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RELATIVE

CLAUSES

RELATIVE CLAUSES
Definition

A relative clause is a part of a sentence beginning with a
relative pronoun.
Examle:

A man phoned. The man is my brother.
The man who phoned is my brother.

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the most basic ones are these: for people who/that for objects which/that for places where for reasons why for time for possession when whose 3 . Generally speaking.Basic relative pronouns The relative pronoun you use depends on the thing you're talking about.

. I study in the city. • → I live in the city where I study.WHERE • I live in a city.

. • OR • → The café in Barcelona in which I met my wife is still there. I met my wife in that café. • → The café in Barcelona where I met my wife is still there.WHERE / WHICH • The café in Barcelona is still there.

WHEN • The summer was long and hot. I graduated from university in the summer. . • → The summer (when) I graduated from university was long and hot.

It replaces a possessive. • The house belongs to me. belongs to me. • The little girl is sad. whose doll was lost.Whose ‘Whose’ is always the subject of the relative clause. • The dog is over there. whose car is a BMW. • → The dog. . Her car is a BMW. It can be used for people and things.is over there. • The woman is coming tonight. The little girl’s doll was lost. is sad. • → The little girl. The dog’s owner lives next door. • → The woman. • → The house. whose roof is old. whose owner lives next door. is coming tonight. Its roof is very old.

Therefore.. WHOM *It sounds very formal to most people. The boy is my cousin. The boy to whom I was talking is my cousin The boy that/who I was talking to is my cousin 8 . it is hardly ever used in spoken English. I was talking to a boy.

1) Some of the students had tickets and some did not.Concept Check: Match a letter to a number A) The students. went into the museum. . Only the students with tickets went into the museum. B) The students who all had tickets went into the museum. who all had tickets. 2) All the students had tickets and all the students went into the museum.

who all had tickets. B & 1: Defining B) The students who all had tickets went into the museum.A & 2: Non-defining A) The students. went into the museum. . 1) Some of the students had tickets and some did not. 2) All the students had tickets and all the students went into the museum. Only the students with tickets went into the museum.

Defining and Non-defining Relative Clauses NON-DEFINING London is an interesting place to live. which has a population of around seven million. London. it is between commas. is an interesting place to live. The clause gives extra information(has a population of around seven million). .

We do not know which man is being talked about. . The man was from Scotland. This clause tells us which man we mean. it has no commas. It is a defining relative clause. The man who sold me the car was from Scotland.DEFINING In this sentence. we need a clause telling us more about the subject. The man that sold me the car was from Scotland. and in this example we can use “that” instead of “who”.

have just released their third album.  The band .NON-DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES  The band have just released their third album. who are starting a tour next week . The band are starting a tour next week. .

. who is only eighteen. lives with his parents.• The lead singer lives with his parents. • The lead singer. The lead singer is only eighteen.

. was the largest concert in history  The organizers were inspired by the Live concert in 2005.  The organizers. which took place in July 2007. were inspired by the Live concert in 2005.whose aim was to start a compaign against climate change.  Their aim was to start a campaign against climate change.Combine the with  Live Earth was thesentences largest concert in a history.  Live Earth. relative pronoun  It took place in July 2007.

the final performer was Madonna.  He used to be the Vice President of the USA.  Al Gore. who used to be the vice president of the USA. The London concert took place in Wembley Arena. Al Gore was one of the organizers of the concert. In Wembley Arena the final performer was Madonna. In Wembley Arena. was one of the organizers of the concert.where the London concert took place. .

The people who/that live on the island are very friendly. . I bought the camera yesterday. • The house is in London. • The camera is broken. The house belongs to Julie. The house which belongs to Julie is in London.DEFINING RELATIVE CLAUSES • The people are very friendly. The people live on the island. The camera that/which I bought yesterday is broken.

• He spoke to me. • I spoke to him. . so 'who' is the subject . • The man that I spoke to told me the story of his life.Subject and object pronouns • The use of who/which/that may depend on whether the pronoun is the subject or the object of the sentence. • When the pronoun is the object it can be left out: • The man I spoke to told me the story of his life. so 'I' is the subject. For example: • The man who spoke to me told me the story of his life.

We can omit which.What type of relative clause do the rules refer to? 1. . who or that if it is not the subject of the clause. 2. 4. They give essential information. 3. They give extra information. We can use that instead of which or who.

5. We never omit the relative pronoun. 6. 7. . We cannot omit whose. We use commas to separate them from the rest of the sentence.

Remember Defining Relative No commas Omit the relative pronoun except when SUBJECT Non-Defining Relative Between commas No omission Relative Pronouns WHO: refers to people WHICH: refers to things WHOSE: for possession WHEN: for time WHERE : for places. WHY: for reason .

• This is the song _______I sang at the karaokee tonight.CHOOSE THE CORRECT RELATIVE PRONOUN: • They are the children _____mother is a famous singer. • That’s the girl ______has just got a recording contract. . • The person ____ is staying next door plays loud music in the mornings.

that/which/whose wasn’t very tasty. that/who/whose parents live in Glasgow. . b) Here’s the computer program that/who/whose I told you about. that/who/which is near Oxford. d) Peter comes from Witney. f) Have you received the parcel that/who/which we sent you? g) Is this the person who/which/whose you asked me about? h) That’s the girl that/who/whose brother sits next to me at school. c) I don’t believe the story that/who/whose she told us. was quite expensive. Choose the most suitable word in each sentence. i) The meal. e) This is the gun with whose/who/which the murder was commited.RELATIVE CLAUSES Exercises (I) 1. a) My friend Jack. invited me to spend Christmas in Scotland. j) We didn’t enjoy the play that/who/whose we went to see.

.. the robbers put the money was found outside the bank.I have left at the gate.... c) The shoes ... . you made me this morning. g) The present . or leave the space blank wherever possible. h) I really liked the tea . I gave you last year!. a) The person .. i) What was the name of your friend .. d) The bag in . the doctor gave me had no effect at all.. decided to change his seat.... I tried on first. e) The medicine ... you gave me was the one ... .... I finally bought were the ones ...Exercises (II) 1. ...... fingerprints are on the gun was the person ... j) He is the person .... Put a suitable relative pronoun in each space...... couldn’t see the screen.. b) My bike.. killed Dr.. has disappeared. I wrote to.. Martin. f) Peter...... tent we borrowed?.