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Investigation of causes of deterioration of

buildings in Vijayawada and suggestion of

remedial measures by conducting suitable
laboratory tests

Submitted by T.Meher Sravani(138W1D8714)

Under the guidance of Dr Ch.Srinivas

Definition of Deterioration :
The process of becoming progressively worse i.e falling from higher
to lower level in quality
Factors Causing Deterioration in Structures:

Due to freeze and thaw action

Over loading
Lightening damage etc..,

How to detect deterioration in a building:

Visual inspection
Outer surface can be detected by testing with metal hammer
The deterioration of embedded steel can be carried by NDT
Sample testing is important part of any inspection
Non Destructive tests Performed in site:
Rebound hammer test:
Conducted to test the condition of cover concrete and to identify the
presence of any delamination


Quality of Concrete


Very good hard layer

30 to 40

Good layer

20 to 30



Poor Concrete


Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test:

To asses the homogeneity and
integrity of concrete a\ the test
essentially consists of transmitting
ultrasonic pulses of 50-54 Hz
frequency through a concrete
medium and receiving at the other




Very good to

3.5-4 Km/sec

Good to very
porosity may


Satisfactory but
loss of
ingredients is

<3 km/sec

Poor and loss

of integrity exist

Both Upv and Rebound hammer test

Test Results


High UPV values,High impact

hammer numbers

Not corrosion prone

Medium range upv values and low

impact hammer numbers

Surface delamination,low quality of

surface concrete, corrosion prone

Low upv, high impact hammer


Not corrosion prone, howerever to

be conformed by chemical tests

Rebound hammer

UPV Equipment

Literature Review:
[1] Hiroshi watanabe and hirohisa koga General information on
deterioration of existing concrete structures and recent
research topics on the maintenance techniques in PWRI
According to research results implementation of preventive
maintenance with diagnosis using non destructive tests is identified
as one of the cost-effective alternative for concrete structures
deteriorated by salt attack
[2]K.Mani and P.Srinivasan Corrosion measurements in concrete
A Periodical measurement of rate of corrosion taking into account
temperature and humidity and a statistical analysis of the data
measured over a period of time may yield better and reliable
assessment in predicting service life. It also becomes necessary to
define the level of damage more clearly to declare a structure

M.Neelemegam Non destructive evaluation in high strength
concrete using ultrasonic pulse echo
The present work focus on identifying defects and hollow pipes placed
at different depths in high strength concrete specimens. This can
locate depths from 50mm to 200mm.From the investigations it has
been observed that the smaller size honeycombs and voids could
not be detected .Hence the detection of smaller size objects
extending along length could be easier than those with bidirectionally equal dimensions
[4]Md Azree Othuman Mydin,Mahyudding Ramli,Hanizam Awang
Factors of Deterioration in Building and the Principles of Repair
The more that can be found about why defects have occurred, the
more can be fed back through the repair works by the professionals
accountable for conservation works. Good repair practice is central
to good conservation in all countries. Repair would be the only
action necessary to facilitate buildings to endure.

[5]Lee higgins, John P.Forth, Anne Neville,Rod jones ,Trevor

Hodgson Behaviour of cracked reinforced concrete beams
under repeated and sustained load types
A series of reinforced concrete beams have been tested in bending
under various load types. It has been shown that repeated loading
causes larger deformations in both the tension and compression
zones of a reinforced concrete member when compared to the
deformations experienced under sustained load. This results in
larger curvature and deflection values for beams under repeated
load types.
[6]Constantinos A.Balaras,Kalliopo droutsa,Elena Dascalaki,Smon
Kontoyiannidis Deterioration of European apartment
Age is commonly considered as a determining factor for not only the
deterioration process but also for the overall building performance
.The building's ownership status has the highest average
importance, while the age of construction or installation although it
influence more types. Element deterioration will be influenced by
their combined impact.

[7]Paolo Foraboschi,Alessia Vanin Experimental investigation on bricks

from historical venetian buildings subjected to moisture and salt
The results of compression tests performed on specimens extracted from
bricks of venetian building demonstrate that moisture causes a dramatically
decrease in the compression strength of a brick which is even more
pronounced if the brick is also subjected to a salt solution. In the presence
of trapped moisture ,the compressive strength of a brick is substantially
lower than that of dry brick and this reduction strongly depends on the salt
content .Moreover, the compression strength of brick may be either lower or
higher than that of brick without salts, depending on the moisture content.
[8]Emilio Bastidas Arteaga,Franck Schoefs,Mark G.stewart,Xiaoming
wang Influence of global warming on durability of corroding RC
Structures A Probabilistic approach
The results showed that global warming can reduce the time to failure by up to
31% or shorten service life by up to 15 years for moderate levels of
aggressiveness. it can be concluded that an optimal adaption strategy
should be selected by considering its risks,costs,benefits and environmental

[9]Santiago Guzman ,Jaime C.GalvezJose M.Sancho Cover

cracking of reinforced concrete due to rebar corrosion induced
by chloride penetration
Cracking and spalling of the reinforced concrete cover was the main
critical deterioration. Corrosion of steel reinforced bars due to
aggressive environmental agents was not uniform. Regarding facing
bricks and brick laying mortar , the most diffuse degradations were
delamination,cracking,presence of efflorescences,black crusts,
dissolution and leaching of mortar etc..,
[10] S.A.Reddi NDE Evaluation for large projects under
The selection has to be based on specific knowledge of the structure
as well as the testing methods and equipment. The use of NDE
methods is recommended on a selective basis. many of the NDE
methods may be yielding results which are only qualitative in nature.
Engineers should resist the temptation to quantify all NDE results,
for instance in terms of concrete strength.

Identification of buildings which were constructed 10-20 years ago
From these buildings scrutinizing the deteriorated buildings
Identified Police quarters located near veterinary hospitals
Identifying sample points in the building and conducting Non
destructive tests (Rebound hammer test and ultrasonic pulse
velocity test)
Collecting core samples from unimportant parts of buildings if
Analysing the composition of concrete at the time of construction by
conducting suitable laboratory tests for the collected core samples
Now with the help of data collected from the above procedure

casting of beams and slabs are done in laboratory

Now the load carrying capacity of beams and slabs are calculated
with the help of various instruments available in our laboratory
Retrofitting of these components are done with the help of Glass
fibre reinforced polymer and again the load carrying capacity of
these components can be calculated
Now by observing the site data and laboratory data comparison
analysis can be made and suggestion of suitable remedial
measures can be given for the deterioration of buildings