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Fluid Mechanics

Mohd Faizairi Mohd Nor


Dept. of Mechanical Engineering,
Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS

Elementary Fluid Dynamics


Reading: Munson, et al., Chapter 3

Objectives
1. comprehend the concepts necessary to analyse fluids in
motion.
2. identify differences between steady/unsteady,
uniform/non-uniform and compressible/incompressible
flow.
3. construct streamlines and stream tubes.
4. appreciate the Continuity principle through Conservation
of Mass and Control Volumes.
5. derive the Bernoulli (energy) equation.
6. familiarise with the momentum equation for a fluid flow.
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Inviscid Flow
In this chapter we consider ideal fluid motion known
as inviscid flow; this type of flow occurs when either
1) 0 (only valid for He near 0 K), or
2) viscous shearing stresses are negligible

The inviscid flow assumption is often valid in regions


removed from solid surfaces; it can be applied to many
problems involving flow through pipes and flow over
aerodynamic shapes
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Uniform Flow, Steady Flow


uniform flow:

flow velocity is the same magnitude and direction at every


point in the fluid.

non-uniform:

If at a given instant, the velocity is not the same at every


point the flow. (In practice, by this definition, every fluid that
flows near a solid boundary will be non-uniform - as the fluid
at the boundary must take the speed of the boundary, usually
zero. However if the size and shape of the of the crosssection of the stream of fluid is constant the flow is
considered uniform.)

steady:

A steady flow is one in which the conditions (velocity,


pressure and cross-section) may differ from point to point but
DO NOT change with time.

unsteady:

If at any point in the fluid, the conditions change with time,


the flow is described as unsteady. (In practice there is always
slight variations in velocity and pressure, but if the average
values are constant, the flow is considered steady.)
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Uniform Flow, Steady Flow (cont.)


Steady uniform flow:
Conditions: do not change with position in the stream or with time.
Example: the flow of water in a pipe of constant diameter at constant velocity.
Steady non-uniform flow:
Conditions: change from point to point in the stream but do not change with time.
Example: flow in a tapering pipe with constant velocity at the inlet-velocity will
change as you move along the length of the pipe toward the exit.
Unsteady uniform flow:
At a given instant in time the conditions at every point are the same, but will
change with time.
Example: a pipe of constant diameter connected to a pump pumping at a constant
rate which is then switched off.
Unsteady non-uniform flow:
Every condition of the flow may change from point to point and with time at
every point.
Example: waves in a channel.

Laminar and Turbulent Flow


Laminar flow
all the particles proceed along smooth parallel
paths and all particles on any path will follow it
without deviation.
Hence all particles have a velocity only in the
direction of flow.
Typical
particles
path

Figure 3.1a: Laminar flow


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Turbulent Flow
Turbulent Flow
the particles move in an irregular manner through the flow field.
Each particle has superimposed on its mean velocity fluctuating velocity
components both transverse to and in the direction of the net flow.

Particle
paths

Transition Flow
exists between laminar and turbulent flow.
In this region, the flow is very unpredictable and often changeable back and forth
between laminar and turbulent states.
Modern experimentation has demonstrated that this type of flow may comprise
short burst of turbulence embedded in a laminar flow.
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Representation of laminar & Turbulent

Representation of laminar & Turbulent

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Representation of laminar & Turbulent

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Wind Tunnel Testing

CE 150

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Newtons 2nd Law for a Fluid Particle

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The Bernoulli Equation

The most used and the most abused equation in fluid mechanics.
3.1 Newtons Second Law: F = ma
In general, most real flows are 3-D, unsteady (x, y, z, t; r, , z, t;etc)
Let consider a 2-D motion of flow along streamlines, as shown below.

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The Bernoulli Equation


Velocity (V): Time rate of change of the position of the particle.
Streamlines: The lines that are tangent to the velocity vectors throughout the flow field.
Note: For steady flows, each particle slide along its path, and its velocity vector is everywhere tangent to the
path.
Streamline coordinate: S = S(t) ; V = dS / dt
(the distance along the streamline can be decided by V and R(s) )

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Newtons 2nd Law for a Fluid Particle

The equation of motion for a fluid particle in a steady inviscid flow:

ma F Fp Fg Fext

dV
m
Fp Fg
dt

We consider force components in two directions: along a streamline


(s) and normal to a streamline (n):

mV

dV
Fps W sin
ds

V2
m
Fpn W cos

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Newtons 2nd Law Along a Streamline


Noting that
m V , W sin gV
and

Fps

dz
,
ds

dp
V ,
ds

we have:
V

dV
dz
dp
g

ds
ds
ds

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Formulation of Bernoulli equation

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Newtons 2nd Law Along a Streamline


Integrating along the streamline:

dp

1
2

gz constant

If the fluid density remains constant


p

1
2

gz constant along a streamline


or

1
2

V 2 gz constant along a streamline

This is the Bernoulli equation


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Newtons 2nd Law Across a Streamline


A similar analysis applied normal to the streamline
for a fluid of constant density yields
V2
p
dn gz constant

This equation is not as useful as the Bernoulli


equation because the radius of curvature ()of
the streamline is seldom known
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Physical Interpretation of the Bernoulli Equation

p V gz constant along a streamline


1
2

Acceleration of a fluid particle is due to an imbalance


of pressure forces and fluid weight
Conservation equation involving three energy
processes:
kinetic energy
potential energy
pressure work
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Alternate Form of the Bernoulli Equation


p
V2

z constant along a streamline


g 2 g
Pressure head (p/g) - height of fluid column needed to
produce a pressure p
Velocity head (V2/2g) - vertical distance required for fluid
to fall from rest and reach velocity V
Elevation head (z) - actual elevation of the fluid w.r.t. a
datum
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Bernoulli Equation Restrictions


The following restrictions apply to the use of the (simple)
Bernoulli equation:
1) fluid flow must be inviscid
2) fluid flow must be steady (i.e., flow properties are not f(t)
at a given location)
3) fluid density must be constant
4) equation must be applied along a streamline (unless flow
is irrotational)
5) no energy sources or sinks may exist along streamline
(e.g., pumps, turbines, compressors, fans, etc.)
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Using the Bernoulli Equation


The Bernoulli equation can be applied between any
two points, (1) and (2), along a streamline:

p1 V gz1 p2 V gz2
1
2

2
1

1
2

2
2

Free jets - pressure at the surface is atmospheric, or


gage pressure is zero; pressure inside jet is also
zero if streamlines are straight
Confined flows - pressures cannot be prescribed
unless velocities and elevations are known
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Mass and Volumetric Flow Rates


Mass flow rate: fluid mass conveyed per unit time [kg/s]

m

Vn dA

where Vn = velocity normal to area [m/s]

= fluid density [kg/m3]


A = cross-sectional area [m2]
if is uniform over the area A and the average velocity
V is used, then m
AV
Volumetric flow rate [m3/s]:

Q AV
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Conservation of Mass
Mass can neither be created nor destroyed
For a control volume undergoing steady fluid
flow, the rate of mass entering must equal the rate
of mass exiting:
1 m
2
m

1 A1V1 2 A2V2
If = constant, then

A1V1 A2V2

or Q1 Q2
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The Bernoulli Equation in Terms of Pressure


Each term of the Bernoulli equation can be written
to represent a pressure:

p V gz constant ( pT )
1
2

pgh : this is known as the hydrostatic pressure;


while not a real pressure, it represents the possible
pressure in the fluid due to changes in elevation
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The Bernoulli Equation in Terms of Pressure


p : this is known as the static pressure and represents the
actual thermodynamic pressure of the fluid

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The Bernoulli Equation in Terms of Pressure


The static pressure at (1) in Figure 3.4 can be
measured from the liquid level in the open tube as
pgh
1
V 2
2

: this is known as the dynamic pressure; it is


the pressure measured by the fluid level (pgH) in
the stagnation tube shown in Figure 3.4 minus the
static pressure; thus, it is the pressure due to the
fluid velocity
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The Bernoulli Equation in Terms of Pressure


The stagnation pressure is the sum of the static and
dynamic pressures:

p2 p1

1
2

2
1

the stagnation pressure exists at a stagnation point, where


a fluid streamline abruptly terminates at the surface of a
stationary body; here, the velocity of the fluid must be
zero

Total pressure (pT) is the sum of the static, dynamic,


and hydrostatic pressures
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Velocity and Flow Measurement


Pitot-static tube - utilizes the static and stagnation
pressures to measure the velocity of a fluid flow (usually
gases):

2( p3 p4 ) /
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Velocity and Flow Measurement


Orifice, Nozzle, and Venturi meters - restriction devices
that allow measurement of flow rate in pipes:

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Velocity and Flow Measurement


Bernoulli equation analysis yields the following
equation for orifice, nozzle, and venturi meters:
Theoretical flowrate:
Qideal A2

2( p1 p2 )
[1 ( A2 / A1 ) 2 ]

Actual flowrate:

Qactual CQideal

(C 1)
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Velocity and Flow Measurement


Sluice gates and weirs - restriction devices that allow flow
rate measurement of open-channel flows:

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Velocity and Flow Measurement

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