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# FLOW

ROUTING
TECHNIQU
ES

## Flow Routing Techniques:

1.Channel Routing
a.

Muskingum Method

b.

Reservoir Routing

2.Hydraulic Routing
a.

## St. Venant Equations

b.

Numerical Solutions

Flow Routing
A procedure to determine
the time and magnitude of flow
at a point on a watercourse.
If the flow is a flood,
the procedure is known
as flood routing.

Applications:
Flood flow analysis
Flood Control Design
Flood Forecasting
Water Conveyance
Systems
Peak Flow Estimation

1. Channel Routing

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD
S- storage
I- input
O- output
K time constant for storage coefficient
X- weighing factor (0<X<0.5)

Wed
ge
inflow

stora

Prism

ge

stora

ge

outfl

ow

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD
Derivation of Muskingum Equation:
Prism storage = f(Ot);
Wedge storage = f(It, Ot).
Assume: Prism storage = KOt;
Wedge storage = XK (It Ot)

at t = t2, S2 = K [X I2 + (1 - X)O2]
at t = t1, S1 = K [X I1 + (1 - X)O1]

## Substituting S1, S2 into the continuity equation

O2 = Co I2 + C1 I1 + C2 O1
Replacing subscript 2 by t +1 and 1 by t, the Muskingum routing
equation is
Ot+1 = Co It+1 + C1 It + C2 Ot, for t = 1, 2,

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD
Procedure:
1.Knowing K and X, select an appropriate
value of t.
2.Calculate routing coefficients based on t,
K, X.
CO
C1
C2

3.Calculate

## the outflow hydrograph using

the Muskingum routing equation with t=1
and t -no. of time steps.

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD
FLOW RATE

Example:

## Given (knowns): O1; I1, I2, ; t; K; X

Find (unknowns): O2, O3, O4,

CHANNEL ROUTING

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b. RESERVOIR ROUTING
Also

## known as storage routing

Procedure for calculating the outflow
hydrograph from a reservoir with a
horizontal water surface
Flow of flood waves from rivers streams
keeps on changing the head of water in
the reservoir h = h(t)

CHANNEL ROUTING

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b. RESERVOIR ROUTING
Input

## data needed for storage routing

include the inflow hydrograph and
reservoir characteristics
(storage and outlet facilities)

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2. Hydraulic Routing
a. St. Venant Equation
Continuity Equation :
A
Q

0
t
x
Momentum Equation :
1 Q-discharge
Q
1channel
Q2
in

A- area of
flow in the channel
A t
A x A

y
- g So - Sf 0
x
Kinematic wave
Diffusion wave
Dynamic wave

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EquationRouting
:
2.Continuity
Hydraulic

a.

A
Q

0
St.
Venant
t
x Equation

Momentum Equation :
1 Q
1 Q2
y

g
- g So - Sf 0

A t
A x A
x
Kinematic wave
Diffusion wave
Dynamic wave
Q- discharge in channel
A- area of flow in the channel
S0 bed slope
Sf fiction slope of channel

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2. Hydraulic Routing
a.

## St. Venant Equation

Kinematic Waves
The kinematic wave method assumes that
the motion of the hydrograph along the
channel is controlled mostly by gravity and
friction forces. Therefore, uniform flow is
assumed to take place.

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2. Hydraulic Routing
a.

Diffusion wave
a.Diffusion

## wave routing is accomplished by

combining and solving equations. Mannings
equation is used to estimate the friction slope
Sf. Therefore, the channel must be described
as a series of cross sections that adequately
describe the hydraulic character of the entire
flow path, including slope, geometry, and
roughness

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2. Hydraulic Routing
Assumptions for St. Venant
Equations

Flow is one-dimensional
Hydrostatic pressure prevails and
vertical accelerations are negligible
Streamline curvature is small.
Bottom slope of the channel is small.
Mannings equation is used to
describe resistance effects
The fluid is incompressible

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Sources:
Applied

Hydrology by Chow
Prof. T I Eldho, Dept. of Civil
Engineering, IIT Bombay
Hydrograph Routing, Department of