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WCDMA Physical Layer Design

A. Chockalingam
Assistant Professor
Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-12

achockal@ece.iisc.ernet.in
http://ece.iisc.ernet.in/~achockal

Outline

WCDMA Network Architecture

WCDMA Physical Layer


Physical / Transport / Logical Channels
Uplink

Spreading - Channelisation / Scrambling


Transport Formats and Configuration
Multiplexing and Channel Coding

Downlink
Spreading / Scrambling / Channelisation
Multiplexing and Channel Coding
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

2G to 3G Evolution
EDGE
GSM

D
A
T
A

GPRS
WCDMA

IS-95A

I
S
9
9

IS-95B

IMT2000

cdma2000

IMT2000: ITUs Standardization Effort towards 3G


(IMT-2000 previously termed as FPLMTS)
UMTS: European Effort (Specified by 3G Partnership Project 3GPP)
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

UMTS NW Model
Non-access Stratum
(Protocols between UE and Core NW)

Access Stratum

Home
Network

(Protocols between UE and Access NW)

Zu

USIM

Cu

Mobile
Equipment

User Equipment

Serving
Network

Access
Network
Uu

Iu

Access Network

PS/CS

Transit
Network
Yu

Core Network

Infrastructure
Stratum: Refers to a way of
grouping protocols handling activities
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

UMTS NW Architecture
Uu

Iu
UTRAN

Iub

Node B
UE

RNS
RNC

CN
CN (CS Domain)
3G MSC
/ VLR

3G
GMSC

Node B

Registers

Iur

UE

HLR/AuC/EIR
RNS

Node B

(Home Network)

CN (PS Domain)
RNC

Node B

SGSN

GGSN

UE

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

WCDMA System Features

UTRA FDD mode and TDD mode

UTRA FDD features


Multiple Access:

CDMA

Channel Spacing:

5 MHz

Chip Rate:

3.84 Mcps

Frame Length:

10 msec

Time Slots:

15 slots per 10 msec frame

Spreading Factor:

4 to 512

Multi-rate:

Through Multi-code or
Orthogonal Variable Spreading

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

UTRA FDD Features


FEC Codes:

Rate 1/2, 1/3 convolutional code


with constraint length K = 9
Rate 1/3, 8-state Turbo coding

Interleaving:

Intra- or Inter-frame interleaving


(10, 20 40, 80 msec)
Modulation:
QPSK
Detection:
Coherent based on pilot symbols
Micro diversity:
RAKE in BS and UE
Power Control:
Fast closed-loop at 1500 Hz rate
Intra-frequency HO: Soft / Softer Handover
Inter-frequency HO: Hard Handover
Interference Cancellation: Support for multiuser detection

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

Radio Interface Protocol Model


CONTROL PLANE

USER PLANE
L3

RRC
Control

U-Plane Radio Bearers (Radio Network Layer)

User Plane
Radio Bearers

Signalling
Radio Bearers

PDCP
RLC

BMC

L2
(Radio Link Layer)

Logical Channels

MAC
Transport Channels

PHY
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

L1
(Radio Physical Layer)
8

WCDMA Radio Channels

Physical Channels

Transmission media.
Two types of physical channels defined in L1; FDD and TDD.
FDD is characterized by frequency, code, I/Q phase
Follow a layered structure of radio frames and time slots

Transport Channels

describes the way information is transferred over the radio interface

Logical Channels

the type of information transferred characterizes a logical channel


UE

BS

RNC

Logical Channels
Transport Channels
Physical Channels
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

Physical Channels

Corresponds to a specific carrier frequency,


code, relative phase in I and Q branches
Dedicated and Common Physical Channels
Layered structure of radio frames and time slots
A radio frame = 10 msec = 15 slots/frame
1 frame = 38400 chips, 1 slot = 2560 chips
Slot configuration varies depending on the
channel bit rate of the physical channel
# bits/slot different for different physical channels
may vary with time (on a frame by frame basis)

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

10

U/L Physical Channels

Dedicated U/L Channels


DPDCH
DPCCH

Common U/L Channels


PRACH
Preamble part
Message part

PCPCH
Preamble part
Message part
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

11

Dedicated U/L Physical Channels

Two types
Dedicated Physical Data CHannel (DPDCH)
Dedicated Physical Control CHannel (DPCCH)
Both are I/Q code multiplexed within each radio frame

U/L DPDCH carries the DCH transport channel


U/L DPCCH carries L1 control bits such as

Pilot bits (to enable channel estimation for coherent detection at BS)
Transmit power control (TPC) commands
Feedback Information (FBI)
used for CL transmit diversity and Site Selection Diversity
Transmission (SDTC)

Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)

for several simultaneous services. Informs the rx of the transport


format combination of the transport channels mapped to DPDCH

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

12

U/L Frame Structure

There is only one U/L DPCCH on each radio link


There can be 0, 1, or several DPDCHs on each radio link

10 msec frames divided into 15 slots

1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 msec


S0

S1

DPDCH
(on I-Chl)
DPCCH
(on Q-Chl)
Dr. A. Chockalingam

S2

S3

S13

S14

1 time slot = 2/3 msec


DATA (Ndata bits)
Pilot

TFCI FBI TPC

10 bits = 2560 chips => SF = 256


Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

13

I, Q Spreading for DPDCH, DPCCH


Cc, Cd,n: Channelization codes
Sdpch,n: Scrambling code
Bd, Bc: Gain factors

DPDCH-1
Cd,1

Bd

Cd,3

Bd

DPDCH-3

I
I+jQ

DPDCH-2

Sdpch,n
Cd,2

Bd

Q
j

DPCCH-2
Cc
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Bc
Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

Up to 6 DPDCHs in parallel
14

WCDMA Transmission Rates (U/L)

System Chip Rate : 3.84 Mcps

Symbol Rates on Uplink


Chl Symb Rate

Chl Bit Rate

SF

15 Ks/s

15 Kb/s

256

150

10

30 Ks/s

30 Kb/s

128

300

20

60 Ks/s

60 Kb/s

64

600

40

120 Ks/s

120 Kb/s

32

1200

80

240 Ks/s

240 Kb/s

16

2400

160

480 Ks/s

480 Kb/s

4800

320

960 Ks/s

960 Kb/s

9600

640

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

Bits/frame

Ndata

15

WCDMA Channelisation Codes

Orthogonal codes

Used for channel separation both in U/L and D/L


directions

Can have different spreading factor values (thus


support different symbol rates)

Cch,SF,k : SF - Spreading Factor, k is the code number


0<=k<= SF-1

Spreading factor value indicates how many bits of


those codes are used in a connection

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

16

U/L Channelization Codes

Orthogonal Variable Spreading Factor (OVSF)


channelization codes
Separates data / control channels from same UE
Preserves orthogonality between these channels
SF=1

SF=2

SF=4
(1,1,1,1)

(1,1)
C(SF,k)

(1,1,-1,-1)

(1)
(1,-1)

SF: Spreading Factor


k: code number 0<k<=SF-1
Dr. A. Chockalingam

(1,-1,1,-1)
(1,-1,-1,1)

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

17

U/L Scrambling Codes

Use complex valued scrambling code

Long scrambling sequences (2^24)


Gold sequences (linear combination of two m-sequences)

Short scrambling sequences (2^24)


from a family sequence of periodically extended S(2)
codes

Long or short sequences for DPCCH / DPDCH

Only long sequences for message parts of PRACH


and PCPCH
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

18

WCDMA Code Types

Scrambling Codes, Channelisation Codes


Uplink

Downlink

Scrambling codes

User separation

Cell separation

Channelisation
codes

Data and Control Users within a


channels from the cell
same terminal

Spreading code = Scrambling code x Channelisation code


Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

19

Common U/L Physical Channels

Two Types
Physical Random Access CHannel (PRACH)
Physical Common Packet CHannel (PCPCH)

Physical Random Access CHannel (PRACH)

carries RACH
Uses S-ALOHA technique with fast Acquisition Indication
Access slots (15 access slots per 2 frames)
RA transmission consists of
several 4096 chip preambles (uses 256 repetitions of 16 chips
signature sequence) and 1or 2 frame message

Preamble

Preamble

Message Part (1 or 2 frames)

4096 Chips
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

20

Random Access
UE

BS

PRACH: Preamble sent (initial access)


No detection on AICH
PRACH: Preamble sent (initial access)
AICH: Preamble sent detected
PRACH: Random Access Info sent

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

21

Common U/L Physical Channels

Physical Common Packet CHannel (PCPCH)


Carries CPCH
CPCH is based on DSMA-CD technique with fast
Acquisition Indication
Access slot timing and structure are identical to those
defined for RACH
Transmission consists of

Access preamble(s) - one or several each 4096 chips


Collision Detection preamble
DPCCH Power Control Preamble (0 or 8 slots)
Message of variable length (Nx10 msec)

PCPCH good for carrying small sized bursty data


Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

22

Transport Formats / Configurations

Transport Block (TB)


Basic unit of data exchanged between L1 & MAC for L1
processing

Transport Block Size: Number of bits in a TB.

Transport Block Set (TBS)


A set of TBs exchanged between L1 and MAC at the same
time instant using the same transport channel

Transport Block Set Size: Number of bits in a TBS

Transmission Time Interval (TTI)


Periodicity at which a TBS is transferred by the physical layer
on to the radio interface - {10, 20, 40, 80 ms}
MAC delivers one TBS to the physical layer every TTI
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

23

Transport Formats / Configurations

Transport Format (TF)


Format offered by L1 to MAC (and vice versa) for the delivery of a
TBS during a TTI on a given transport channel (TrCH)
Dynamic part (TB size, TBS size)
Semi-static part (TTI, type/rate of coding,size of CRC)
TB size, TBS size, TTI define the TrCH bit rate before L1 processing
e.g., TB size = 336 bits (320 bit payload + 16 bits RLC header)

TBS size = 2 TBs per TTI, TTI = 10 ms

DCH Bit rate (with RLC header) = 336*2/10 = 67.2 Kbps

User Bit rate (without RLC header) = 320*2/10 = 64 Kbps

Variable bit rate can be achieved by changing (between TTIs)


either the TBS size only, or both the TB size and TBS Size

Transport Format Set (TFS)

a set of TFs associated with a TrCH


semi-static part of all TFs in a TFS is the same
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

24

Transport Formats / Configurations

Transport Format Combination (TFC)


Multiple TrCHs each having a TF
Authorized combination of the currently valid TFs that can be
submitted to L1 on a CCTrCH, containing one TF from each TrCH

Transport Format Combination Set (TFCS)

A set of TFCs on a CCTrCH. Produced by RNC


TFCS is given to MAC by L3 for control
MAC chooses between the different TFCs specified in the TFCS
MAC has control over only the dynamic part of the TFs. Semi-static part
relates to QoS (e.g., quality) and is controlled by RNC admission control
Bit rate can be changed quickly by MAC with no need to L3 signaling

Transport Format Indicator (TFI)

A label for a specific TF within a TFS. Used between MAC and L1

Transport Format Combination Indicator (TFCI)

Used to inform the receiving side of the currently valid TFC

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

25

Transport Formats / Configurations


Transport Format
Combination (TFC)
DCH1

TB
TTI

TB

TB
TTI

TTI

Transport Block Set


(TBS)

TB
DCH2

TB
TTI

Transport Format
Set (TFS)
Dr. A. Chockalingam

TB

TB

TB

TB

TTI

Transport Format (TF)


Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

TTI
Transport Format
Combination Set
(TFCS)
26

TFI and TFCI (Transmitter)


E.g: Two transport channels mapped to a single physical channel
Transport Chl 1
Transport
Block
Higher
Layer

Transport
Block

TFI

Transport Chl 2
Transport
Block
TFI

Transport
Block
This dotted line
represents the Iur interface
in case of NW side

Physical
Layer

Coding and
Multiplexing

TFCI
Physical
Control Chl

Physical
Data Chl

DPCCH (Q-Chl)
Dr. A. Chockalingam

DPDCH (I-Chl)

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

27

TFI and TFCI (Receiver)


Transport Chl 1

Transport Chl 2

Transport
Block & EI
Higher
Layer

Transport
Block & EI

TFI

Physical
Layer

Transport
Block & EI
TFI

EI: Error
Indication

Decoding and
Demultiplexing

TFCI
Decode
Physical
Control Chl

Physical
Data Chl

DPCCH (Q-Chl)
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Transport
Block & EI

DPDCH (I-Chl)

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

28

TFI and TFCI

Each transport channel is accompanied by a TFI at each


time event at which data is expected to arrive from HL

Physical layer combines the TFI info from different


transport channels to the TFCI

TFCI is sent on the DPCCH to inform the receiver about


the instantaneous transport format combination of the
transport channels mapped to the U/L DPDCH
transmitted simultaneously

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

29

Transport Format (e.g., Speech)

Conversational Speech (12 Kbps)


12.2 Kbps max.
TTI: 20 msec
Transport Formats (TF) available:
TF

RAB1

RAB2

TF0v
0 x 81
0 x 103
TF1v
1 x 81
1 x 103
two other formats too (see Stds. Doc.)

RAB3
0 x 60 (e.g., silence)
1 x 60 (e.g, active voice)

TFC: (TF0, TF0, TF0) e.g., during silence


(TF1, TF1, TF1) e.g., during active voice periods
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

30

Transport Format (e.g., Data)

Interactive/Background Data (64 Kbps)


64 Kbps max.
TTI: 20 msec
Transport Block (TB) size = 336 bits
Transport Formats (TF) available:
TF0 - 0 x 336
TF1 - 1 x 336
TF2 - 2 x 336
TF3 - 3 x 336
TF4 - 4 x 336

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

31

Transport Format (Speech + Data)

Conversational speech (12 Kbps) +


Interactive/Background Data (64 Kbps)
Voice TrCH

Data TrCH

TFC1:
TFC2:

(TF0v, TF0v, TF0v)


(TF0v, TF0v, TF0v)

TF0d
TF1d

TFC3:

(TF0v, TF0v, TF0v)

TF2d

TFC4:

(TF0v, TF0v, TF0v)

TF3d

TFC5:

(TF0v, TF0v, TF0v)

TF4d

TFC6:
TFC7:
TFC8:
TFC9:
TFC10:

(TF1v, TF1v, TF1v)


(TF1v, TF1v, TF1v)
(TF1v, TF1v, TF1v)
(TF1v, TF1v, TF1v)
(TF1v, TF1v, TF1v)

TF0d
TF1d
TF2d
TF3d
TF4d

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

32

Multiplexing & Channel Coding

Data arrives at the coding/mux unit in transport block sets,


once every transmission time interval (TTI)
TTI depends on the transport channel; {10, 20, 40, 80 ms})
Main steps

Add CRC to each block


transport block concatenation and block segmentation
channel coding
first interleaving (per TTI)
radio frame segmentation (when TTI > 10 ms)
rate matching (repetition or puncturing)
multiplexing of transport channels (CCTrCH)
insertion of DTX indication bits
physical channel segmentation
second interleaving (per radio frame, ie., among bits in 1 radio frame)
mapping to physical channel

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

33

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (U/L)


TrCH-1

CRC Attachment

CRC Attachment

TrBk Concatenation/
Code Block Segmentation

TrBk Concatenation/
Code Block Segmentation

Channel Coding

Channel Coding

Radio Frame Equalization

Radio Frame Equalization

1st Interleaving

1st Interleaving

Radio Frame Segmentation

Radio Frame Segmentation

Rate Matching

Rate Matching

TrCH-2

TrCH Multiplexing
CCTrCH

Physical Channel Segmentation

2nd interleaving
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Physical Channel Mapping


Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

PhCH#1

PhCH#2

34

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Applicable to DCH, RACH, CPCH, DSCH, BCH,


FACH, PCH

CRC
add CRC to each transport block for error detection
CRC calculated on entire transport block
Size of CRC: 24, 16, 12, 8, 0 bits
what CRC size is used for each TrCH is signaled from
higher layers

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

35

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

TrBk Concatenation & Code Block Segmentation


all transport blocks in a TTI are concatenated
if no. of bits in a TTI after concatenation (X) is greater than
the maximum size of the code block (in the channel coding
block), then code block segmentation is done
max. size of the code block (Z) depends on whether
Convolutional code ( Z = 504 bits) or
Turbo code ( Z = 5114 bits) is used for the TrCH

Code blocks after segmentation are of the same size


Filler bits (zeros) added to 1st coded block to
to make integer number of code blocks, or
if X < 40 bits when Turbo code is used
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

36

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Channel Coding
Type of TrCH

Coding Scheme

Coding Rate

BCH

Convolutional
Coding
(constraint
length = 9)

1/2

PCH
RACH
DPCH, DCH,
DSCH, FACH

1/3, 1/2
Turbo Coding

1/3

If number of coded blocks is greater than 1, they are


serially concatenated
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

37

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Radio Frame Equalization


padding the input bit sequence in order to ensure that
the output can be segmented into data segments of
equal size
I.e., number of bits per segment is same after radio
frame equalization
performed only on the U/L

1st Interleaving
block interleaver
among bits in a TTI
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

38

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Radio Frame Segmentation


when TTI > 10 msec, input bit sequence is segmented
and mapped on to Fi consecutive radio frames

Rate Matching
means that bits on a transport channel are repeated or
punctured to ensure that the total bit rate after TrCH
multiplexing is identical to the total channel bit rate
of the allocated dedicated physical channels
higher layers assign a rate-matching (semi-static)
attribute for each transport channel
this attribute is used to calculate the number of bits to
repeat or puncture, spreading factor, number of PhCHs
needed, rate matching pattern
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

39

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

TrCH Multiplexing
every 10 msec, one radio frame from each TrCH is
delivered to the TrCH multiplexing
these radio frames are serially concatenated into a
coded composite transport channel (CCTrCH)

Physical Channel Segmentation


when more than once PhCH is used, the physical
channel segmentation divides the bits among different
PhCHs

2nd Interleaving
among bits within a radio frame
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

40

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Insertion of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)


Indication Bits
only on the D/L
used to fill up the radio frame with bits
insertion point depends on whether fixed positions (1st
Insertion) or flexible positions (2nd Insertion) of the
TrCHs in the radio frame are used
During connection setup, NW decides if fixed or flexible
position is used for each CCTrCH
DTX Indication bits are not transmitted; they only tell
when the Tx must be turned off
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

41

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Transport Format Detection


TFCI Based Detection
Explicit Blind Detection
using receive power ratio
by use of channel decoding and CRC check

Guided Detection
Explicit blind detection used on Guiding TrCH
Guiding TrCH has the same TTI as the TrCH under
consideration
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

42

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Blind Transport Format Detection


Using Received Power Ratio (for the case of 2 TFs)
Ratio of the power received on DPDCH (Pd) and DPCCH (Pc)
Full Rate TF: if ratio Pd/Pc > threshold
Zero rate TF: if ratio Pd/Pc < threshold

Using CRC (for the case of multiple TFs)


Receiver knows only the possible TFs or end bit (thru L3 signaling)
Receiver performs FEC (Viterbi) decoding
path metric selection among the surviving paths in the decoding

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

43

D/L Physical Channels

Dedicated D/L Channels

DPDCH
DPCCH

Common D/L Channels


Common PIlot CHannel (CPICH)
Primary CPICH
Secondary CPICH

Common Control Physical CHannel (CCPCH)


Primary CCPCH,
Secondary CCPCH

Synchronization CHannel (SCH)


Primary SCH,
Secondary SCH
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

44

Dedicated D/L Physical Channels

Dedicated Physical CHannel (D/L DPCH)


transmits dedicated data generated at L2 and above
time-multiplexes with L1 control bits (Pilot, TPC,
TFCI)

D/L DPCH
Time-multiplex of a D/L DPDCH and a D/L DPCCH

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

45

DL Frame Structure

10 msec frames divided into 15 slots


1 Frame = 15 slots = 10 msec
S0

S1

S2

S3

S13

S14

1 time slot = 2/3 msec


DATA 1

TPC TFCI

DATA 2

Pilot
DPCCH

DPDCH
DPCCH
DPDCH
No. of bits in different DPDCH field (Npilot, Ntpc, Ntfci, Ndata1,
Ndata2) are given in tables
Which slot format to use is configured (and reconfigured) by
higher layers

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

46

D/L Transmission

Multicode Transmission on D/L


Multicode transmission can be employed on the D/L
I.e., CCTrCH is mapped on to several parallel D/L
DPCHs using the same spreading factor
In this case, L1 control information is sent only on the
first downlink DPCH

Multiple CCTrCHs
In case there are several CCTrCHs mapped to different
DPCHs transmitted to the same UE, different spreading
factors can be used on DPCHs
multiple CCTrCHs feature for future release
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

47

WCDMA Transmission Rates (D/L)

System Chip Rate : 3.84 Mcps

Symbol Rates on Downlink


Symb Rate

Chl bit rate

SF

7.5 Ks/s

15 Kb/s

512

15 Ks/s

30 Kb/s

256

30 Ks/s

60 Kb/s

128

60 Ks/s

120 Kb/s

64

120 Ks/s

240 Kb/s

32

240 Ks/s

480 Kb/s

16

480 Ks/s

960 Kb/s

960 Ks/s

1920 Kb/s

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

48

Common D/L Physical Channels

Common Pilot CHannel (CPICH)

30 Kbps fixed rate channel (SF = 256)


Primary CPICH

Always uses the same channelization code


Scrambled by primary scrambling code
There is one and only one P-CPICH per cell
Broadcast over the entire cell
Provides a phase reference for several D/L channels

Secondary CPICH

Uses an arbitrary channelization code of SF=256


Scrambled either by the primary or a secondary scrambling code
A cell may contain 0,1, or several S-CPICH
Broadcast over entire OR part of a cell
A S-CPICH can be a phase reference to some D/L channels
(which is communicated to the UE thru higher layer signaling)

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

49

Common D/L Physical Channels

Common Control Physical CHannel (CCPCH)


Primary CCPCH (P-CCPCH)

30 Kbps fixed rate channel with SF=256


Carries BCH transport channel
No TPC, TFCI, pilot bits are sent
the transport channel mapped to P-CCPCH (I.e., BCH) can
only have a fixed predefined TFC

Secondary CCPCH (S-CCPCH)

Carries FACH and PCH


S-CCPCH can be with TFCI and without TFCI
NW decides if TFCI has to be sent
So UE should be (mandatory) capable of receiving with or
without TFCI (i.e., blind)
S-CCPCH can support multiple TFCs using TFCI
Main difference between CCPCHs and Dedicated Physical
Channels : a CCPCH
inner
loop Power Controlled
Dr. A. Chockalingam
DeptisofNOT
ECE, IISc,
Bangalore
50

Common D/L Physical Channels

Synchronization CHannel (SCH)


Downlink signal used for cell search
Consists of Primary and Secondary subchannels
Primary SCH
Uses Primary Sychronization Code (PSC), TX
once every slot
PSC is the same for every cell in the system
Secondary SCH
Tx in parallel with Primary SCH
SSC indicates which of the code groups (64
groups) the cells DL scrambling code belongs to

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

51

D/L Spreading
I
DL Physical
Serial to
Channel data
Parallel
Conv.

I+jQ

Cd,SF,m

Sdl,n

Q
j

Channelisation code: - Differentiate users in a cell


- OVSF
- UTRAN assigns channelisation codes to diff. phy. chls
Scrambling Code: Differentiate cells
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

52

Scrambling Codes

# possible D/L scrambling codes = 2**18 -1 = 262143

Scrambling codes divided into 512 sets


1 primary scrambling code and 15 secondary scrambling codes
So, there are 512 x 16 = 8192 codes

Each cell is allocated one and only primary scrambling code


The primary CCPCH (Common Control Physical CHannel) is Tx
always using this primary scrambling code
Other D/L physical channels can be Tx with either the PSC or SSC
from the set associated with the PSC of the cell

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

53

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (D/L)


TrCH-1

CRC Attachment

CRC Attachment

TrBk Concatenation/
Code Block Segmentation

TrBk Concatenation/
Code Block Segmentation

Channel Coding

Channel Coding

Rate Matching

Rate Matching

1st Insertion of DTX Indication

1st Insertion of DTX Indication

1st Interleaving

1st Interleaving

Radio Frame Segmentation

Radio Frame Segmentation

2nd Insertion of DTX Indication

TrCH-2

TrCH Multiplexing
CCTrCH

Physical Channel Segmentation

2nd interleaving
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Physical Channel Mapping

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

PhCH#1

PhCH#2

54

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Physical Channel Mapping


on U/L: PhCHs are either completely filled or not
used at all
on D/L: No bits in locations with DTX indication
in compressed mode, no bits are mapped to certain slots
in a PhCH. Reducing the SF by a factor of 2, 7.5 slots
per frame is used in compressed mode

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

55

Multiplexing & Channel Coding (..cntd)

Insertion of Discontinuous Transmission (DTX)


Indication Bits
only on the D/L
used to fill up the radio frame with bits
insertion point depends on whether fixed positions (1st
Insertion) or flexible positions (2nd Insertion) of the
TrCHs in the radio frame are used
During connection setup, NW decides if fixed or flexible
position is used for each CCTrCH
DTX Indication bits are not transmitted; they only tell
when the Tx must be turned off
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

56

WCDMA Physical Channels

UE

P-CCPCH
S-CCPCH
DPDCH
DPCCH
PDSCH
PCPCH
PRACH

BS

AICH
P-SCH
S-SCH
CSICH
CPICH
PICH
CD/CA-ICH
Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

57

Channel Mapping on the U/L


Logical
Channels

CCCH

DTCH

DCCH

Transport
Channels

RACH

DCH

CPCH

Physical
Channels

PRACH

Dr. A. Chockalingam

DPDCH

DPCCH

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

PCPCH

58

Channel Mapping on the D/L


Logical
Channels

BCCH

PCCH

CTCH

CCCH

DCCH

Transport
Channels

BCH

PCH

FACH

DCH

DSCH

Physical
Channels

P-CCPCH

S-CCPCH

DPDCH

DPCCH

PDSCH

Dr. A. Chockalingam

Dept of ECE, IISc, Bangalore

DTCH

59