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Components of

plc

By Nurdiana binti Nordin

Hardware components
of
plc

PLC Hardware
Components

Power Supply
Input
Programming
& Output
Processor
Memory
(I/O)
Devices
modules

Block Diagram of PLC


Components
Power Supply

Input image
memory

Input
ports

Output image
memory

Output
ports

ON

OFF

OFF
ON

0
1

1
0

ON
OFF

CPU

Output
interface

Input
interface
Communications
bus

Users Program
Memory

Variable Data
Memory

Ensemble of PLC
Components

Hardware configurations
of
plc

PLC Hardware
Configurations
1. Fixed type

Small Package, cant

separate/remove
Processor & I/O packed together
Low cost
Lack of flexibility

Fixed Type PLC

Example: OMRON fixed


type

PLC Hardware
Configurations
2.
Modular type
Divide by compartments/rack
Modules plugged into the rack

Choose & mix modules as

desired
More option & flexibility

Modular Type PLC

Example: LG

Plc Hardware
components :
power supply

Power Supply
-

240V/115V AC used to
power up PLC

Power supply convert AC


voltage into low DC voltage
(24V/12V/5V)

For small & micro PLC,


power supply used to power
up I/O devices

For large & complex system,


power for I/O devices is
provided by external AC/DC
supplies

Plc Hardware
components :
CPU

Processor / CPU
-

Brain of PLC

Logic program is
stored and
processed

Executes the logic,


sequencing, timing,
counting functions

Consist one / more


microprocessors
> Divide logic &
control task

OMRON CPU

Processor / CPU
-

More hardened & robust

Processor receives input


data from input devices,
executes the store
program, send output
data to output devices >
PLC program scan

Processor/CPU required
memory for storing data
& program. Built in /
connected with CPU
CPU indicator

Processor / CPU
-

CPU contain
communication
port to
communicate with
programming
device / PC

PLC can be
networked to
perform SCADA due
to CPU capability

Plc hardware
components: memory

Memory
Contains
program & hold
Connected / built
data entered by
in CPU
user
Memory
Data stored in a
file by address
Program stored
(input status file,
as 1 and 0
output status file)

Memory
Memory
size
Division
Categorie
s
Types

256 2M words
Expressed in K (1K, 6K, 12K,...):
1K=1024 words
User / application memory
Operating system memory

Volatile (Changeable)
Non-volatile (Fixed)

ROM, RAM, PROM


EPROM, EEPROM

Factors affecting memory


size

Number of
I/Os used

Size of
control
programs

Supervisor
y
functions
required

Data
collecting
requireme
nts

Future
expansion

Plc hardware
components:
input & output
modules

Input & Output


Modules
Act as eyes, ears and tongue to the PLC processor
Several I/O modules can be inserted into I/O racks of PLC
I/O devices or field devices are connected to I/O modules
Provide connection to the machine & process
Interface between I/O devices & PLC >> to condition the signals
receive/sent to external I/O devices
Input to PLC are discreet signals from input device. Output from
PLC are ON/OFF signals to output device

Input & Output


Modules
Input devices
(push button,
limit switches,
various of
sensors, etc) are
wired
/connected to
the terminal on
the input
modules

Input & Output


Modules
Output
devices
(motor, light,
valve, motor
starter, etc)
are
wired/connect
ed to terminal
on the output
modules

Input & Output


Modules
-

I/O modules can be located near the I/O devices by using


Remote I/O hence minimizing wiring connection.

Input & Output


Modules
Remote I/O is linked by using cable to
the local I/O at CPU through
communication module
Typical cable used are fibre optic (up to
20 miles) & coaxial cables (up to 2
miles)
Each I/O device must have specific
address >> used by the processor to
identify, locate and control

Input & Output


Modules
Discre
et

Analo
g

Speci
al

Types of I/O
modules

Input & Output


Modules

Discreet I/O
modules

Connect
ON/OFF
Output
nature
devices
input
limited
Powered by
Most
devices
such as
PLC power
common
such as
light, small supply unit
type of I/O
push
motor,
/ external
interface
button,
solenoid,
power
limit
motor
supply
switch,
starter,
selector
etc.
switch, etc.

Input & Output


Modules

Common voltage rating for DISCREET


I/O modules
Input
Interfaces

Output
Interface

12V/24V AC/DC 12-48V AC


48V AC/DC

120V AC

120V AC

230V AC

230V AC/DC

120V AC

5V DC

230V DC/5V
DC/ 24V DC

Input & Output


Modules

Analog I/O
Input and modules
Contained
output can
A/D
Analog
have an
infinite
number
(send &
receive
complex
signal)

converter
circuit for
input and
D/A
converter
for output
modules

output
devices
such as
valves and
analog
meter, etc.

Input & Output


Modules
Speech

High
speed
counter

Thumb
wheel

Specia
l I/O
modul
es

Language

Communi
cation

Servo

PID

BCD
output

Stepper
motor

TTL

EncoderCounter

Basic/
ASCII

PLC hardware
components:
programming device

Programming Devices
Handhel
d/
Console

PLC
Programm
ing device
PC
software

Also called as Program


Terminal (PT)

Programming Devices
Provided by PLC
manufacturers
Uses
parallel/serial
com
Easier to create,
edit, store,
document &
troubleshoot
programs
Large display
Program either in
DOS / Windows

Software

Handheld

Often used for


small PLC
Inexpensive
Easy to use
Contains key,
buttons, LCD
display
Limited display
capability
Types: Dumb
terminal and
Smart terminal

Programming Device
Console

Software
Color monitor
can highlight
logic elements
in d
color to indicate ifferent
status

Large amount
of object
can be display
ed

Inexpensive
Easy to use

More than one


p
can be stored o rogram
n PC hard
disk
Easy documen
tatio
editing & progra n,
m
development,
transfer
program

PROGRAMMING OF plc

Introduction
Programming means: user enters the

control instruction/control program to


PLC through programming devices

PLC programming is based on basic

logic function stored in processor


(programmable & easily changed)

PLC programming languages

PLC Program Scan


- The process that processor reads input

data, execute the control program, and


send output data for complete cycle
operation is called program scan

PLC program scan consist of three stages:

i. input scan
ii. program execute
iii. output scan

PLC Program Scan


Input Scan
Inputs of PLC are read by processors and its status is
stored in input image memory

Program Execute
Control program is execute during program scan.
Input status stored in memory are used in control
logic and output image file is set

Output Scan
Output image file is updated, transferred &
stored to the output module

PLC Program Scan

PLC required certain amount of time to execute one complete


cycle
operation of program scan

Typical scan time : 1 25mSec


Operating cycle / scan time
depends on:

No. of input

Complexity
of logic
control
functions

No. of
output

Clock
speed of
processors

Logic Control and


Sequence
Logic
control:
Eventdriven

Sequenci
ng:
Timedriven

Discre
et
contro
l
progra
m

I/O devices for Logic


Control & Sequence
Sensor
Limit switch

One/Zero
Interpretation
Contact/no
contact

Actuator
Motor

One/Zero
Interpretation
On/of

Photo detector

On/of

Control relay

Contact/no
contact

PB switch

On/of

Light

On/of

Timer

On/of

Valve

Closed/open

Control relay

Contact/no
contact

Clutch

Engaged/not
engaged

Circuit breaker

Contact/no
contact

Solenoid

Energized/not
energized

Programming of PLC

Does not

consider any
previous values of
input
Basic elements:
logic AND, OR, &
NOT These
functions (AND, OR,
& NOT) are used
either in
single/combination

Sequence control
use timing
devices to time
the start & stop
of cycle
elements
Open loop
control concept
(no feedback
verification)
TIMER &
COUNTER is
common devices

Sequence
Control

Logic control

Switching system
which output is
determined by
current input

Understanding
PLC:
iples of Operation
simple process control
operation
a on

rates
he
the
ple
ol

Process
Control
Description
Process Control
Description

PLC
PLCInput
InputsConnection
Connection

ECE 4951-Fernando Rios

PLC
Output
PLC
Output connection
Connections

ECE 49514951-Fernando Rios

Ladder
Logic
Program
PLC Ladder Equivalent

ECE 49514951-Fernando Rios

My 2 cents

Being happy doesnt mean


that everything is perfect
but rather it means
youve decided to
look beyond
the imperfections