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Rolling Element Bearings

prepared by
Wayne Book

ME3180
Based on Shigley and Mischke
and Budynas and Nisbett
Design of Mechanical Elements

Rolling Element Bearings


Outline

Bearing types and nomenclature


Loads, life and failure modes
Ball bearing selection criteria
Tapered bearings
Induced thrust load
Selection

Application and maintenance

Ball Bearing Nomenclature


(From Shigley)

Roller Bearing Nomenclature


(from Shigley)

Classification Ball Bearings

Classification Roller Bearings


(Norton)

Types of Ball Bearings


(from Shigley)

Types of Roller Bearings


(from Shigley)

Bearing Loads
Bearing

Radial force F

Shaft

Speed
n

Thrust
Housing

Bearings are rated by radial loads F at a rating life L R


Thrust is included by increasing radial load to F e
C = basic load rating at L = 106 cycles (unusable)

Failure of bearings

Assume dirt, heat etc. are not major factors


Fatigue spalls contact surface due to cyclical
contact loading
Pitting of significant area defines useful life
L10 life is the life exceeded by all but 10% of
the bearings

Life-Load Relationships
a

L1 F2


L2 F1
L Life in revolutions or hours at speed n rev/min
F Radial load

3, ball bearings
a

10/3, roller bearings


Note: If F1 = C, the basic load, then L1 = 106 rev/min (typical,
Timken uses 90x106); L rev = Lhours x n x 60

Typical data: load vs life; reliability


90%
reach
life L

F/La =
constant

Design
point
Design reliability higher = RD
Predicted by Weibull distribution

Adjustment of C10 for Reliability, etc.


Design force FD, life
L, and reliability RD
Weibull parameters
from vendor:
x0, b, (-x0)

Find normalized life


xD = L/L10
Calculate adjusted
rating

xD
C10 FD
1/ b
x

x
)(
1

R
)
0
D
0

1/ a

; R 0.90 (11 7)

Combined Radial and Axial Loads


Nondimensionalize equivalent
and axial loads
Plot nondimensionalized
equivalent load vs
nondimensionalized axial load
Approximate with two straight
lines
Three parameters depend on
ratio of axial load/rated load, see
table 11-1

Equivalent Radial Load

Fe max

VFr

XVF

YF
r
a

Fe equivalent radial load


Fr applied radial load
Fa applied thrust (axial) load
1, rotating inner ring or self - alingning
V rotation factor

1.2,
rotating
outer
ring

X Radial factor from table


Y Thrust factor from table

Example Load Factors (from Shigley)


Table 11-1

AFBMA Size Plan


(from Shigley)
Figure 11-7

Example Dimensions & Ratings


(from Shigley)
Table 11-2

Steps in Sizing Ball Bearings


Given Fr, Fa
Select a trial bearing size from Table 11-2
Find C0 and C=C10

Table 11-1
Interpolate based on Fa/C0 to get e
Compare Fa/Fr to e, select either X1,Y1 or X2,Y2

Calculate equivalent radial load Fe


a
Compute life
C

L
Fe
Select another bearing if not satisfactory and repeat

Example Calculations
An 02 series bearing with bore of 30 mm
carries 5.6 kN radial and 2.8 kN applied
thrust. Consider both deep grove and
angular contact bearings.
Find the radial and thrust factors
What is the predicted L10 life?
For the given Fr ,at what value of Fa does
the thrust load begin to influence the life of
the bearing?

Other Empirical Factors


(from Shigley)
Table 11-4

Table 11-5