High Voltage Testing

Training Module/CTR

© ABB Ltd - 1 10-03-2003 - User’s Guide

INPT-R&D

Agenda
Definitions, Significance of insulation, Why testing? Definitions, General requirement, Generation and measurement, Test procedure, Methods of evaluation, Uncertainty in tests and measurement Test objects and various high voltage tests, General safety and precautions, Test objects standard requirement, Evaluation of test results

Introduction

High voltage testing techniques

High voltage tests on high voltage products

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Training Module/CTR

High Voltage Testing Techniques

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Topics

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Definitions and general standards requirements Generation of high voltages Measurement of high voltages Test procedures Uncertainty

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Standards

IEC 60060-1 – High-voltage testing techniques Part 1 – General definitions and test requirements

Describes general definitions and test requirements in high voltage testing techniques

IEC 60060-2 – High-voltage testing techniques Part 2 – Measuring devices

Describes general definitions and measuring systems requirement in high voltage testing techniques

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Definitions

Disruptive discharge (also referred as “electrical breakdown”)
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Failure of insulation under electrical stress, in which the discharge completely bridges the insulation under test, reducing the voltage between the electrodes practically to zero It applies to electrical breakdown in solid, liquid and gaseous dielectrics and combinations of these A discharge that does not completely bridge the insulation between electrodes, the voltage between the electrodes does not drop to zero Disruptive discharge occurs in a gaseous or liquid medium Disruptive discharge occurs over the surface of a dielectric in a gaseous or liquid medium Disruptive discharge occurs through the solid dielectrics

Non-disruptive discharge (also referred as “partial discharges”)

Sparkover

Flashover

Puncture

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Definitions
Is the air insulation and the exposed surfaces of the solid insulation of the equipment Is the internal solid, liquid or gaseous elements of the insulation of equipment Is the insulation which completely recovers its insulating properties after a disruptive discharge caused by the application of test voltage Is the insulation which losses its insulating properties, or does not recover them completely, after a disruptive discharge caused by the application of test voltage

External insulation

Internal insulation

Self-restoring insulation

Non-self-restoring insulation

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Definitions
Is an intentionally applied aperiodic transient voltage or current which usually rises rapidly to a peak value and then falls slowly to zero Impulses with front duration up to 20 µ s are defined lightning impulses and those with longer fronts are defined as switching impulses

Impulses

Lightning and switching impulses

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General requirements for test procedures

The requirements of test procedures are dependent on the follwing factors
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Required accuracy of tests results Random nature of observed phenomena / polarity dependence of measurement Progressive deterioration with repeated voltage application

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Requirements for test objects
Complete in all details Should be processed in normal manner for similar equipment

Test object should be complete in all respects;
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General arrangement in terms of clearances to other live / grounded parts should be taken care of

A clearance of not less than 1.5 times of the shortest possible discharge path should be maintained from extraneous structures

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Dry tests

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Test object should be dry and clean Test should be made at ambient temeprature The procedure for voltage application is as per IEC 60060 – 1 The voltage value and various configuration to be tested is as per relevant product standard

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Wet tests

Intended to simulate performance of test object when overvoltages occur in rain condition The procedure for voltage application is as per IEC 60060 – 1 The voltage value and various configuration to be tested is as per relevant product standard Precipitation condition for standard procedure
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Water resistivity – 100 ± 15 Ω m Precipitation rate – 1 to 2 mm/min in horizontal and vertical Water temperature – ambient temperature ± 15 °C

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Test specimen should be wetted for minimum15 minutes before start of testing Reproducibility of wet test results is low
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Adequate precautions on collecting vessel and method precipitation measurement are taken to minimize this dispersion The test object may be cleaned with a surface-active detergent. This is to be removed before beginning of wetting

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Atmospheric conditions
Temperature to Pressure bo 20 °C 101.3 kPa

The standard reference atmosphere is;
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Absolute humidity 11 g/m3

As products are tested under exsisting ambient conditions the applied voltage has to be corrected for the prevailing conditions

Refer to relevant product standard for applicability of correction factors

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Correction factors
air density correction factor k1 and humidity correction factor k2 U = Uo Kt where Uo is the specified test voltage

The total correction factor Kt is the product of

The applied voltage is calculated as

Air density correction factor at temperature t and pressure b is
k 1 = δm where δ = b 273 + t o b o 273 + t

m = is taken from figure

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Correction factors

Humidity correction factor

k2 = kw h δ w = is based on value of g (refer graph in previous slide) UB g = 500 L δ k where UB is the 50% distruptiv e discharge voltage where k = is dependent on type of test voltage and ratio (if not available assume 1.1times test voltage) L is the minimum discharge path in metres

No humidity correction shall be applied for wet tests

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Correction factors
Due to laboratory altitude and or extreme climatic conditions, the correction factor results in withstand level for internal insulation in excess to discharge voltages of external insulation

Conflicting requirments for testing internal and external insulation

In such condition the test object may be immersed in oil or compressed gas so that there are no discharges in external insulation during test

Reverse may happen in some cases, where external insulation is to be tested at significantly higher voltages. In order to assess the external insulation,
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Either the internal insulation is reinforced for test purpose or The test is made with dummies

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Altitude Correction factors

For installation at an altitude higher than 1 000 m, the insulation level of external insulation is determined by multiplying the insulation withstand voltages required at the service location by a factor Ka in accordance with figure (see next slide) Also see product standard for specific requirements Ka is also give by following formula;
(H Ka = e m -1000)/8150

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where
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H is the altitude in metres m is taken as fixed value in each case for simplification as follows:
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m = 1 for power-frequency, lightning impulse and phase-to-phase switching impulse voltages m = 0,9 for longitudinal switching impulse voltage m = 0,75 for phase-to-earth switching impulse voltage.

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Altitude Correction factors

For internal insulation, the dielectric characteristics are identical at any altitude and no special precautions need to be taken. For external and internal insulation, see IEC 60071-2 For low-voltage auxiliary and control equipment, no special precautions need to be taken if the altitude is lower than 2000 m. For higher altitude, see IEC 60664-1

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Definitions and general standards requirements Generation of high voltages Measurement of high voltages Test procedures Uncertainty

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Types of high voltage waveshapes
High ac voltage of higher frequency Lightning impulse ( High transient or impulse voltage of very short duration) Switching impulse ( Transient voltage of longer duration)

High ac voltage of power frequency

Impulse voltage

High dc voltage

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Alternating voltages

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A sinusoid in the range 45 to 65 Hz Value of peak to rms ratio should be √2 ± 5% For test durations upto 60 s the measured value of test voltage shall be maintained within ± 1% For test durations exceeding 60 s the measured value of test voltage shall be maintained within ± 3% The total uncertainty of measurement of test value should be no more than ± 3%

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Generation – Power frequency voltages
Cascaded transformer Resonance test transformer

Single phase testing transformer
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Testing transformers are generally designed to withstand frequent short circuit failures. Short circuit current rating is 10 to 20 times rated current.

Three Phase test transformer

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Test circuit requirement

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The voltage in the test circuit should be stable enough to be practically unaffected by varying leakage currents Non-sustained disruptive discharges may cause over-voltages in the test circuit due to uncontrolled resonance conditions produced by the interaction of leakage inductance of the source and the varying impedance of the high-voltage circuit This can be eliminated
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by providing sufficient damping resistance in the high-voltage circuit or short-circuiting the primary voltage to the high-voltage test transformer immediately following a disruptive discharge Controlled high-voltage resonant circuits do not produce over-voltages following disruptive discharges since they “de-tune” whenever the load impedance changes

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Testing transformer requirement

They are designed to withstand frequent short circuits when the test object fails or experiences flashover They should have higher impedance than typical HV power transformer. Typical range is 20-30%. Too high is not good for regulation. Short circuit current should be
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Minimum 0.1 A for dry tests on solid and liquid insulation On external self restoring insulation 0.1 A for dry tests and 0.5 A for wet tests. 1 A may be necessary for wet test on large specimens. For artificial pollution test this value should be upto 15 A. Also R/X ≥ 0.1

In order to prevent large dip in applied voltage during non-disruptive partial discharges the total capacitance of test object and any other capacitor in test circuit should be in the range of 0.5 to 1 nF

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Single phase testing transformers

Though power station equipment are three phase, single phase testing transformer is normally used for testing Features;

They differ from power transformer in the sense that they have higher short circuit impedance to withstand frequent short circuit It can be operated with overload for short duration

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Major advantage of this below 200 kVA is less cost Major disadvantage above 300 kVA is more cost

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General arrangement

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Tank type

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Tank type

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Tank type

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Tank type

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Cylindrical type

The test transformer are of the insulating shell design with metallic cover and base The insulating cylinder is made of reinforced Fibreglass, covered with a moisture-rejecting paint It is important to keep the surface of insulating cylinder dry and dust free all the time During high moisture periods infra-red lamps are used to keep the cylinder surface warm and prevent condensation

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Cylindrical type

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Cascaded Transformer

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Cost of insulation for a single unit is square of operating voltage When the voltage higher than 400 kV cascade is done
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as the insulation required is very high in conventional type Transportation and assembly are easy as the whole unit is divided into smaller units Natural cooling is sufficient

The units are enclosed by large size metal rings to prevent corona

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Block diagram

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Construction of Cascaded Transformer

V1

3V2

V1

2V2

V1

V2

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Cascaded transformer

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First unit is energized from low voltage primary In the same unit second unit excitation winding is available with the same no of turns as the primary of the first unit Second unit primary is fed from the first unit The potential of Second unit is fixed by the potential of secondary of the first unit Secondary of second stage transformer is connected in series with secondary of first unit Some times the second transformer unit is grounded at the half of the potential to reduce the insulation to half

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Cascaded transformer

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Cascaded transformer

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High voltage resonant circuits
Consists of an inductor in series with a capacitive test object, or a capacitor in series with an inductive test object By varying circuit parameters or the supply frequency, the circuit can be tuned to achieve a voltage considerably greater than that of the source and with a substantially sinusoidal shape This circuit is useful when testing objects such as cables, capacitors in which the leakage currents on the external insulation are very small in comparison with the capacitive currents through the test object Unsuitable for testing external insulation under contaminated conditions Consists of a capacitive test object in parallel with a variable inductance and a high-voltage source By varying the inductance, the circuit can be tuned, resulting in a considerable reduction in the current drawn from the high-voltage source

Series resonant circuit
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Parallel resonant circuit
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Equivalent circuit with Capacitive load
The output voltage, V0 for the circuit is given I Vo/ V I = 1/ {( ω RC)2 + (ω 2LC - 1)2 }0.5 For the light loads C is very less. As the load increases output voltage Vo = I * Xc = V/R * Xc = 1/(ω CR) * V =QV by the expression

Transformers’ simplified equivalent circuit can be modeled as shown in figure.
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R increases.

L

°
V C Vo

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Q is the quality factor of the circuit. It is designed with the value of 50 to 70 So the output voltage is Q times input voltage applied

°

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High voltage resonant circuits
Low input power requirements Negligible harmonic distortion Fault Current is limited in the series resonant mode preventing damage to the test sample Smaller in size compared to similar rating of conventional transformer

Advantages
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Used for routine and type tests of MV and HV and general purpose laboratory tests including wet tests

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High Voltage Impulse Generation

Transient over voltages due to lightning and switching surges causes fast rising voltage on transmission tower and hence on electrical equipments To simulate the service transient condition on the equipment for its withstand strength it is necessary to generate the impulse voltage On the basis of the front and tail time following classification is made
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Lightning impulse generation Switching impulse generation Very fast transient generation

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High Voltage Impulse Generation

The impulse is usually generated by an impulse generator consisting of

a number of capacitors that are charged in parallel from a direct voltage source and then discharged in series into a circuit that includes the test object and the measuring system

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Impulse generator – Block diagram

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Single Stage Marx Circuit
G Rs

V0

C1

Rp

C2

V (t)

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Rs Rp C1 C2 G

-

Front resistor Tail resistor Generator capacitor Load capacitance Sphere gap

V0 V(t) -

Rectified voltage Impulse voltage

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Three stage Marx Circuit

Uo – charging voltage Cs – impulse capacitor f – sphere gap Re – discharging resistor RL – charging resistor RD – damping resistor RL>>Re>>RD

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Lightning impulse waveshape

Impulses with front duration up to 20 µ s are defined as lightning impulses  Nomenclature  Standard Lightning Impulse

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1.2/50 µ s 1.2 µ s is front time Peak value (± 30%) (± 3%) 50 µ s is time to half-value(± 20%)

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U – Peak value T1 – Front time T2 – Time to half-value (tail time) T – Time between point A and B (30% and 90% of peak value respectively) O1 – Virtual origin

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Chopped lightning impulse waveshape

A chopped lightning impulse is a prospective full lightning impulse during which any type of discharge causes a rapid collapse of the voltage

The collapse of the voltage can occur on the front, at the peak, or on the tail

Tc – Time to chopping – virtual origin to instant of chopping

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Chopped lightning impulse waveshape

A standard chopped lightning impulse is a standard impulse that is chopped by an external gap after 2 to 5 µs Other time values for chopping may be specified by the product standard

Because of practical difficulties in measurement, the virtual duration of voltage collapse has not been standardized.

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Chopped lightning impulse waveshape
Peak voltage U Front time T1 Virtual steepness S = U/T1. This is the slope of a straight line drawn between points E and F

Chopped impulse is defined by
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This front-chopped impulse is considered linearly rising if the front, from 30% amplitude up to the instant of chopping, is entirely enclosed between two lines parallel to the line E-F, but displaced from it in time by 0.05 T1

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Switching impulse waveshape

Impulses with longer front duration (>20 µ s) are defined as switching impulses Standard switching impulse
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Nomenclature

250/2500 µ s 250 µ s is time to peak Peak value (± 20%) (± 3%) 2500 µ s is time to half-value(± 60%)

U – Peak value Tp – Time to peak T2 – Time to half-value (tail time) Td – Time above 90% of peak value

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Impulse current
Defined by the front time T1 and the time to half-value T2 1/20 impulse: front time : 1 µs time to half-value : 20 µs 4/10 impulse: front time : 4 µs time to half-value : 10 µs 8/20 impulse: front time : 8 µs time to half-value : 20 µs 30/80 impulse: front time : 30 µs time to half-value : 30 µs Tolerances
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Exponential
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Peak value Front time (T1)

±10% ±10%

Time to half-value (T2) ±10%

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Impulse current
Defined by the duration of the peak Td and the total duration Tt

Rectangular

Rectangular impulse currents with durations of the peak of 500 µs, 1000 µs, or 2000 µs and total durations from 2000 µs to 3200 µs Tolerances
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Peak value Duration of peak

+20% - 0% +20% - 0%

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Definitions and general standards requirements Generation of high voltages Measurement of high voltages Test procedures Uncertainty

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Introduction to HV Measurement
Moving iron and moving coil type instruments are used with series resistance (multiplier) for low voltage measurement The measurement of voltage and current in the HV tests are difficult by conventional measuring and recording systems When the voltage increases power consumed by multipliers increases Reduction of stray capacitance is not easy The other difficulties are related to large sizes necessary to
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Low Voltage system: Voltage < 1 kV

Factors in high voltage measurements
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control electrical fields avoid flashover to control heat dissipation within the circuits

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HV measuring system
Complete set of devices suitable for performing a high-voltage or impulse-current measurement is called as measuring system Converting device Transmission device Recording device

Measuring system

Components of HV measuring systems consists of
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Classification HV Measurement
Voltage is measured when the meter is connected directly with high voltage system Examples;
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Direct method
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Electrostatic voltmeter Sphere gap / rod-rod gap
10 kV Electrostatic voltmeter

Indirect method
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Voltage is measured by scaling it down to suitably lower value Examples;
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Series resistance Voltage transformer Potential dividers

Micro ammeter Peak volt meter Oscilloscopes , HV probe

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HV probe

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Sphere gaps

IEC 60052 - Voltage measurement by means of standard air gaps A uniform field spark gap will have sparkover voltage within tolerance under constant atmospheric conditions By precise experiments, the breakdown voltage variation with gap spacing, for different diameters and distances, can be measured Two identical metal spheres made of copper, aluminium or brass is used separated by an air gap The potential difference between the spheres is raised until a spark appears Standard values of Diameter of spheres are 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50, 75, 100, 150, and 200 cm

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Sphere gaps

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Effect of atmosphere

The density of the gas (generally air) and humidity affects the spark-over voltage for a given gap setting The spark over voltage for a given gap setting under STP must be multiplied by the correction factor to obtain the actual spark-over voltage Spark over voltage at NTP, U = KtU0

The atmospheric correction factors have been described earlier

In the uniform field configuration, sparkover voltage is 30 kVpeak/cm in air at 20 0C and 101.3 kPa pressure

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Sphere gaps – Protection

A series resistance of 100 to 1000 kΩ is connected in series with sphere gap to
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limit the break down current as causes pitting of sphere gap suppress unwanted oscillation in the source voltage when break down occurs in the case of impulse voltage

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Factors affecting measurement

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Tolerance on size, shape and conditions of spheres and their surfaces Nearby earthed objects Humidity Irradiation and polarity Dust particle Rise time of voltage waveforms

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Peak values – disruptive discharge voltages

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Reference: Table 2 from IEC 60052

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Sphere gaps
The sphere gap method of measuring high voltage is the most reliable and is used as the standard for calibration purposes It can be used to measure peak ac voltage up to 1 MHz Accuracy of measurement is proved as 3 % It can not be used for the voltage having rise time of lesser than 0.5 µ s DC spark over voltage reduction was about 20 % for lesser gap distances (1.3mm) with irradiation At long gap spark over voltage is not linear with dc voltage

Advantage

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Disadvantage
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Rod gap measurement

The rods shall be made of steel or brass, with a solid square section, sides between 10 mm and 25 mm and have a common axis. The ends shall be cut at right angles to the axis leaving the edges sharp in order to get a reproducible breakdown mechanism The clearance from the tip of the high voltage to earthed objects and walls, other than the ground plane, shall be not less than 5 m

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Rod gap measurement

The disruptive discharge voltage Uo for positive and negative direct voltage at standard reference atmosphere is given, for either the vertical and horizontal gap by;
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Uo = 2 + 0,534 d Where, Uo is in kilovolts and d is the gap spacing in millimeters This equation is valid for gap distances d between 250 mm and 2 500 mm and for a humidity range h/δ between 1 g/m3 and 13 g/m3 Under these conditions, the disruptive discharge voltage Uo has an estimated uncertainty of 3% for a level of confidence not less than 95%

The rod-rod gap shall not be used as an approved measuring device at gap spacing less than 250 mm because of the absence of streamer pre-discharges

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Resistance in series with Micro ammeter

High series resistance (specially designed to withstand high voltage) and resistance of 20 kΩ /V is used with micro ammeter (having 50 µ A movement). This method is applicable for both ac and dc A safety gap or neon lamp is connected across the micro-ammeter

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Resistance in series with Micro ammeter
By using a stable supply (of accuracy 0.1%) 1% accuracy can be achieved When the above method is used for alternating voltages, there would be the effect of the distributed capacitances Their stability of resistances are temperature dependant The two resistors are set by heat dissipation and heat transfer outside Current limits can be up to 1 to 2 mA

Advantage

Disadvantages

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Peak reading voltmeters

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Peak value measurement is important in HV measurement Types of Peak voltage measurement
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Capacitor charging method Neon Lamp Method Rectifier-Capacitor current method Rectifier with divider method - Impulse voltage measurement

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Voltage/potential transformer

Voltage is measured by stepping down the voltage from one side to another side by Faraday’s law principle

Inductive voltage transformer

Potential transformer

Capacitor voltage transformer

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Inductive voltage transformer

High voltage is measured by stepping down according to the ratio of turns between the primary and secondary
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Very simple design and construction Error due to Phase angle and ratio It does not permit fast rising transient Insulation required for very high voltages more than 100 kV is more and hence not cost effective

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Capacitor voltage transformer

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Capacitance divider with a inductive voltage transformer is used These are field measuring equipment unlike dividers are laboratory measuring equipments with very good accuracy Advantages
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The high voltage capacitor can be used in PLCC application instead of coupling capacitor Simpler design and easy installation Voltage ratio will vary with temperature Ferro resonance occurrence in power system Limited power output

Disadvantages
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Capacitor voltage transformer

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High Voltage divider

Potential divider consists of two impedances , HV arm (Z1) and LV arm (Z2) connected in series High voltage is applied to HV arm and measuring voltage is taken from LV arm The height of the divider depends on the flashover voltage between the electrodes Connection between LV arm and and measuring instrument is made by shielded cable to avoid stray capacitance
Resistive dividers Types of Dividers

Capacitance dividers Mixed dividers

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Resistive potential divider

Used for the measurement of all kind of high impulse voltages with steep wave fronts measurement of front chopped impulses Used when an additional capacitance in the test circuit is not permissible A distributed screen of sections and using an auxiliary potential divider to give fixed potential to the screens These are housed in flexi-glass cylinders containing a matched set of precision metal film resistors, alternatively anti inductively wound CrNi wire wound resistors

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200 kV and 100 kV

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Resistive potential divider
Resistive Voltage Dividers can measure up to 100 kV ac or 200 kV dc with accuracy better than 0.5% It is possible to measure the impulse voltage 2 MV by the careful design of low voltage arm They are generally used when an additional capacitance in the test circuit is not permissible due to the slowdown effect on the rise time Distributed capacitance significantly affect the resultant ratio. More than 200 kV resistive divider design is difficult

Advantages

Disadvantages
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Capacitive potential divider

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A single capacitor unit or stack of units can be used for the measurement In capacitor voltage divider two capacitances C1 and C2 are used in series, and the measuring system is connected across the lower arm capacitor Pure capacitive voltage dividers cannot be used for measuring impulses due to generation of oscillations created by with pure LC circuit L being stray inductance of lead and C the capacitance of the divider Neglecting the capacitance of the cable (approx. 50pF/m) the effective capacitance of C1 and C2 in series is C1C2/ (C1+C2), and since the charge is the same,

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VC2 = C1/(C1+C2) V

1000 kV divider
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Capacitive potential divider
Very good high frequency response for small capacitance and small dimensional divider Pure capacitive dividers are sensitive to input voltage with short rise time It forms series resonance circuit with lead inductance in the low voltage arms

Advantage

Disadvantage

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Mixed divider circuit

Combination of resistor and capacitor are used to eliminate the effect of distributed stray capacitances. The distributed capacitors compensate for the current drawn by stray capacitances It can be classified into two types
 

Parallel Resistive-capacitive voltage divider Damped capacitive voltage dividers

1 MV
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3 MV

3.5 MV

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Parallel Resistive-capacitive voltage divider

To reduce the nonlinear frequency dependant characteristics resistive divider capacitance is connected in parallel with resistor This is achieved by selecting equal time constants in both high voltage and low voltage arms Advantages

At high frequencies it acts like a capacitive divider and at low frequency like resistive divider. Loading effect can be reduced by step by step compensation

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Damped capacitive voltage dividers

Combination of very low resistors and pure capacitance are connected in series This used to reduce the voltage oscillations and reflections due to traveling wave It is possible to design more than 6.5 MV voltage measurements Disadvantage

Pure capacitive dividers are sensitive to input voltage with short rise time. It forms series resonance circuit with lead inductance in the low voltage arms

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6.5 MV outdoor type

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Requirements of divider as per IEC 60-2

Measuring system should measure Peak impulse voltage with the overall uncertainty of 3% Uncertainty of front chopped impulse measurement should be ≤ ± 5% Uncertainty of tail chopped impulse measurement should be ≤ ± 3% Time parameters should be measured within 10 % accuracy To reproduce oscillations partial response time should be < 15 ns Rise time and response time are important so that measuring circuit will transfer the same voltage to be measured Eliminating the stray capacitance in the secondary of the divider is important

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Selection of Dividers
Maximum value of each voltage type to be measured Required or specified transfer behavior of the voltage measuring configuration consisting of high voltage lead/divider, measuring cable/measuring unit Adaptability of low voltage arm to measuring instruments and measuring cable Capacitive load of test circuit Application of divider : -indoor, -outdoor, -stationary, -mobile and -suspended installation at ceiling or wall

Selection of divider is based on
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INPT-R&D

Methods of measurements
DC
Mean peak rms.

Method of measurement

AC
peak waveform peak

Impulse
waveform

Sphere gap Peak voltmeter Electrostatic voltmeter Voltage transformer Resistor in series with milliammeter Resistive divider Capacitive divider Mixed divider Oscilloscope/wave analyzer
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INPT-R&D

Accuracy requirements
Total uncertainty of peak or mean value measurement should be < 3 % Harmonics < 10 % Total uncertainty of mean value measurement should be < 3 % Lesser than 10 % of actual ripple or 1% error of the mean value whichever is more

Alternating voltage
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Direct voltage
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INPT-R&D

Accuracy requirements
Uncertainty of Peak of full impulse or chopped impulse on the tail < 3 % Impulse chopped on the front when the chopping time Tc , Tc > 2 µ s, uncertainty should be ± 3 %

Lightning and switching impulse voltage
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when the chopping time Tc, 0.5 µ s ≤ Tc ≤ 2 µ s, uncertainty should be less than ± 5 %

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Time parameter less than ± 10 % If the frequency of oscillation is less than 0.5 MHz and duration of overshoot is 1µ s mean curve should be drawn to see the magnitude. Overshoot is nearer to peak of less than 5 % of peak value

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INPT-R&D

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Definitions and general standards requirements Generation of high voltages Measurement of high voltages Test procedures Uncertainty

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INPT-R&D

Test with alternating voltage
The voltage is applied starting at a value sufficiently low to prevent effects of over-voltages due to switching transients It should be raised sufficiently slowly to permit accurate reading of the measuring instrument, but not so slowly as to cause unnecessarily prolonged stress on the test object at the test voltage The rate of rise should be 2% per second above 75% of the estimated final test voltage The test voltage should be maintained for the specified time and then reduced It should not be suddenly interrupted as this may generate switching transients that could cause damage or erratic test results The requirements of the test are satisfied if no disruptive discharge occurs on the test object Deviations from this recommendation may be specified by the appropriate apparatus standard

Withstand voltage tests
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INPT-R&D

Test with alternating voltage
The voltage should be raised in the manner described in withstand voltage tests until a disruptive discharge occurs on the test object The value of the test voltage reached at the instant of the disruptive discharge shall be recorded The voltage should be raised in the manner described in withstand voltage tests until a disruptive discharge occurs on the test object The value of the test voltage reached just prior to the disruptive discharge should be recorded The requirements of the test are generally satisfied if this voltage is not higher than the assured disruptive discharge voltage on each one of a specified number of voltage applications

Disruptive discharge voltage tests
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Assured disruptive discharge voltage tests
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INPT-R&D

Tests with impulse voltages

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There are four methods are specified by IEC 60060-1 Procedure A
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This procedure is applicable to the non-self restoring insulation 3 impulses of specified shape and polarity at the rated withstand voltage level are applied to the test object If there is no indication of discharges observed, test object passes

Procedure B

15 impulses of the specified shape and polarity at the withstand level are applied to the test object Test object passes if not more than two disruptive discharge occurs in the self restoring part of the insulation and no indication of failure in the non-restoring insulation

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INPT-R&D

Tests with impulse voltages
3 specified shape and polarity at the withstand voltage level is applied to the test object If no disruptive discharge occurs test object passed the test

Procedure C

If more than one disruptive discharge occurs, test object failed the test If one disruptive discharge occurs in the self restoring part of the insulation, then 9 additional impulses are applied. If no discharge occurs test object has passed the test

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INPT-R&D

Tests with impulse voltages
For self restoring insulation the 10% impulse disruptive discharge voltage U10 is evaluated by using statistical test procedures Direct evaluation of U10 or U50 and indirect evaluation of U10 can be done. In direct method number of test voltage are applied to find 10% disruptive discharge voltage In indirect method
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Procedure D – Statistical method

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U10 = U50( 1 - 1.3z ) z= 0.03 in general U50 can be evaluated by
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multiple level method up-and-down method

Test object is passed if U10 is not less than the specified impulse withstand voltage

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INPT-R&D

Combined Voltage Tests

Simulate conditions where one terminal of the open switch is energized at the specified power frequency voltage and the other terminal may be subject to either a lightning or switching overvoltage The test voltages are characterized by their amplitude, waveshape, polarity, and any time delay between the application of the two voltages

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INPT-R&D

Combined Voltage Tests

There is possibility of a disruptive discharge during the test suitable protective devices (decoupling resistors, inductors, capacitors, orprotective gaps) protect the test sources Definition of the applied waveshape is left to the appropriate product standard Measuring device is based on the requirements for the fastest and slowest waveshapes to be observed In all cases, voltages are measured as referred to ground

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INPT-R&D

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Definitions and general standards requirements Generation of high voltages Measurement of high voltages Test procedures Uncertainty

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INPT-R&D

Concept of Uncertainty
The concept of error is now old and no longer used. Error is deviation from true value. While calculating error we assume that the “true value” is known. However true value is never known. This concept says that any quantity is known to exist within a definite interval (nominal value and a range around that) with a given degree of confidence. Thus in this concept any quantity is described to lie within an interval and the level of confidence associated with it.

Error
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Uncertainty

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INPT-R&D

Definitions

Uncertainty (of measurement) parameter, associated with the result of a measurement, that characterizes the dispersion of the values that could reasonably be attributed to the measurand [IEV 311-01-02, VIM 3.9]

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INPT-R&D

Components of uncertainty
Uncertainty arising out of attributable factors which are known They are estimated by knowledge of effects of such factors on the measurement They represent the “accuracy” of the system These components are ones which cannot be attributed to any known factors These are evaluated by statistical measurements They represent the “precision” of the system

Systematic components
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Random components
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INPT-R&D

Old and new ways
The measurement is represented by the indicated single value say 10 Volts If a 0.5 class instrument has been used for this measurement we assume that the true value lies within 10± 0.5%. However the meter is not the only source of error in measurement. There are other sources like, personnel, ambient conditions which affect meter performance and various unknown (random) factors

Old way

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INPT-R&D

Old and new ways

New way
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The concept of uncertainty accounts for all these. The meter when calibrated is characterized with total uncertainty of calibration accounting all factors which affected calibration. Further, when measurement is made the total uncertainty of the measurement is evaluated considering all factors that affect the measurement (including the uncertainty of the calibration) A typical report of measurement with uncertainty figure is 10 V ± 0.5 V with 95% confidence level. Here 0.5 V is the total uncertainty in estimating the voltage value. And there is 95% confidence that the measurement lies within the range 9.5 to 10.5 V

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