In conducting research
 Be

transparent  Be accurate  It is ok to be wrong
 In

writing

 Always

give credit  Keep organized and to the point  Pay attention to detail
 In

protecting subjects

 Informed

consent  How could your research hurt someone?

 Advantages
 High

Reliability if standardized  Used for descriptive data collection  Used for large scale collection  Used almost exclusively in quantitative studies.  Be focused on what kind of information you want to collect. Backwards design.

 Disadvantages
 Serious

threats to internal and external validity  Return rates vary  Time commitment in design and analysis  Possible low return rate  Can be expensive  Translation/interpretation

 Random-completely

selected by chance (lottery) must be tightly structured!  Stratified Random-splitting a sample population and then randomly sampling from within

 Hints
 Sampling

involves decision not only about which people to observe or interview, but also about settings, events and social processes.  Sampling means taking a smaller chunk of a larger universe.  A good conceptual framework will help set the foci and boundaries for sampling decisions.  The main goal of sampling is to strengthen the conceptual validity of the study.

 Hints
 Always

state how and why you chose your sample. Be honest!  Don’t sample too narrowly.  Time is big factor; sampling cases in a multiplecase study is a very demanding experience. Know your boundaries.

 Advantages
 Collecting

“Rich” data  Observing behavior  Non-verbal clues  Ability to modify Questions

 Disadvantages
 Time

consuming  Changing questions threatens reliability  Accessibility  Cost effectiveness  May be hostile  Serious threats to reliability and validity

 Structured  Semi-Structure

(Open Ended)

 Hints
 If

taping, have extra batteries and tapes  If taping, test distance from microphone  Always ask permission to tape  Listen-the temptation is to speak but don’t!  Warm up with easy questions, get the respondent talking and comfortable with you.  You get better with practice (pilot)

 Advantages
 Time  Money  Larger

sampling population  More information

 Disadvantages
 Response

rates  Threats to validity (how do you know if was completed properly)  No visual clues

 Hints
 Keep

questions closed. Data will be all over the place otherwise.  Keep responses simple, don’t confuse the respondent.