Genus Rubulavirus


Genus respirovirus: Genus Rubulavirus Genus morbillivirus Pneumovirinae Genus Pneumovirus RSV Genus Metapneumovirus

Clinical Manifestations
• Mumps is an acute contagious disease characterised by non suppurative enlargement of one or both parotid glands. Other organs that may be also involved include the pancreas, testes, ovaries and central nervous system.

Only one serotype of mumps virus exists.

Pathogenesis and Pathology:
Transmission occurs through droplet infection. Primary replication occurs in upper respiratory tract epithelial cells. Viraemia then disseminates the virus to the salivary glands and other various organs where it replicates in epithelial cells mainly Parotitis . Incubation period varies from 18-21 days.

Pathogenesis and Pathology:
• • One third of infected individuals are asymptomatic. Virus may infect the testes and ovaries: atrophy of the organs may occur due to pressure necrosis and sterility may result. Virus may infect the kidneys, and it could be detected in the urine. The central nervous system may also be infected. Other areas may be affected: Pancreas joints

• • •

Complications in the form of: Aseptic meningitis, Meningoenchephalitis may occur. Rare complications include; polyarthritis, pancreatitis nerve deafness.

Immunity is permanent since one serotype only exist.

Laboratory Diagnosis:
A. Direct detection

B. Isolation: A. Serology:

Laboratory Diagnosis:
A. Direct detection of virus antigen in clinical specimens by immunoflourescent technique.

B. Isolation:
- SPECIMENS for viral isolation include; saliva, CSF, and urine. - CELL LINE Monkey kidney cells are preferred for virus isolation. - OUTCOME Cytopathic effect in the form of multinucleate giant cell formation is detected. Haemadsorption test.

Haemadsorption of erythrocytes on the surface of cells infected with mumps virus

Laboratory Diagnosis:
C. Serology:
Test employed include; - HAI test, - CFT test - ELISA test.

• • Treatment is symptomatic. No specific antiviral agents are available.

Prevention and Control:
A live attenuated virus vaccine prepared in tissue culture is available either in:

monovalent form (mumps only)

• combination with rubella and measles vaccines (trivalent vaccine = MMR vaccine).

Prevention and Control:
• The trivalent vaccine (MMR) is administered to children 15 months of age to give the best immune response.

The monovalent form is recommended for: - adolescents and - adults who have not had mumps parotitis before.

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