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SISTEM

ENDOKRIN
dr ARIS PRASETYO, MKes

Komunikasi antar sel :
 Langsung
 Paracrine
 Endokrin
 Sinap/saraf

Mechanism

Transmission

Chemical
Mediators

Distribution of Effects

Direct
communication

Through gap
junctions from
cytoplasm to
cytoplasm

Ions, small
solutes, lipidsoluble
materials

Limited to adjacent cells that are
directly interconnected by
connexons

Paracrine
communication

Through
extracellular
fluid

Paracrine
factors

Primarily limited to local area,
where concentrations are
relatively high; target cells must
have appropriate receptors

Endocrine
communication

Through the
circulatory
system

Hormones

Target cells are primarily in other
tissues and organs and must
have appropriate receptors

Synaptic
communication

Across synaptic
clefts

Neurotransmitte
rs

Limited to very specific area;
target cells must have appropriate
receptors

Struktur Hormon


(1) Derivat asam amino,
(2) Peptida,
(3) Derivat lipid.

dopamine. dan dopamine secara struktural sama. Catecholamin dan hormon thyroid disintesa dari molekul asam amino tyrosine. Epinephrine. norepinephrine. norepinephrine (NE).Derivat Asam Amino     Diantaranya : epinephrine (E). hormon thyroid. . dan hormon melatonin. disebut dengan catecholamin yang diskresi oleh medula adrenal. Melatonin dibangun dari molekul asam amino tryptophan.

Glycoprotein. luteinizing hormone (LH). Peptida saja.Contohnya: thyroidstimulating hormone (TSH). oxytocin (9 asam amino). dan follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) .Peptida 1. antidiuretic hormone (ADH). 198 asam amino). mengandung 200 asam amino panjang dan rantai karbon. 191 asam amino) dan prolactin (PRL. 2. growth hormone (GH.

    Setelah transkripsi mRNA di inti sel. Rantai peptida yang terbentuk disebut prehormon Modifikasi di endoplasmic reticulum mengubah prehormon menjadi prohormone. Perubahan menjadi hormon aktif terjadi ketika prohormon melalui Golgi apparatus dan vesikel.untuk kemudian dilepas ke sirkulasi darah. kemudian ditranslasikan dan disintesa di ribosome. bentuk inaktif hormon. .

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derivat dari arachidonic acid  . (2) eicosanoids.Derivat Lipid Ada 2 kelompok hormon : (1) hormon steroid. derivat dari kolesterol.

ginjal  calcitriol . kelenjar adrenal  corticosteroid 3. estrogen dan progestin oleh ovarium 2.Hormon Steroid  Secara struktur mirip cholesterol. organ reproduksi    androgen oleh testis. Hormon Steroid di keluarkan oleh : 1.

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Eicosanoids Eicosanoids adalah molekul kecil dengan lima rantai karbon di akhir. Contoh :  Leukotrien yang dilepas dengan mengaktifkan leukocytes  Prostaglandin  .

. seringkali mereka harus berikatan dengan protein transport khusus.  Inaktivasi hormon terjadi jika : (1) berikatan dg receptor di sel target (2) diabsorbsi dan dipecah oleh sel liver atau ginjal (3) dipecah enzym di plasma atau cairan interstitial.Distribusi dan Transpor Hormon Hormon terdistribusi secara cepat ke seluruh tubuh melalui sirkulasi.   Hormon Thyroid dan steroid bertahan di sirkulasi lebih lama.  Hormon beredar bebas atau terikat dengan protein carrier khusus. karena ketika hormon ini masuk sirkulasi.

Fungsi dan Mekanisme kerja Hormon    Hormon mengalihkan kerja sel dengan mengubah type. aktivitas. jumlah enzim penting dan struktur protein. Bekerja jika ada Reseptor Receptor hormon terletak di (1) membran sel (2) sitoplasma .

. berdiffusi menyebrangi membran dan berikatan dg reseptornya yang ada di bagian dalam membran. and dopamine). mereka tidak bisa masuk dan reseptornya ada di permukaan luar. Karena catecholamin dan hormon peptida tidak larut lemak. peptide hormones. Sebaliknya. yang larut lemak. dan eicosanoid ada di membran sel.Hormon dan Membran    receptor catecholamines (E. NE. eicosanoid.

Contoh Second messenger: (1) cyclic-AMP (cAMP). Second messenger bisa berfungsi sebagai enzyme activator. inhibitor. (2) cyclic-GMP (cGMP). (3) Ion calcium. tapi hasil akhirnya adalah perubahan kecepatan reaksi metabolisme. atau cofactor. Butuh bantuan second messenger. .   Beberapa hormon yang berikatan dengan receptor di membran sel tidak bisa berefek langsung ke sel target.

.G-Proteins   Hubungan antara hormon dengan second messenger umumnya membutuhkan Gprotein protein membrane integral yang berinteraksi dengan receptor.

TSH. mengubah ATP menjadi cyclic-AMP (cAMP). Contohnya. dan glucagon. LH. ADH. Mengaktifkan adenylate cyclase. epinephrine. FSH. ACTH. parathyroid. . Adenylate cyclase.Mekanisme aktivasi G-protein: 1.hormon calcitonin.

Enzym ini membangkitkan second messengers diacylglycerol (DAG) dan inositol triphosphate (IP3) . Memasukkan atau melepas ion calcium.2. G-protein mulanya mengaktifkan enzym phospholipase C (PLC). Aktifasi G-protein dapat memicu pembukaan calcium ion channels di membran atau pelepasan ion calcium ions dari depo di intracellular.

Menghambat aktifitas seluler. Akibatnya kadar cAMP turun. G-protein ada yang mereduksi kadar cAMP di dalam sel.3. . menghambat aktifitas adenylate cyclase dan merangsang aktifitas PDE.

Contoh  Hormon sex testosterone merangsang produksi enzym dan struktur protein di otot skelet.Receptor di intracellular Hormon Steroid  berdiffusi  reseptornya di sitoplasma atau di nukleus  Kompleks hormone-receptor berikatan dengan segmen DNA di bagian yang disebut hormone-responsive elements (HREs).  memicu aktivasi atau inaktivasi gen spesifik dan mengubah transkripsi DNA.  . menyebabkan peningkatan ukuran dan kekuatan otot.  Hormon Thyroid meningkatkan produksi ATP di mitochondria.

(3) neural stimuli (adanya neurotransmitter).Kontrol Endocrine   Dipicu oleh (1) humoral stimuli (perubahan komposisi cairan extracellular). (2) hormonal stimuli (masuk/ keluarnya hormone). Negative feedback mechanisme .

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Hipothalamus CARA KERJA: .

Mirip dengan reflex saraf:  hypothalamus seperti receptor. atau regulatory factors. dan  sel target sebagai efektor.1. Bedanya. dan organ reproduksi. mengontrol aktifitas thyroid.  endocrine organs sebagai processing centers. hormon yang mengontrol sel endocrine di pituitary anterior Hormon yang dilepas oleh anterior pituitary. adrenal cortex.    Mensekresi regulatory hormon. refleks endocrine menggunakan hormon .

 Ketika sistem simpatis ini diaktifkan. medulla adrenal melepas hormon ke sirkulasi darah 3. Hypothalamus mempunyai autonomic centers yang secara langsung mempengaruhi medulla adrenal.2. Mensekresi ADH dan hormon oksitosin .

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PITUITARY GLAND KELENJAR HIPOFISE .

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    Anatomi Sella turcica. . inferior to the hypothalamus Hipofise:    9 hormon peptida :     posterior anterior 7 anterior pituitary 2 posterior pituitary Receptornya ada di membran. Butuh cAMP sbg second messenger.

Hipofise Anterior   Nama lain:  anterior pituitary  Adenohypophysis Dibagi 3 regio (1) pars distalis (2) pars tuberalis (3) pars intermedia .

Hypophyseal Portal System      capillary networks larger vessels that spiral around the infundibulum to reach the anterior pituitary gland. unusual vascular arrangement. efficient communication The communication is strictly one-way .

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Hypothalamic Control of the Anterior Pituitary Regulatory hormones: (1) releasing hormones (2) inhibiting hormones.     releasing hormone (RH) stimulates synthesis and secretion of one or more hormones at the anterior pituitary. . The rate of regulatory hormone secretion by the hypothalamus is controlled by negative feedback. inhibiting hormone (IH) prevents the synthesis and secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary.

.Hormon Hipofise Anterior        thyroid-stimulating hormone adrenocoricotropic hormone follicle-stimulating hormone luteinizing hormone Prolactin growth hormone melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH)  or thyrotropin  targets the thyroid gland and triggers the release of thyroid hormones  TSH is released in response to thyrotropinreleasing hormone (TRH) from the hypothalamus  As circulating concentrations of thyroid hormones rise. the rates of TRH and TSH production decline .

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Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)      Corticotropin stimulates the release of steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex produce hormones called glucocorticoids. the rates of CRH release and ACTH release decline. which affect glucose metabolism. As glucocorticoid levels increase. ACTH release occurs under the stimulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) from the hypothalamus. .

progestins. and androgens. The production of gonadotropins occurs under stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) from the hypothalamus. GnRH production is inhibited by estrogens.The Gonadotropins    FSH & LH are called gonadotropins. because they regulate the activities of the male and female gonads (testes and ovaries. respectively). .

     or follitropin promotes follicle development in women and. specialized cells in the tubules where sperm differentiate. In men.Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH). in combination with luteinizing hormone. FSH production is inhibited by inhibin. . FSH stimulates sustentacular cells. Estradiol is the most important estrogen. stimulates the secretion of estrogens by ovarian cells. a peptide hormone released by cells in the testes and ovaries.

. induces ovulation in women and promotes the ovarian secretion of estrogens and the progestins (such as progesterone). man). In men. which prepare the body for possible pregnancy.Luteinizing Hormone (LH). LH is sometimes called interstitial cellstimulating hormone (ICSH). These sex hormones are called androgens (andros. the most important of which is testosterone. because it stimulates the production of sex hormones by the interstitial cells of the testes.    lutropin.

and hormones produced by the placenta milk ejection occurs only in response to oxytocin release at the posterior pituitary . Prolactin.Prolactin        or mammotropin to stimulate mammary gland development In pregnancy and during the nursing period that follows delivery. glucocorticoids. PRL also stimulates milk production by the mammary glands production is regulated by prolactin-inhibiting hormone (PIH) and prolactin-releasing hormone milk production regulated by the interaction of several hormones. pancreatic hormones. estrogens. progesterone.

or somatocrinin) and growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GH-IH). body) stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating the rate of protein synthesis. every tissue responds but skeletal muscle cells and chondrocytes (cartilage cells) more sensitive GH is regulated by growth hormone-releasing hormone (GH-RH. Somatomedins stimulate GH-IH and inhibit GH-RH . or somatostatin) from the hypothalamus.Growth Hormone     or somatotropin (soma.

stimulates the breakdown of stored triglycerides by adipocytes (fat cells). which then release fatty acids into the blood. . These cells then release glucose into the circulation. The elevation of blood glucose levels by GH has been called a diabetogenic effect.GH metabolic effects In adipose tissue. In the liver. stimulates the breakdown of glycogen reserves by liver cells.

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and muscle mass. an excessive amount of GH is released after puberty. however. resulting in abnormal growth at the hands. when most of the epiphyseal plates have already closed.Growth Hormone Abnormalities     Growth hormone stimulates muscular and skeletal development. great). in extreme cases. If it is administered before the epiphyseal plates have closed. gigantism can result. . feet. lower jaw. Cartilages and small bones respond to the hormone. it will cause an increase in height. In acromegaly (akron. skull. weight. extremity + megale. and clavicle.

and many mammals other than primates. (3) in pregnant women. stimulates the melanocytes of the skin. . (2) in very young children. black. increasing their production of melanin.Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone      The pars intermedia or melanotropin. and (4) in some disease states. MSH is secreted by the human (1) during fetal development. amphibians. a brown. or yellow-brown pigment fishes. reptiles.

contains the axons of hypothalamic neurons. . Neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei manufacture antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. or pars nervosa (nervous part).The Posterior Pituitary    The posterior pituitary is also called the neurohypophysis. respectively.

angiotensin II The primary function of ADH is to decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys. In high concentrations. . stimulation of another hormone. any water absorbed from the digestive tract will be retained.Antidiuretic Hormone   vasopressin or arginine vasopressin (AVP) Is released in response to a variety of stimuli:       A rise in the electrolyte concentration in the blood – directly -Because they respond to a change in the osmotic concentration of body fluids. these neurons are called osmoreceptors. ADH also causes vasoconstriction. With losses minimized. a constriction of peripheral blood vessels that helps elevate blood pressure. reducing the concentration of electrolytes in the extracellular fluid. A fall in blood volume or blood pressure.

Although diabetes can be caused by physical damage to the kidneys. Water conservation at the kidneys is impaired. Diabetes insipidus generally develops because the posterior pituitary no longer releases adequate amounts of ADH. As a result. the individual is constantly thirsty. .Disorders of ADH Production       There are several forms of diabetes. but the fluids consumed are not retained by the body. and excessive amounts of water are lost in the urine. most forms are the result of endocrine abnormalities. The two most prevalent forms are diabetes insipidus and diabetes mellitus. all characterized by excessive urine production (polyuria).

oxytocin (oxy-. quick + tokos. . childbirth) stimulates smooth muscle tissue in the wall of the uterus-promoting labor and delivery stimulates the contraction of myoepithelial cells around the secretory alveoli and the ducts of the mammary glands-promoting the ejection of milk.Oxytocin    In women.