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Hypothesis

:
Between
Quantitative and
Qualitative Research
By :
Hela Benzina

Plan : Definition of hypothesis Hypothesis in qualitative research Hypothesis in quantitative research The difference between the two types Conclusion .

capable of being tested and able to relate to at least 2 variables It is a formal question that has to be resolved for a researcher . . A research hypothesis is a predictive statement capable of being tested by scientific methods . It is an assuption or or a supposition which has to be proved or disproved .  Should be precised .The definition of hypothesis : A hypothesis may be defined as a proposition or set of propositions set forth as an explanation of the occurrence of some specific group of phenomena . concised .

& predict Method : Confirmatory or top-down : the researcher tests the hypothesis and theory with the data .  Narrow-angle lens .Quantitative Research : Quantitative : deductive – reasoning from general theories to specific instances. look at cause & effect and make predictions . explain. . Researchers are supposed to be objective . Set to test hypotheses . tests a specific hypotheses Objective : Describe. It is the study of specific variables and not the study of the whole .

 Hypothesis script : There is no significant difference between (the control and experimental groups on the independent variable) on (dependent variable). not both. write only research questions or hypotheses . unless the hypotheses build on the research questions (discussion follows ) .  The most rigorous form of quantitative research follows from a test of a theory and the specification of research questions or hypotheses that are included in the theory. .  Testing of hypotheses employs statistical procedures in which the investigator draws inferences about the population from a study sample. ●  To eliminate redundancy. Hypotheses are used often in experiments in which investigators compare groups  Objectives : they often appear in proposals for funding . Hypotheses are predictions the researcher makes about the expected relationships among variables.

or the two variables may not have any relationship to one another. Hypothesis are used to state the relationship between two variables and may be stated as :  Null hypotheses : no relationship between two variables. Are not necessarily correlations.  Nondirectional hypotheses : we don’t know or won’t speculate about the direction of the relationship between two variables.  Directional hypotheses :We state the direction of the relationship between two variables. negative. May be either positive. The type of relationship or association among variables is determined by the level of measurement of each of the two variables.  Relationships specify: How the value of one variable changes in relation to another. .

.  Exploratory or bottom–up: the researcher generates a new hypothesis and theory from the data collected .Qualitative research :  Qualitative :inductive method. incorporates values and perspectives of both researcher and participants .  Qualitative researchers pose research questions :  Not objectives  Not hypotheses  Two types of qualitative research questions to focus a study's purpose:  Central question  broad question that asks for exploration of the central phenomenon  Subquestions  Questions that narrow the focus of the study .  Qualitative research answers “how” and “why” questions or process .

7. Ask 1-2 central questions and no more than 5-7 subquestions  These questions should: 1. 8. 2. 3. “meaning of” the phenomenon for phenomenology. 5. . “culture-sharing pattern” for ethnography. “issue” in the “case” for case study) of (central phenomenon) for (participants) at (research site). 4. 6. “theory that explains the process of ” for grounded theory. Relate the central question to the strategy of inquiry Begin with "what" or "how" Focus on a single phenomenon or concept Use exploratory verbs like discover or describe Avoid directional words such as "affect" or "impact" Evolve during the study Be open-ended without reference to the literature Specify the participants and research site (unless stated previously) A Script for Writing a Qualitative Central Question :  (How or What) is the (“story for” for narrative research.

 Can be based on hunches or personal experience. Assumes there is no one right or wrong answer. Different researchers may view the same situation and obtain different results. They also answer “what” questions. or a setting.      Qualitative Involves interpretation of a situation. consistent picture. Study of the whole. Analysis uses statistics. Analysis involves extracting themes from evidence and organizing data into themes and categories to present a coherent. Comes from a particular set of assumptions or theories about how research should take place. Qualitative research answers “how” and “why” questions or process  Usually focus on one concept or idea. set of behaviors. Quantitave           Have at least two variables Is used to prove or disprove whether there is a causal relationship between two variables. Analysis must take place within a context – different findings may accrue in different settings or situations. and charts and discusses how what they show relates to the hypothesis. Hypotheses are used often in experiments in which investigators compare groups It is the study of specific variables and not the study of the whole .  Generally don’t make comparisons among groups. Quantitative research focuses on causal relationships and their impact (outcomes). tables. Is logically linked to a research question or theory Hypothesis are used to state the relationship between two variables : How the value of one variable changes in relation to another. Can be expressed as a prediction or an expected future outcome.   Usually pertain to the actions or perceptions of participants. not variables.

in quantitative its purpose is to look at cause & effect. . However .Conclusion : Hypothesis in qualitative research is set to understand & interpret social interactions. & make predictions.