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UTP - Fluid Mechanics Course - September 2012 Semester - Chap 3 Bernoulli Equations

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Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,

Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Reading: Munson, et al., Chapter 3

Objectives

1. comprehend the concepts necessary to analyse fluids in

motion.

2. identify differences between steady/unsteady,

uniform/non-uniform and compressible/incompressible

flow.

3. construct streamlines and stream tubes.

4. appreciate the Continuity principle through Conservation

of Mass and Control Volumes.

5. derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation.

6. familiarise with the momentum equation for a fluid flow.

3

Inviscid Flow

In this chapter we consider ideal fluid motion known

as inviscid flow; this type of flow occurs when either

1) 0 (only valid for He near 0 K), or

2) viscous shearing stresses are negligible

removed from solid surfaces; it can be applied to many

problems involving flow through pipes and flow over

aerodynamic shapes

4

uniform flow:

point in the fluid.

non-uniform:

point the flow. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid that

flows near a solid boundary will be non-uniform - as the fluid

at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary, usually

zero. However if the size and shape of the of the crosssection of the stream of fluid is constant the flow is

considered uniform.)

steady:

pressure and cross-section) may differ from point to point but

DO NOT change with time.

unsteady:

the flow is described as unsteady. (In practice there is always

slight variations in velocity and pressure, but if the average

values are constant, the flow is considered steady.)

5

Steady uniform flow:

Conditions: do not change with position in the stream or with time.

Example: the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity.

Steady non-uniform flow:

Conditions: change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time.

Example: flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet-velocity will

change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.

Unsteady uniform flow:

At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the same, but will

change with time.

Example: a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at a constant

rate which is then switched off.

Unsteady non-uniform flow:

Every condition of the flow may change from point to point and with time at

every point.

Example: waves in a channel.

Laminar flow

all the particles proceed along smooth parallel

paths and all particles on any path will follow it

without deviation.

Hence all particles have a velocity only in the

direction of flow.

Typical

particles

path

7

Turbulent Flow

Turbulent Flow

the particles move in an irregular manner through the flow field.

Each particle has superimposed on its mean velocity fluctuating velocity

components both transverse to and in the direction of the net flow.

Particle

paths

Transition Flow

exists between laminar and turbulent flow.

In this region, the flow is very unpredictable and often changeable back and forth

between laminar and turbulent states.

Modern experimentation has demonstrated that this type of flow may comprise

short burst of turbulence embedded in a laminar flow.

8

10

11

CE 150

12

13

The most used and the most abused equation in fluid mechanics.

3.1 Newtons Second Law: F = ma

In general, most real flows are 3-D, unsteady (x, y, z, t; r, , z, t;etc)

Let consider a 2-D motion of flow along streamlines, as shown below.

14

Velocity (V): Time rate of change of the position of the particle.

Streamlines: The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field.

Note: For steady flows, each particle slide along its path, and its velocity vector is everywhere tangent to the

path.

Streamline coordinate: S = S(t) ; V = dS / dt

(the distance along the streamline can be decided by V and R(s) )

15

ma F Fp Fg Fext

dV

m

Fp Fg

dt

(s) and normal to a streamline (n):

mV

dV

Fps W sin

ds

V2

m

Fpn W cos

16

Noting that

m V , W sin gV

and

Fps

dz

,

ds

dp

V ,

ds

we have:

V

dV

dz

dp

g

ds

ds

ds

17

18

Integrating along the streamline:

dp

1

2

gz constant

p

1

2

or

1

2

19

A similar analysis applied normal to the streamline

for a fluid of constant density yields

V2

p

dn gz constant

equation because the radius of curvature ()of

the streamline is seldom known

20

1

2

of pressure forces and fluid weight

Conservation equation involving three energy

processes:

kinetic energy

potential energy

pressure work

21

p

V2

g 2 g

Pressure head (p/g) - height of fluid column needed to

produce a pressure p

Velocity head (V2/2g) - vertical distance required for fluid

to fall from rest and reach velocity V

Elevation head (z) - actual elevation of the fluid w.r.t. a

datum

22

The following restrictions apply to the use of the (simple)

Bernoulli equation:

1) fluid flow must be inviscid

2) fluid flow must be steady (i.e., flow properties are not f(t)

at a given location)

3) fluid density must be constant

4) equation must be applied along a streamline (unless flow

is irrotational)

5) no energy sources or sinks may exist along streamline

(e.g., pumps, turbines, compressors, fans, etc.)

23

The Bernoulli equation can be applied between any

two points, (1) and (2), along a streamline:

p1 V gz1 p2 V gz2

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

gage pressure is zero; pressure inside jet is also

zero if streamlines are straight

Confined flows - pressures cannot be prescribed

unless velocities and elevations are known

24

Mass flow rate: fluid mass conveyed per unit time [kg/s]

m

Vn dA

A = cross-sectional area [m2]

if is uniform over the area A and the average velocity

V is used, then m

AV

Volumetric flow rate [m3/s]:

Q AV

25

Conservation of Mass

Mass can neither be created nor destroyed

For a control volume undergoing steady fluid

flow, the rate of mass entering must equal the rate

of mass exiting:

1 m

2

m

1 A1V1 2 A2V2

If = constant, then

A1V1 A2V2

or Q1 Q2

26

Each term of the Bernoulli equation can be written

to represent a pressure:

p V gz constant ( pT )

1

2

while not a real pressure, it represents the possible

pressure in the fluid due to changes in elevation

27

p : this is known as the static pressure and represents the

actual thermodynamic pressure of the fluid

28

The static pressure at (1) in Figure 3.4 can be

measured from the liquid level in the open tube as

pgh

1

V 2

2

the pressure measured by the fluid level (pgH) in

the stagnation tube shown in Figure 3.4 minus the

static pressure; thus, it is the pressure due to the

fluid velocity

29

The stagnation pressure is the sum of the static and

dynamic pressures:

p2 p1

1

2

2

1

a fluid streamline abruptly terminates at the surface of a

stationary body; here, the velocity of the fluid must be

zero

and hydrostatic pressures

30

Pitot-static tube - utilizes the static and stagnation

pressures to measure the velocity of a fluid flow (usually

gases):

2( p3 p4 ) /

31

Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi meters - restriction devices

that allow measurement of flow rate in pipes:

32

Bernoulli equation analysis yields the following

equation for orifice, nozzle, and venturi meters:

Theoretical flowrate:

Qideal A2

2( p1 p2 )

[1 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 ]

Actual flowrate:

Qactual CQideal

(C 1)

33

Sluice gates and weirs - restriction devices that allow flow

rate measurement of open-channel flows:

34

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