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NERVOUS

SYSTEM

INTRODUCTION TO NERVOUS
SYSTEM
Controlling &
Coordinating

Judgement, intelligence,
memory

NERVOUS
SYSTEM
Involuntary, voluntary
mvts

Motor part

Sensory part

Introduction to the Nervous System and


Nerve Tissue
Three Basic Functions
1. Sensory Functions: Sensory receptors
detect both internal and external stimuli.
Functional unit: Sensory or Afferent
Neurons
2. Integrative Functions: CNS integrates
sensory input and makes decisions
regarding appropriate responses
Functional Unit: Interneurons or
Association Neurons of the Brain and
Spinal cord
3. Motor Functions: Response to integration

Organization of the Nervous System


to supply the three basic functions

Divisions of nervous
system
CN
S
Brain

PNS
Spinal
cord

Somatic

Sympathetic

Autonomic
Parasympathe
tic

PARTS OF BRAIN
Fore
brain
Telencephal
on
Cerebrum
medial part
intervertebr
al fossa
lat venticle

Mid brain
crus
ceribri
Substantia

hypothalam nigra

us
tegmentu

Metathalam m
Tectum
us
cerebral

Epithalamus aqueduct

Subthalamus
3rd ventricle
Dielencepha
lon
Thalamus

Metencephal
on

Pons,

cerebellum
4th
ventricle

Hind brain
Myelencephalo
n Medulla

oblongata

Organization of the CNS


grey Matter: Contains neuron cell bodies
White Matter: Contains cell extensions organized into tracts
W

How the nervous system formed ?


What is the unit of it ?
How will be the structure and function of a
unit ?

NEURON / NERVE CELL


NEUROGLIA supporting

Structure of
Cell
neuron
body
Dendrites
Axon

Nerve cell Body /


Soma
Cytoplasma neuroplasma
Nucleus
Nissl granules
Neurofibrils
Mitochondria
Golgi apparatus

Introduction to the Nervous System and


Nerve Tissue
Structure of a Neuron
Dendrites: Carry nerve
impulses toward cell body.
Receive stimuli from synapses or
sensory receptors.
Cell Body: Contains nucleus and
nissl bodies, a form of rough
endoplasmic reticulum.
Axon: Carry nerve Impulses away
from the cell bodies. Axons
interact with muscle, glands, or
other neurons.

DENDRTIES
Branched processes, shorter
has nissl granules
Transmits impulses towards the body

AXON

Organization of a Nerve of
the PNS

Schwann cells that form the myelin sheath

CLASSIFICATION OF NEURON
No.of
poles

Functions

unipolar bipola
r

multipol
ar

Motor /
efferent

Golgi
type I
Sensory /
afferent

Length
of axon
Golgi type
II

Introduction to the Nervous System and


Nerve Tissue
Types of Interneurons

Multipolar Motor Neuron

Multipolar Motor
Neuron

Multipolar Motor
Neuron

.
.
.
.
.
.

CLASSIFICAION OF NERVE FIBER

Strucure i) myelinaed ii) non-myelinated.


Distribution i)somaic ii) viseral / autonomic
Source of origin i) cranial ii) sp. Nerves
Functions i) motor ii) sensory
chemical neurotransmitters i) Adrenergic ii) cholinergic
Diameter & conduction / ERLANGER GASSER CLASSIFICA
TYPE

dIamet
er

A-alpha/Ia

12-24

Velo of
cond(m/s)
70-120
myelinated

A-Beta/II

6-12

30 to 70

,,

A-gamma

5-6

15 to 30

,,

A-delta/III

2-5

12 to 15

,,

1-2

3 to 10

,,

RECEPTORS

Definition
classification

RECEPTORS
INTEROCEPTO
RS

EXTEROCEPTO
RS

Cutaneous/
chemoceptorsteleceptors Viscero Proprioceptors
Receptos
mechano
receptors
Taste
Hearing
Touch
pressure
temp /
thermo
pain /
nociceptor
s

smell

vision

Stretch
baro
Chemo
osmo

in
Labyrinthin
e
apparatus
muscle
spindle,gol
gitendon
organ
free nr
endings in
muscle,

a. Free nr ending
b. merkels disc
c. pacinian
corpulses
d. krause end organ
e. miessners
corpulses
f. ruffini end organ

SYNAPSE

TYPES OF SYNAPSE
1. Electrical Synapses: Communication via gap
junctions
between smooth muscle, cardiac muscle, and
some neurons of the CNS. Provide fast,
synchronized, and two-way transmission of
information.
2. Chemical Synapses: Communication via chemical
neurotransmitters that diffuse across a
synaptic
cleft. Provides slow one-way information flow

Communication between neurons


at a synaptic junction

ction potential arrives at


synaptic end bulb.
epolarization of membrane
auses the opening of Ca2+
hannels.
crease in (Ca2+) inside of
resynaptic neuron triggers
xocytosis of neurotransmitter
eurotransmitter diffuses across
ynaptic cleft and binds to
eceptor (ligand-gated channel)
n postsynaptic neuron

Communication between neurons


at a synaptic junction
5. Na+ channels open
causing a depolarization
(Na+ channels)
EPSP (excitatory
postsynaptic potential) or
a hyperpolarization (Clchannels) IPSP (inhibitory
postsynaptic potential) of the
postsynaptic neuron.
6. If depolarization reaches a
threshold, an action

Communication between neurons


at a synaptic junction
Neurotransmitters
1. Acetylcholine: Found in the
PNS and CNS. EPSP and in
parasympathetic neurons
IPSP.
2. Amino Acids: Glutamate
and Aspartate produce
EPSPs in the CNS. Gamma
Aminobutyric Acid (GABA)
produces IPSPs in the CNS.
Valium enhances the action
of GABA.

Communication between neurons at a


synaptic junction
Neurotransmitters
3. Biogenic Amines:
Norepinephrine and
epinephrine produce EPSPs
in the sympathetic system.
Serotonin controls mood
and induction of sleep.
4. Gases: Nitric Oxide
produce by the enzyme
nitric oxide synthase.
Causes vasodilation and
erection.