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Submitted by U.V.Tejaswi(138WID8717)
Under the guidance of sri V.Ramesh

Underground explosions are caused by the detonation of explosive
materials below the ground surface. These are due to civil engineering
applications like rock excavation and also due to some accidental
This project is to study the ground motion characteristics due to
underground explosion and its influence on structures i.e. dynamic
behaviour of structures.
Effect of charge wt and depth of the explosions on structures will study
by varying the charge wt and depth of the explosions. The soil below the
ground is taken as sandy soil.
Modelling of underground blast simulation will done by using the

. An explosion is defined as a large-scale, rapid and sudden
release of energy. Explosions can be categorized on the basis
of their nature as physical, nuclear or chemical events.
A number of important structures have been targeted by the
terrorist attacks through the use of significant amount of
explosives during the fast years. So these situations are lead
to the blast resistant designs.
The main parameters in underground explosions are ground
motions. ground shock results from the energy imparted to the
ground by the explosion.
Blast induced ground vibrations are mostly depends on
amount and the type of explosive used and sight distance.

The most important parameters for explosion ground motion

that affect structural response are its intensity and frequency
The blast ground motion intensity is often measured by its
PPV, where as the frequency content can be measured by the
The underground blast simulations are attenuates rapidly
through the medium from charge centre.
And it takes very short interval of time to reach the given point

(1) Chongqing Wu*, Hong Hao Numerical study of
characteristics of underground blast induced surface
ground motion and their effect on above-ground
structures. Part I. Ground motion characteristics
concluded as Ground motion attenuates rapidly when it
propagate away from the charge centre. Surface ground
motion has the large amplitude compare with free field at the
some distance owing to surface reflection. The surface of PF
has smaller frequency to the large charge loading at the same
scaled distance

(2)Hong hao, changing wu* Numerical study of characteristics of

underground blast induced surface ground motion and their effect
on above-ground structures. Part II. Effects on structural responses
This paper studies the response and damage characteristics of RC frame
structures. It is found that structural responses are dominated by low
frequency global vibration modes if ground motion frequency is low, and
by first local elemental vibration mode if ground motion frequency is
(3) Chengqing wua,*, hong haoa , yong lu b , shangqing sun b Numerical
simulation of structural response on a sand layer to blast induced
ground excitations It s concluded as sand is a good base material for
reducing the structural response & damage to blast induced ground
The response at all the targets on structures in terms of PV, PA, PD as
well as the maximum equivalent strains decreases considerably with the
placement of sand layer below the structure for both high frequency &
lower frequency simulations.

(4)H.J. Maa , S.T. Quek, K.K. Ang Soilstructure interaction effect

from blast-induced horizontal and vertical ground vibration
Under most circumstances but not always SSI reduces the structural
response. Most of the time the soil act as low pass filter and effects
the horizontal & vertical displacements.The base mass provides
provides inertia against the input excitation. Bcz of this , the top
horizontal displacement and base shear response decreases with
increasing of base mass.
(5) Hong Haoa,*, Yaokun Wua, Guowei Maa, Yingxin Zhou
Characteristics of surface ground motions induced by blasts in
jointed rock mass
In this Accelerometers were placed along three lines at 0 0, 450 and
900 to the predominant rock joint strike direction, on rock surface.
And concluded as The stress wav e attenuates slowest if it
propagates in the direction parallel to the rock joint . set &
attenuates fastest if it propagates in the direction perpendicular to
rock joint set.

(6) Onur dogan a , zg anil b ,* ,sami o. Evaluation of blast

induced groun vibration effects in new residential
The measured PPV values for underground blasts are 47-95% smaller
than those measured for surface blasts for a given site. Similarly the
dominant frequencies are reduced by 37-78% for underground blasting
operations compare to surface blasts. More then half of the frequencies
lie in the interval of 10-15 Hz for under ground blasts. For surface blasts
the frequency distribution is clustered in the range of 20- 30 Hz & 55-70
(7) Chongqing Waa,, Hong Haoa, Yong Lub Dynamic response and
damage analysis of masonry structures and masonry in filled RC
frames to blast ground motion
Masonry walls which are perpendicular to the radial horizontal direction
suffer severe damage and the walls which are parallel to the radial
horizontal direction have less damage. i.e. out of plane damage is more
severe than the in- plane wall damage. And the damage at first floor is
more to strong ground vibrations induced by blasts.

A 2 storey RC framed structure will be considered and the soil
below the ground level is taken as sand to study the response of
structure to underground explosions. Later different types of soil
will be considered for the study.
The charge will be placed at a distance of 1Q^(13)m from the
ground level. (where Q is equivalent TNT charge wt in
And this distance will be changed to study the effect of buried
depth on structure
An explosive chamber of dimensions 10m10m10m will be
considered at a distance of 10m from the structure in horizontal

In order to study the effect of loading density, the equivalent

TNT charge wt varies with the loading densities of 10, 20,
50,100,200 kg/m3.
The response is calculated first for 10 kg/m3 with different
distances below the ground level i.e the response in terms of
PPV or displacements against scaled distance are calculated.
And next the loading densities are changed against the
distance 1Q^(13)m.
Software ansys autodyn whis is based on Finite element
Analysis is used for study and Loading is taken as non
periodic loading.
And the Soil is assumed as homogeneous &Isotropic