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BASIC PRINCIPAL OF

ELECTRICAL
CIRCUITRY
PRESENTED BY:SHIVAM SHARMA
DIWANKAR SINGH
YONESH BHADUR SINGH
SURENDRA PRATAP SINGH`

ELECTRIC CIRCUIT
DEFINITION:-

AN ELECTRICAL DEVICE THAT


PROVIDES A PATH FOR ELECTRICAL
CURRENT TO FLOW.

A complete path, or circuit, is


needed before voltage can cause
a current flow through resistances
to perform work. A list of five
things to look for in any circuit
1. Power (source of Voltage)
2.
3.
4.
5.

Conductors (wires)
Protection Devices (Fuses,
circuit breaker)
Working Device (Lamp, fan)
Control devices ( switches)
Ground

SERIES CIRCUIT
In series circuit current has only one path. All the circuit
components are connected so that the same amount of
current flows through each. If a wire is disconnected or
broken, current stops flowing. If one load is open, none of the
loads will work.

PARALLEL CIRCUIT
In parallel circuit, current can flow through more than one
path from and to the power source. The circuit loads are
connected in parallel legs, or branches, across a power
source. The points where the current paths split and rejoin are
called junctions. The separate current paths are called branch
circuit or shunt circuit. Each branch operates independent of
the others. If one load opens, the other continues operating.

PRINCIPALS
1.
2.
3.
4.

TRANSFORMERS
CAPACITOR
ELECTRIC MOTOR
INDUCTOR

TRANSFORMERS
Atransformeris apower
converterthat transferselectrical
energy from onecircuitto another
throughinductively
coupledconductors the
transformer's coils.

STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER


A step-down transformer is one whose secondary voltage
is less than its primary voltage. It is designed to reduce the
voltage from the primary winding to the secondary
winding. This kind of transformer steps down the voltage
applied to it.
As a step-down unit, the transformer converts highvoltage, low-current power into low-voltage, high-current
power. The larger-gauge wire used in the secondary
winding is necessary due to the increase in current. The
primary winding, which doesnt have to conduct as much
current, may be made of smaller-gauge wire.

CAPACITOR
Acapacitor(originally known ascondenser)
is apassivetwo-terminalelectrical
componentused to storeenergyin anelectric
field. The forms of practical capacitors vary
widely, but all contain at least twoelectrical
conductorsseparated by adielectric(insulator);
for example, one common construction consists
of metal foils separated by a thin layer of
insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as
parts ofelectrical circuitsin many common
electrical devices.

ELECTRIC MORTOR
Anelectric motoris anelectromechanicaldevice
that convertselectrical energyintomechanical
energy.
Most electricmotorsoperate through the interaction
ofmagnetic fieldsandcurrent-carrying conductorsto
generate force. The reverse process, producing
electrical energy from mechanical energy, is done
bygeneratorssuch as analternatoror adynamo;
some electric motors can also be used as generators,
for example, atraction motoron a vehicle may
perform both tasks. Electric motors and generators
are commonly referred to aselectric machines.
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Electric motors are found in applications


as diverse as industrial fans, blowers
andpumps, machine tools, household
appliances,power tools, anddisk drives.
They may be powered bydirect current

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INDUCTOR
Aninductor(alsochoke,coilorreactor) is
apassivetwo-terminalelectrical component
that storesenergyin itsmagnetic field. For
comparison, a capacitorstores energy in
anelectric field, and aresistordoes not
store energy but rather dissipates energy as
heat.
Any conductor has inductance. An inductor
is typically made of a wire or other
conductor wound into acoil, to increase the
magnetic field.

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When the current flowing through an


inductor changes, creating a time-varying
magnetic field inside the coil, a voltage is
induced, according to Faraday's law of
electromagnetic induction, which byLenz's
lawopposes the change in current that
created it. Inductors are one of the basic
components used in electronics where
current and voltage change with time, due
to the ability of inductors to delay and
reshape alternating currents.

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Defination of units
Ampere -A
The ampere is that constant current which, if maintained in two
straight parallel conductors of infinite length, of negligible circular
cross section, and placed 1 meter apart in vacuum, would
produce between these conductors a force equal to2 x 107Newton per meterof length.
Electric current is the same as electric quantity in movement, or
quantity per unit time, expressed like
I = dq / dt
where
I = electric current (ampere)
dq = electric quantity (coulomb)
dt = time (s)
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Coulomb -C
The standard unit of quantity in electrical
measurements. It is the quantity of electricity
conveyed in one second by the current produced by
an electro-motive force of one volt acting in a circuit
having a resistance of one ohm, or the quantity
transferred by one ampere in one second.
Ohm -
The derived SI unit of electrical resistance - the
resistance between two points on a conductor when a
constant potential difference of1 voltbetween them
produces a current of1 ampere.
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Watt
The watt is used to specify the rate at
which electrical energy is dissipated, or
the rate at which electromagnetic energy
is radiated, absorbed, or dissipated.
The unit of power W or Joule/second

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Volt
The Volt -V- is the Standard International
(SI) unit of electric potential or
electromotive force. A potential of one
volt appears across a resistance ofone
ohmwhen a current ofone ampereflows
through that resistance.
Reduced to SI base units,
1 (V) = 1 (kg m2/ s3A)
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THANK YOU

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