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Chapter 1

Introduction

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Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

11DATACOMMUNICATIONS
The term telecommunication means communication at a
distance. The word data refers to information presented
in whatever form is agreed upon by the parties creating
and using the data. Data communications are the
exchange of data between two devices via some form of
transmission medium such as a wire cable.

Topics discussed in this section:


Components
Data Representation
Data Flow
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fundamental characteristics

The effectiveness of a data


communications system depends on
four fundamental characteristics:

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delivery,
accuracy,
timeliness,
and jitter.

Figure 1.1 Five components of data communication

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Data Representation

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Text: 32 bits Unicode (ASCII)


Numbers: converted to binary to
simplify mathematical operations
Images: matrix of pixels. Each pixel is
assigned a bit pattern
Audio: converting analog to digital
representation of audio
Video: series of images (with audio)

Figure 1.2 Data flow (simplex, half-duplex, and full-duplex)

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12NETWORKS
A network is a set of devices (often referred to as nodes)
connected by communication links. A node can be a
computer, printer, or any other device capable of sending
and/or receiving data generated by other nodes on the
network.
Topics discussed in this section:
Distributed Processing: task divided among multiple computers
Network Criteria: performance, reliability, and security
Physical Structures
Network Models
Categories of Networks
Interconnection of Networks: Internetwork
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Distributed Processing

Most networks use distributed


processing

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a task is divided among multiple


computers.

Network Criteria

A network must be able to meet a


certain number of criteria:

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Performance: transit time and response


time. It is evaluated by two networking
metrics: throughput and delay
Reliability: frequency of failure
Security: protecting data from
unauthorized access

Physical Structures

Before discussing networks, we need


to define some network attributes:

Type of Connection: A network is two or


more devices connected through links

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Point-to-Point: dedicated link between two


devices
Multipoint: more than two specific devices
share a single link

Figure 1.3 Types of connections: point-to-point and multipoint

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Physical Topology

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the way in which a network is laid out


physically

Figure 1.4 Categories of topology

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Figure 1.5 A fully connected mesh topology (five devices)

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Figure 1.6 A star topology connecting four stations

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Figure 1.7 A bus topology connecting three stations

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Figure 1.8 A ring topology connecting six stations

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Figure 1.9 A hybrid topology: a star backbone with three bus networks

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Network Models

The two best-known standards are:

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OSI model: 7 layers


Internet model: 5 layers

Categories of Networks

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local-area networks: A LAN normally


covers an area less than 2 miles
wide-area networks: worldwide

Figure 1.10 An isolated LAN connecting 12 computers to a hub in a closet

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Figure 1.11 WANs: a switched WAN and a point-to-point WAN

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Figure 1.12 A heterogeneous network made of four WANs and two LANs

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13THEINTERNET
The Internet has revolutionized many aspects of our daily
lives. It has affected the way we do business as well as the
way we spend our leisure time. The Internet is a
communication system that has brought a wealth of
information to our fingertips and organized it for our use.

Topics discussed in this section:


A Brief History
The Internet Today (ISPs)
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Figure 1.13 Hierarchical organization of the Internet

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14PROTOCOLSANDSTANDARDS
In this section, we define two widely used terms: protocols
and standards. First, we define protocol, which is
synonymous with rule. Then we discuss standards, which
are agreed-upon rules.

Topics discussed in this section:


Protocols
Standards
Standards Organizations
Internet Standards
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Protocols

entities must agree on a protocol

The key elements of a protocol are:

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set of rules that govern data


communications.
Syntax: structure or format of the data
Semantics: the meaning of each section
of bits
Timing: when data should be sent and
how fast they can be sent

Standards

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Standards provide guidelines to


manufacturers, vendors, government
agencies, and other service providers