A

segment of the beam having

a length x is chosen at point

x along the beam which is not

subjected to a concentrated

force or couple moment

Any results obtained will not

apply at points of

concentrated loadings

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

The

bending moments shown on the

FBD are assumed to act in the

positive sense

Both the shear force and

moment acting on the righthand face must be increased by

a small, finite amount in order to

keep the segment in equilibrium

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

The

by a resultant force F = w(x) x that acts

at a fractional distance k (x) from the

right end, where 0 < k <1

Fy 0;V w( x)x (V V ) 0

V w( x)x

M 0;Vx M w( x)x k x ( M M ) 0

M Vx w( x)k (x)

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

dV

w( x)

dx

Slope of the

=

shear diagram

intensity

Negative of

distributed load

dM

V

dx

Slope of

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

At

shear diagram is equal to the intensity of the

distributed load

Slope of the moment diagram = shear

If the shear is equal to zero, dM/dx = 0, a point

of zero shear corresponds to a point of

maximum (or possibly minimum) moment

w (x) dx and V dx represent differential area

under the distributed loading and shear

diagrams

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

VBC w( x)dx

Change in =

Area under

shear

shear diagram

M BC Vdx

Change in =

Area under

moment

shear diagram

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Distributed Load

Change

equal to the negative of the area under the

distributed-loading curve between these

points

Change in moment between B and C is

equal to the area under the shear diagram

within region BC

The equations so not apply at points where

concentrated force or couple moment acts

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Force

FBD

of a small segment

of the beam

Fy 0; V F

Change

in shear is

negative thus the shear

will jump downwards

when F acts downwards

on the beam

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Force

FBD

of a small segment of

the beam located at the

couple moment

M 0; M M O

Change

in moment is

positive or the moment

diagram will jump upwards

MO is clockwise

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Example 7.9

Draw the shear and moment diagrams for

the

beam.

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Solution

Support Reactions

FBD of the beam

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Solution

Shear Diagram

V = +1000 at x = 0

V = 0 at x = 2

Since dV/dx = -w = -500, a straight negative

sloping

line connects the end points

Distributed Load, Shear and

Moment

Solution

Moment Diagram

M = -1000 at x = 0

M = 0 at x = 2

dM/dx = V, positive yet linearly decreasing from

dM/dx = 1000 at x = 0 to dM/dx = 0 at x = 2

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