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A Tour of the Solar System

Animageofeachplanetwillbevisibleon
individualslides.
Eachslidewillalsodescribethegeneral
composition,size,motionandrelativepositionof
eachplanetinthesolarsystem.
Additionalslidesofplanetarysatellites,comets,
andasteroidswillbeincluded.
Hyperlinkstoadditionalslidesandwebsiteswill
providesupplementalinformation.
PresentedbyKeithDeLong

Abstract
InthisPowerPointpresentation,studentsexplore
thesolarsystem.Therelativepositionofeach
planetinthesolarsystemisillustratedand
studentsexaminetheappearanceofeachplanetas
wellasinvestigateitscomposition,sizeand
motion.Also,planetarysatellites,cometsand
asteroidsarediscussed.Additionalinformationon
thesolarsystemanditscomponentelementsare
availabletostudentsviahyperlinkstoslidesand
additionalwebsites.

TheStandardAddressedinthis
Presentation
EarthsPlaceintheUniverse
1.Astronomyandplanetaryexplorationrevealthe
solarsystemsstructure,scale,andchangeover
time.Asabasisforunderstandingthisconcept:
a.Studentsknowhowthedifferencesandsimilarities
amongthesun,theterrestrialplanets,andthegasgiants
mayhavebeenestablishedduringtheformationofthe
solarsystem.

The Solar System


Notto
scale

PLUTO
(DwarfPlanet)

Mercury,Venus,Earth,andMarsaretheinnerplanets.
Theyarealsoknownasterrestrialplanets.

NEPTUNE
URANUS

SATURN
MARS
EARTH

JUPITER

Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,
Neptune,andPlutoare
theouterplanets.
Jupiter,Saturn,Uranus,
andNeptunearealso
knownasgasgiantsor
Jovianplanets.

VENUS
MERCURY

SUN

Plutoisabigballofice.

BetweenMarsandJupiterthereisa
largenumberofrocksorbitingthesun.
EachrockisknownasanASTEROID.

COMETSORMETEOROIDS

Thisringofrocksiscalledthe
AsteroidBelt.

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Sun

LinkstoSunsites:
LivefromtheSun
StarDate:TheSun
SolarDataAnalysisCenter

TheSunisastaratthecenterofoursolarsystem.
Itisestimatedtobe4.5billionyearsold.
ItsupportsalllifeonEarththroughphoto
synthesisandistheultimatesourceofallfoodand
fossilfuel.
Itis333,400timesmoremassivethantheEarth
(thismeansthat333,400Earthscanmakeupthe
Sun).
99.86%ofallthemassofthesolarsystemis
foundintheSun.
ThecoreoftheSunis16millionC.
ThesurfaceoftheSunis7000C
Ittakesseveralhundredthousandyearsfor
photonstoescapefromthedensecoreandreach
thesurface.
TheSungeneratesenergytheequivalentof100
billiontonsofTNTexplodingeverysecond.

ADDITIONAL INFORMATION ABOUT NUCL


EAR FUSION

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Nuclear Fusion in the Sun


TheSunisbasicallyahugeballofhydrogengasheldtogetherbythegravity
createdbyitsownmass.Undertheintensepressurecreatedatthecentreofthe
Sunbygravity,hydrogennucleiarefusedtogethertoproduceheliumnuclei.
Verysimplystated,fourhydrogennucleiarefusedintooneheliumnucleus,
howeveroneheliumatomhaslessmassthanfourhydrogenatoms.Thefusion
processreleasesenoughenergytoaccountforthelostmass.
TheenergyreleasedbynuclearfusionintheSun'scoreheatstheSun.Thehot
Sunradiateslightintospace,warmingtheEarthandtheotherplanets.
About1300wattspersquaremeterreachestheEarth'sorbit,ofwhichabout1000
wattspersquaremeterreachestheEarth'ssurface(onaclearday).
VIDEO
NUCLEAR FUSION IN THE SUN

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Nuclear Fusion in the Sun


Video

QuickTime and a
Sorenson Video 3 decompressor
are needed to see this picture.

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Mercury

LinkstoMercurysites:
ExploringthePlanetsMercury
MissionstoMercury
NASAPlanetaryPhotojournal:Mercury

(Planet)

Relativeposition:1stplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:ResemblesEarth'sMoon,scarred
bythousandsofimpactcraters.Thereare
areasofsmoothterrainaswellascliffs,some
soaringamilehigh,formedbyancient
impacts.
Generalcomposition:Rockymaterial.Itisa
terrestrialplanet.
Density:5.43g/cm3
Atmosphere:Almostnoatmosphere.Thevery
littleatmospherethatexistsiscomposed
chieflyofoxygen,sodium,andhelium.
Size:.054thevolumeoftheEarth
Planetarysatellites(Moons):None
Rotation:58.65days(veryslowrotation)
Revolution:88daystogoaroundtheSunonce.
Temperatures:High:467Conthesunnyside
oftheplanet.Low:183Conthedarkside
oftheplanet.

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Venus

LinkstoVenussites:
ExploringthePlanetsVenus
MissionstoVenus
StarDate:Venus

(Planet)

Relativeposition:2ndplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:Itiscoveredbythick,rapidlyspinning
clouds.Duetoitsthickcloudlayerreflecting
sunlight,itisthebrightestplanetinthesky
Generalcomposition:Rockymaterial.Itcontainsaniron
coreandamoltenrockymantle.Thecrustisasolid,
rockymaterial.Itisaterrestrialplanet.
Density:5.24gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Consistsmainlyofcarbondioxide,nitrogen,
anddropletsofsulfuricacid;itcontainsalmostno
watervapor.Thisthickatmospheretrapsimmense
amountsofheatinalargescalegreenhouseeffect.
Size:.88thevolumeoftheEarth
Planetarysatellites(Moons):None
Rotation:243days(retrograde)
Revolution:225Earthdays.Itsdayislongerthanits
year.
Temperature:450C.ItshotterthanMercuryduetothe
greenhouseeffect.Itisactuallyhotenoughtomelt
lead.

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Earth

(Planet)
Relativeposition:3rdplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:TheEarthlooksblueandgreen
fromspacewithcloudsmovingthroughthe
atmosphere.ThesurfaceoftheEarthis70%
waterand30%land.
Generalcomposition:Rockymaterial.Itisa
terrestrialplanet.Ithasanickelironcore
withamoltenmantleandsolidrockycrust.
Density:5.52gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Mostlyoxygen(21%)andnitrogen
(78%).Someargon,carbondioxide,and
watervapor.
Size:40,000km(24,8000miles)aroundatthe
equator.
Planetarysatellites(Moons):1TheMoon
Rotation:23hours,56miutes(1day)
Revolution:365.25days
Temperature:Meansurface15Cto20C

Specialfeature:Earthsustainslifeasweknowit.
Waterexistsinallthreestates(solid,liquid,and
gas)ontheEarth.Thereisadelicatebalance
betweenitsoceans,air,land,andlife.

LinkstoEarthsites:
ExploringthePlanetsEarth
MissionstoExploreEarth
StarDate:Earth

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The Moon

LinkstoMoonsites:
MissionstotheMoon
StarDate:Moon
CollectingMoonRocks

TheMoonistheEarthsonlynaturalsatellite.

TheMooncontainsnowaterandhasno
atmosphere

Itshasabout1/6themassoftheEarth,
thereforeithas1/6thegravitationalpullofthe
Earth.

Itis384401kmfromtheEarth.

Ittakes27.32daystoorbittheEarthonce.

ThegravitationalpulloftheMoonis
responsiblefortheEarthstides.

ThesurfaceoftheMooniscoveredwith
cratersandflatlands.Thecratersaredueto
repeatedmeteoritebombardmentswhilethe
dark,flatlandsaretheresultofancientlava
flows.

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Mars

(Planet)
Relativeposition:4thplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:Marsappearsredduetotheiron
oxideinitssoil.Ithaspolaricecapsthat
growandrecedewiththeseasons,andithas
duststorms,whichcausegiantdunes,wind
streaks,andwindcarvedfeatures.
Generalcomposition:Rockymaterial.Itisa
terrestrialplanet.
Density:3.94gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Mostlycarbondioxide,nitrogen,
andargon.
Size:.149timesthevolumeoftheEarth.
Planetarysatellites(Moons):2Moons
Rotation:24hours,33minutes.
Revolution:686.67days.
Temperature:87Cto5C

SpecialFeatures:Marshasthelargestvolcanicmountaininthesolarsystem,OlympusMons(27
kmhighand600kmacross);volcanoesinthenorthernTharsisregionthataresohugetheydeform
theplanet'sroundness;andagiganticequatorialriftvalley,theVallesMarineris.Thiscanyon
systemwouldstretchfromNewYorktoLosAngeles;theGrandCanyoncouldfitintooneofthe
sidecanyonsofthisgreatchasm.

LinkstoMarssites:
MissionstoMars
MarsExplorations
StarDate:Mars

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Moons of Mars
Phobos

Deimos

Gougedbyagiantimpactcraterandbeatenby
thousandsofmeteoriteimpacts,Phobosisona
collisioncoursewithMars.Itmaycollide
withMarsin50millionyearsorbreakupinto
aring.

Itisalsoheavilycrateredwithasmalllumpy
appearance.

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Jupiter

(Planet)

Relativeposition:5thplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:Itissometimescalledaminisolar
systembecauseofitsnumerousmoonsand
severalrings.Jupiterappearsstripedbecause
lightanddarkbeltsarecreatedbystrongeast
westwinds.
Generalcomposition:Itisagasgiant,meaningitis
mostlymadeofgases.Jupiter'scoreisprobably
notsolidbutadense,hotliquidwitha
consistencylikethicksoup.
Density:1.76gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Mostlyhydrogen,heliumandmethane.
Size:1316timesthevolumeoftheEarth.Itisthe
planetwiththehighestgravityinthesolar
system.
Planetarysatellites(Moons):63Moons;someof
themhavebeennamedandsomehave
alphanumericdesignations.
Rotation:9hours,54minutes
Revolution:11.86Earthyears
Temperature:108C
LinkstoJupitersites:
ExploringthePlanetsJupiter
MissionstoJupiter
StarDate:Jupiter

SpecialFeature:TheGreatRedSpothasexistedforatleast100years,andperhapslonger.
ItisahurricanelikestormonJupiter.(Galileoreportedseeingasimilarfeaturenearly400
yearsago).ThreeEarthscouldfitacrosstheGreatRedSpot.

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Moons of Jupiter
1. Io
2. Europa
3. Ganymede
4. Callisto
5. Amalthea
6. Himalia
7. Elara
8. Pasiphae
9. Sinope
10. Lysithea
11. Carme
12. Ananke
13. Leda
14. Thebe
15. Adrastea
16. Metis

17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.
31.
32.

Callirrhoe
Themisto
Megaclite
Taygete
Chaldene
Harpalyke
Kalyke
Iocaste
Erinome
Isonoe
Praxidike
Autonoe
Thyone
Hermippe
Aitne
Eurydome

33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.
46.
47.
48.

Euanthe
Euporie
Orthosie
Sponde
Kale
Pasithee
Hegemone
Mneme
Aoede
Thelxinoe
Arche
Kallichore
Helike
Carpo
Eukelade
Cyllene

49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.
61.
62.
63.

Kore
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2000
S/2000
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003
S/2003

J2
J3
J4
J11
J5
J9
J10
J12
J15
J16
J17
J18
J19
J23
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Saturn

(Planet)

Specialfeature:Saturn'sringsystemis
themostextensiveandcomplexinour
solarsystem;itextendshundredsof
thousandsofkilometersfromtheplanet.
Theringsaremostlywatericewith
particlesranginginsizefromafew
micrometerstoseveraltensofmeters.

LinkstoSaturnsites:
ExploringthePlanetsSaturn
MissionstoSaturn
StarDate:Saturn

Relativeposition:6thplanetoutfromthe
sun.
Appearance:Saturnhasalargesystemof
rings,andtheyellowandgoldbandsin
itsatmospherearecausedbysuperfast
windscombinedwithheatrisingfromits
interior.
Generalcomposition:ItisaGasgiant,
meaningitismostlymadeofthegases
hydrogenandhelium.
Density:.70gm/cm3(Thislowdensitymeans
thatSaturncouldfloatonwateriftheir
wasabodyofwaterbigenough).
Atmosphere:Mostlyhydrogenandhelium.
Size:755timesthevolumeoftheEarth.
Planetarysatellites(Moons):60Moons;
somehavebeennamedandothershave
alphanumericdesignations
Rotation:10hours,38minutes
Revolution:29.45Earthyears
Temperature:139C

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Moons of Saturn
1. Mimas
2. Enceladus
3. Tethys
4. Dione
5. Rhea
6. Titan
7. Hyperion
8. Iapetus
9. Erriapus
10. Phoebe
11. Janus
12. Epimetheus
13. Helene
14. Telesto
15. Calypso

16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.
28.
29.
30.

Kiviuq
Atlas
Prometheus
Pandora
Pan
Ymir
Paaliaq
Tarvos
Ijiraq
Suttungr
Mundilfari
Albiorix
Skathi
Siarnaq
Thrymr

31.
32.
33.
34.
35.
36.
37.
38.
39.
40.
41.
42.
43.
44.
45.

Narvi
Methone
Pallene
Polydeuces
Daphnis
Aegir
Bebhionn
Bergelmir
Bestla
Farbauti
Fenrir
Fornjot
Hati
Hyrokkin
Kari

46.
47.
48.
49.
50.
51.
52.
53.
54.
55.
56.
57.
58.
59.
60.

Loge
Skoll
Surtur
S/2004 S7
S/2004 S12
S/2004 S13
S/2004 S17
S/2006 S1
S/2006 S3
Greip
Jarnsaxa
Tarqeq
S/2007 S2
S/2007 S3
Anthe

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Uranus

LinkstoUranussites:
ExploringthePlanetsUranus
MissionstoUranus
StarDate:Uranus

(Planet)

Relativeposition:7thplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:Ithasabluegreencolorfromthe
methanegasabovethedeeperclouds.
Methaneabsorbsredlightandreflectsblue
light.Itdoeshaveasmallsystemofrings.
Generalcomposition:ItisaGasgiant,meaningit
ismostlymadeofthegaseshydrogenand
helium,withasmallamountofmethaneand
tracesofwaterandammonia.Ithasnosolid
surface,butitdoescontainaliquidcoremade
mostlyoficymaterials(water,methane,and
ammonia)
Density:1.30gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Mostlyhydrogen,helium,and
methane.
Size:52timesthevolumeoftheEarth.
Planetarysatellites(Moons):27Moons
Rotation:17hours,11minutes
Revolution:84.02Earthyears
Temperature:197C
Specialfeature:Uranusaxisistiltedsothatitseemstorotateonitsside.
Thistiltgivesitseasonsthatlastovertwentyyears.

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Moons of Uranus
1. Cordelia
2. Ophelia
3. Bianca
4. Cressida
5. Desdemona
6. Juliet
7. Portia
8. Rosalind
9. Mab
10. Belinda
11. Perdita
12. Puck
13. Cupid
14. Miranda

15.
16.
17.
18.
19.
20.
21.
22.
23.
24.
25.
26.
27.

Francisco
Ariel
Umbriel
Titania
Oberon
Caliban
Stephano
Trinculo
Sycorax
Margaret
Prospero
Setebos
Ferdinand
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Neptune

LinkstoNeptunesites:
ExploringthePlanetsNeptune
MissionstoNeptune
StarDate:Neptune

(Planet)

Relativeposition:8thplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:Neptunehasabluecolorbecauseofthe
methaneinitsatmosphere.Themethanereflects
bluelightwhileitabsorbsredlight.Ithasasmall
systemofringsandperiodicallyGreatDark
Spots(hurricanelikestorms)appear.
Generalcomposition:ItisaGasgiant,meaningitis
mostlymadeofthegaseshydrogen,helium,and
methane.Ithasnosolidsurface,butitsliquid
coreiscomposedofwaterandothermelted
ices.
Density:1.76gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Mostlyhydrogen,helium,andmethane.
Size:44timesthevolumeoftheEarth.
Planetarysatellites(Moons):13Moons
Rotation:16hours,4minutes
Revolution:164.79Earthyears
Temperature:200C
Specialfeatures:NeptuneisactuallythefarthestplanetfromtheSunfora
20yearperiodoutofevery248EarthyearsduetoPlutosunusual
ellipticalorbit.

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Moons of Neptune
1. Triton
2. Nereid
3. Naiad
4. Thalassa
5. Despina
6. Galatea
7. Larissa
8. Proteus
9. Halimede
10. Psamathe
11. Sao
12.
Laomedeia
13. Neso

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Pluto

Charon

(Dwarf Planet)
Relativeposition:9thplanetoutfromthesun.
Appearance:Alargefrozenballofice.
Generalcomposition:Rockycoresurroundedby
waterice.
Density:2.0gm/cm3
Atmosphere:Frozenmostofthetime.Whenit
isclosesttotheSunthebrightlayeroffrozen
methane,nitrogen,andcarbonmonoxide
thawsoutandgivesitathinatmosphere.
Size:.005thevolumeoftheEarth.Itisthe
planetwiththelowestgravityinthesolar
system.
Planetarysatellites(Moons): 3

LinkstoPlutosites:
MissionstoPluto
PlutoPortal
StarDate:Pluto

1.Charon
2.Hydra
3.Nix

Rotation:6.39days(retrograde)
Revolution:247.9Earthyears
Temperature:233C

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Asteroids

LinkstoAsteroidssites:
MissionstoAsteroids
TheNinePlanets:Asteroids
StarDate:Asteroids

Asteroidsareeitherrockyormetallicobjects
thatorbittheSun.Theyaretoosmallto
consideredplanetsbutaresometimescalled
planetoids.

Theycanbeanywherefromthesizeofa
pebbleuptoa1000km(620miles)in
diameter;theasteroidCeresisanexampleof
anasteroidthatisthislarge.

TheyhavebeenfoundinsideEarthsorbitand
allthewayoutpastSaturnsorbit.Most
asteroids,however,arelocatedinthe
asteroidbeltwhichexistsbetweentheorbits
ofMarsandJupiter.

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Asteroid Belt

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Comets

Cometssmall,fragile,irregularshapedbody
composedofamixtureofnonvolatilegrains
andfrozengases.ComponentsofComets can
beseenbyclickingonthelink.

Theirorbitsareelliptical(oval)orparabolic
(Ushaped).Theorbitbringstheminvery
closetotheSunandswingsthemfaroutinto
space,sometimesoutpastPluto.
Exampleofacometsorbit .

AscometsapproachtheSun,radiationfrom
theSunevaporatestheiceandgases,creating
thelonetail.TheclosertotheSun,thelonger
thetailofthecomet.Thetailofthecomet
alwaysfacesawayfromtheSunbecauseof
thesolarwindcomingfromtheSun.

LinkstoCometsites:
AsteroidandCometImpactHazards
ThePlanetarySocietysNearEarthObjectsPage
MissionstoComets

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Components of Comets

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Example of a Comets Orbit


Comet2P/Encke

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Meteors, Meteoroids, and


Meteorites

Meteoritesamplethatisfromthe
crustoftheasteroidVesta
Linkstometeoritesites:
ANSMET:AntarcticSearchforMeteorites
Asteroids,Comets,andNASAResearch
MeteoritesfromAntarctica
MeteoritesfromMars

Meteoroidsasteroidsthatareonacollision
coursewithEarth.

Meteorstreakoflightcreatedwhena
meteoroidstrikesouratmosphereathigh
velocityandfrictioncausesthechunkofspace
mattertoburnup.

MeteoritewhatisleftthatstrikestheEarths
surfaceifthemeteoroiddoesnotburnup
completely.

92.8%ofallmeteoritesarecomposedof
silicate(stone),and5.7%arecomposedof
ironandnickel;therestareamixtureofthe
threematerials.

Stonymeteoritesarethehardesttoidentify
sincetheylookverymuchliketerrestrial
rocks.

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Vocabulary
1.

GreenhouseEffectwarmingofaplanetssurfaceasaresultofatmosphericgasestrappingheat.Carbondioxideisone
ofthesegreenhousegases.

2.

PhotonaquantumofvisiblelightorotherformofelectromagneticradiationcomingfromtheSun.Aparticleoflight.

3.

Retrogradethismeansthattheplanetisspinningbackwardscomparedtotheotherplanets.

4.

Revolutiononecompletecirclemadearoundsomething.Theorbitmadebyaplanetorsatellitearoundanotherbody.

5.

Rotationtheturningmotionofaplanetspinningonitsaxis.

6.

Staraglowing,hot,gaseousmassinspacesuchastheSunranginginsizefromthatofaplanettolargerthanthe
Earthsorbit.Itgeneratesenergybythermonuclearreactions.

7.

TerrestrialsimilarincompositionanddensitytoEarth.RelatingtoEarth.Earthlike.

8.

Volumeamountofspaceanobjecttakesup.

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Vocabulary (p.2)
9.

DwarfPlanetacelestialbodythat(a)isinorbitaroundtheSun,(b)hassufficientmassforitsself
gravitytoovercomerigidbodyforcessothatitassumesahydrostaticequilibrium(nearlyround)shape,
(c)hasnotclearedtheneighborhoodarounditsorbit,and(d)isnotasatellite.

10.

Planetacelestialbodythat(a)isinorbitaroundtheSun,(b)hassufficientmassforitsselfgravityto
overcomerigidbodyforcessothatitassumesahydrostaticequilibrium(nearlyround)shapeand(c)has
clearedtheneighborhoodarounditsorbit.

11.

PlutoidscelestialbodiesinorbitaroundtheSunatasemimajoraxisgreaterthanthatofNeptunethat
havesufficientmassfortheirselfgravitytoovercomerigidbodyforcessothattheyassumeahydrostatic
equilibrium(nearspherical)shape,andthathavenotclearedtheneighborhoodaroundtheirorbit.

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