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Remotely Sensed Data

Acquisition of Remotely Sensed Data

As discussed there are two types of sensor based on their

energy source for illumination.

Passive Sensors
Active Sensors

Passive Sensors rely on the Suns energy reflected by objects on the ground. These
reflected energy is measured and stored in the satellite storage unit and downloaded by
the ground control station of the satellite

Active Sensors emit their own elecatromagnetic signals and these signals are reflected
by objects on the ground. These energy of the reflected signal is measured and stored
in the satellite storage unit and downloaded by the ground control station of the satellite

Data Preprocessing
Remotely sensed data downloaded from the satellite is just
a series of numbers that represent the measurement of the
sensors which contains errors. Preprocessing eliminates
these data registration errors. To be able to use this data
for base maps, GIS and digital image processing, there are
certain preprocessing steps that need to be executed.
Types Preprocessing
Geometric Correction
Radiometric Correction
Noise Removal
Georeferencing / Orthorectification

Geometric Correction
This correction eliminates geometric distortions due to :
Earth Rotation
Earth Curvature
Instability of the Platform
- Altitude
- Velocity
- Pitch
- Roll
- Yaw

Geometric Correction

Radiometric Correction
This correction minimizes distortions due to:
changes in scene illumination
atmospheric conditions
viewing geometry
instrument response characteristics
Depending on the application, some or all of these

corrections need to be applied to produce desirable


Radiometric Correction
Sun elevation correction:
accounts for the seasonal position of the sun relative to the
earth image data acquired under different illumination
angles are normalized by calculating pixel brightness
values assuming the sun was at the zenith on each date
of sensing
Haze compensation:
procedures designed to minimize the influence of path
radiance effects

Noise Removal
- unwanted disturbance in image data due to limitations in
the sensing, signal digitization, or data recording process.
Sources of noise
periodic drift or malfunction of a detector
electronic interference between sensor components
intermitted hiccups in the data transmission and
recording sequence

The process of associating geographic information to

image pixels
Georeferenced image contain information on geographic

location, pixel size and scale.

For mapping and GIS application, images need to be

properly georeferenced to avoid errors in data extraction

The process of simultaneously georeferencing an image

and correcting geometric errors.

This process require ground control points that are

indentified in the image to aid in solving unknowns in the

geometric parameters of the sensor.

Composition of Remotely Sensed Image File

Bands These are the different layers in an image file. A
band represent a range of wavelength in the
electromagnetic spectrum from which the sensor
measures reflected energy. A sensor may measure from
different ranges of wavelengths which result into multiple
layers or bands of data
Bands are often associated with color but there are some
bands not visible to the naked eye like those in the
microwave region of the spectrum. False color images are
made to represent these bands

Composition of Remotely Sensed Image File

Digital Number the value recorded by the sensor by
converting the energy measured into digitally quantized
Digital numbers are arranged in columns and rows.

Composition of Remotely Sensed Image File

Properties of Remotely Sensed Data

Properties are remotely sensed data are commonly
described as resolution. There are four properties of RS

Spatial Resolution
Spatial resolution of an imaging system can be measured
in a number of different ways. It is the size of the smallest
object that can be discriminated by the sensor. The
greater the sensor's resolution, the greater the data
volume and smaller the area covered. In fact, area
coverage and resolution are interdependent and these
two factors determine the scale of an imagery.
Alternatively, spatial resolution can be said to be the
length of the size of the area on the ground represented
by a pixel on an image.

Spectral Resolution
It is the width of the spectral band and the number of
spectral bands in which the image is taken. Narrow band
widths in certain regions of the electromagnetic spectrum
allow us to discriminate between the various features
more easily. Consequently, we need to have more number
of spectral bands, each having a narrow bandwidth, and
these bands should together cover the entire spectral
range of interest.

Radiometric Resolution
It is the capability to differentiate the spectral reflectance/
emittance between various targets. This depends on the
number of quantisation levels within the spectral band. In
other words, the number of bits of digital data in the
spectral band or the number of gray level values, will
decide the sensitivity of the sensor. It is the smallest
difference in exposure that can be detected in a given
film analysis.

Temporal Resolution
Temporal resolution refers to the minimum duration of an
event that is discernible. It is affected by the interaction
between the duration of the recording interval and the rate
of change in the event. A shorter recording interval
implies higher temporal resolution, just as a faster film has
given us the ability to photograph quickly-moving objects.
For geospatial data, the situation is more complicated
because interactions between spatial and thematic
resolutions must also' be considered.

Basic Image Manipulation

Layer Stacking
Resizing Images
Compute Image Statistics
Band Math