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Flow routing techniqyes

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ROUTING

TECHNIQU

ES

1.Channel Routing

a.

Muskingum Method

b.

Reservoir Routing

2.Hydraulic Routing

a.

b.

Numerical Solutions

Flow Routing

A procedure to determine

the time and magnitude of flow

at a point on a watercourse.

If the flow is a flood,

the procedure is known

as flood routing.

Applications:

Flood flow analysis

Flood Control Design

Flood Forecasting

Water Conveyance

Systems

Peak Flow Estimation

1. Channel Routing

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD

S- storage

I- input

O- output

K time constant for storage coefficient

X- weighing factor (0<X<0.5)

Wed

ge

inflow

stora

Prism

ge

stora

ge

outfl

ow

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD

Derivation of Muskingum Equation:

Prism storage = f(Ot);

Wedge storage = f(It, Ot).

Assume: Prism storage = KOt;

Wedge storage = XK (It Ot)

at t = t2, S2 = K [X I2 + (1 - X)O2]

at t = t1, S1 = K [X I1 + (1 - X)O1]

O2 = Co I2 + C1 I1 + C2 O1

Replacing subscript 2 by t +1 and 1 by t, the Muskingum routing

equation is

Ot+1 = Co It+1 + C1 It + C2 Ot, for t = 1, 2,

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD

Procedure:

1.Knowing K and X, select an appropriate

value of t.

2.Calculate routing coefficients based on t,

K, X.

CO

C1

C2

3.Calculate

the Muskingum routing equation with t=1

and t -no. of time steps.

CHANNEL ROUTING

a. MUSKINGUM METHOD

FLOW RATE

Example:

Find (unknowns): O2, O3, O4,

CHANNEL ROUTING

10

b. RESERVOIR ROUTING

Also

Procedure for calculating the outflow

hydrograph from a reservoir with a

horizontal water surface

Flow of flood waves from rivers streams

keeps on changing the head of water in

the reservoir h = h(t)

CHANNEL ROUTING

11

b. RESERVOIR ROUTING

Input

include the inflow hydrograph and

reservoir characteristics

(storage and outlet facilities)

12

2. Hydraulic Routing

a. St. Venant Equation

Continuity Equation :

A

Q

0

t

x

Momentum Equation :

1 Q-discharge

Q

1channel

Q2

in

A- area of

flow in the channel

A t

A x A

y

- g So - Sf 0

x

Kinematic wave

Diffusion wave

Dynamic wave

13

EquationRouting

:

2.Continuity

Hydraulic

a.

A

Q

0

St.

Venant

t

x Equation

Momentum Equation :

1 Q

1 Q2

y

g

- g So - Sf 0

A t

A x A

x

Kinematic wave

Diffusion wave

Dynamic wave

Q- discharge in channel

A- area of flow in the channel

S0 bed slope

Sf fiction slope of channel

14

2. Hydraulic Routing

a.

Kinematic Waves

The kinematic wave method assumes that

the motion of the hydrograph along the

channel is controlled mostly by gravity and

friction forces. Therefore, uniform flow is

assumed to take place.

15

2. Hydraulic Routing

a.

Diffusion wave

a.Diffusion

combining and solving equations. Mannings

equation is used to estimate the friction slope

Sf. Therefore, the channel must be described

as a series of cross sections that adequately

describe the hydraulic character of the entire

flow path, including slope, geometry, and

roughness

16

2. Hydraulic Routing

Assumptions for St. Venant

Equations

Flow is one-dimensional

Hydrostatic pressure prevails and

vertical accelerations are negligible

Streamline curvature is small.

Bottom slope of the channel is small.

Mannings equation is used to

describe resistance effects

The fluid is incompressible

17

Sources:

Applied

Hydrology by Chow

Prof. T I Eldho, Dept. of Civil

Engineering, IIT Bombay

Hydrograph Routing, Department of

Geoscience, University of Nevada Las

Vegas

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