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impulse function

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5:ImpulseFunctions

In some applications, it is necessary to deal with phenomena

of an impulsive nature.

For example, an electrical circuit or mechanical system subject

to a sudden voltage or force g(t) of large magnitude that acts

over a short time interval about t0. The differential equation

will then have the form

ay by cy g (t ),

where

big, t0 t t0

g (t )

otherwise

0,

and 0 is small.

Measuring Impulse

In a mechanical system, where g(t) is a force, the total impulse

of this force is measured by the integral

t 0

t 0

I ( ) g (t )dt

g (t )dt

c, t 0 t t 0

g (t )

0, otherwise

then

t 0

I ( ) g (t )dt g (t )dt 2 c, 0

t 0

Suppose the forcing function d(t) has the form

1 2 , t

d (t )

otherwise

0,

We are interested d(t) acting over

shorter and shorter time intervals

(i.e., 0). See graph on right.

Note that d(t) gets taller and narrower

0, and

) have

1

as lim

d0.(t )Thus

for tlim

0,I (we

0

Thus for t 0, we have lim d (t ) 0, and lim I ( ) 1

0

(t ) 0 for t 0, and (t )dt 1

function and is usually called the Dirac delta function.

In general,

unitt impulse

t 0,

(t t0 )for

0a for

t0 , and at

t t0 )dt point

1

an (arbitrary

Laplace Transform of

(1 of 2)

L (t t0 ) lim L d (t t0 ) , t0 0

0

and thus

1

L (t t0 ) lim e st d (t t0 )dt lim

0 0

0 2

st t 0

e

0 2 s

lim

t 0

t 0

t 0

e st dt

1

e s t0 e s t0

0 2 s

lim

e st0 e s e s

sinh( s )

st 0

lim

e lim

0 s

0

2

s

s cosh( s )

st 0

st 0

e lim

s

0

Laplace Transform of

(2 of 2)

L (t t0 ) e st0 , t0 0

L (t ) lim L d (t t0 ) lim e st0 1

t 0 0

0 0

The product of the delta function and a continuous function f

can be integrated, using the mean value theorem for integrals:

0

1 t0

lim f (t )dt

0 2 t 0

1

lim 2 f (t*) ( where t0 t* t0 )

0 2

lim f (t*)

0

f (t0 )

Thus

(t t0 ) f (t )dt f (t0 )

(1 of 3)

2 y y 2 y (t 7), y (0) 0, y(0) 0

Then

2 L{ y} L{ y} 2 L{ y} L{ (t 7)}

Letting Y(s) = L{y},

2

2s

or

s 2 Y ( s ) e 7 s

e 7 s

Y ( s) 2

2s s 2

7 s

Example 1: Solution

(2 of 3)

We have

e 7 s

Y ( s) 2

2s s 2

e 7 s

15 / 4

Y (s)

2

2 15 s 1 / 4 15 / 16

and hence

y (t )

1

15

t 7

u7 (t )e t 7 / 4 sin

4

2 15

(3 of 3)

excitation until t = 7, there is no response on (0, 7).

The impulse at t = 7 produces a decaying oscillation that

persists indefinitely.

Response is continuous at t = 7 despite singularity in forcing

function. Since y' has a jump discontinuity at t = 7, y'' has an

infinite discontinuity there. Thus singularity in forcing

function is balanced by a corresponding singularity in y''.

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