You are on page 1of 35

Pumps, Compressors, Fans,

Ejectors and Expanders


Chapter 20
ChEN 4253 Design I
Terry A. Ring

Pumps
Moves Liquid, Creates Pressure
Vapor bubbles
Causes Cavitations
Erodes Impeller

Solids Erode Impeller

Pump Types
Centrifugal
Positive Displacement
Piston
diaphragm

Pump Power = Q*P = brake (delivered) (horse) power


from motor

Centrifugal Pumps
Two Basic Requirements for TroubleFree Operation of Centrifugal Pumps
no cavitation of the pump occurs throughout
the broad operating range
a certain minimum continuous flow is always
maintained during operation
Pump around loops

Reduced Flows
Unfavorable conditions which may occur
separately or simultaneously when the pump is
operated at reduced flows
Cases of heavy leakages from the casing, seal, and stuffing
box
Deflection and shearing of shafts
Seizure of pump internals
Close tolerances erosion
Separation cavitation
Product quality degradation
Excessive hydraulic thrust
Premature bearing failures

Centrifugal Pump

Electric Motor

Centrifugal Pump

Electric
Motor

Centrifugal Pump
Converts
kinetic
energy to
pressure
energy

Impellers

Converts Kinetic Energy to


Pressure Energy

Different Types of Pump Head

Total Static Head - Total head when the pump is not running
Total Dynamic Head (Total System Head) - Total head when the
pump is running
Static Suction Head - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the
head is higher than the pump impeller
Static Suction Lift - Head on the suction side, with pump off, if the
head is lower than the pump impeller
Static Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with the
pump off
Dynamic Suction Head/Lift - Head on suction side of pump with
pump on
Dynamic Discharge Head - Head on discharge side of pump with
pump on

Pump Head
The head of a pump can be expressed in metric
units as:
head = (p2 - p1)/(g) + (v22- v12)/(2g) + (z2-z1)
where
h = total head developed (m)
p2 = pressure at outlet (N/m2)
p1 = pressure at inlet (N/m2)
= density of liquid (kg/m3)
g = acceleration of gravity (9.81) m/s2
v2 = velocity at the outlet (m/s)

Pump Efficiency
Centrifugal Pump

Pump Performance Curves

Resistance

Pump Design Scaling


Pump Flow rate
Q2 = Q1 x [(D2xN2)/(D1xN1)]

Pump Head
H2 = H1 x [(D2xN2)/(D1xN1)]2

Pump Brake Horse Power


BHP2 = BHP1 x [(D2xN2)/(D1xN1)]3

D = Impeller Diameter
N = specific speed

Net Positive Suction Head-NPSH


Pumps can not pump vapors!
The satisfactory operation of a pump
requires that vaporization of the liquid
being pumped does not occur at any
condition of operation.

Net Positive Suction Head


Required, NPSHR
As the liquid passes from the pump suction to the eye of the impeller, the velocity
increases and the pressure decreases. There are also pressure losses due to
shock and turbulence as the liquid strikes the impeller. The centrifugal force of the
impeller vanes further increases the velocity and decreases the pressure of the
liquid. The NPSH required is the positive head (absolute pressure) required at the
pump suction to overcome these pressure drops in the pump and maintain the
liquid above its vapor pressure.

Net Positive Suction Head


Available, NPSHA
Net Positive Suction Head Available is a function of the system in which the
pump operates. It is the excess pressure of the liquid in feet absolute over its vapor
pressure as it arrives at the pump suction, to be sure that the pump selected does
not cavitate.

Head to Feed Pump


To overcome suction head

Head
Designed
into
Installation

Subcooling before Pump

HX

Cool a few Degrees


To overcome suction head

Piston Pumps

Gear Pumps

Lobe Pumps
food applications,
because they
handle solids
without damaging
the pump.
Particle size
pumped can be
much larger in
these pumps than
in other PD types

Screw Pump

Centrifugal
Pump

Positive Displacement Pumps


Piston Pumps
Gear Pumps
Lobe Pumps

Diaphragm Pumps
The lower the speed of a PD
pump, the lower the NPSHR.

Pump Costs
Cost based upon Size Factor
Centrifugal Pump
S=QH1/2

Gear Pump
S=Q

Piston Pump
S= Power (brake)

Must cost Electric Motor also


S=Pc=PB/M

Compressors

Types
Centrifugal
Others
Piston
Lobed
Screw

Methods of Calculation in Simulators


Polytropic, PVk-1/k= constant,
Polytropic - This model takes into account both a rise in temperature in the gas as well as
some loss of energy (heat) to the compressor's components. This assumes that heat may
enter or leave the system, and that input shaft work can appear as both increased pressure
(usually useful work) and increased temperature above adiabatic (usually losses due to
cycle efficiency). Compression efficiency is then the ratio of temperature rise at theoretical
100 percent (adiabatic) vs. actual (polytropic). (k-1)/k = polytropic coefficient

Isentropic, s(T1,P1)=s(T2,isentropic,P2)
Theoretical Power
Powerisentropic= FlowRate*(h2,isentropic-h1)

Efficiency s =Powerisentropic/Powerbrake
s = (h2,isentropic-h1)/(h2-h1)

Cost of Compressors
Size Factor is Compressor Power

k 1
k

P2

T1
P1

T2 T1
s

Positive Displacement Compressor

Positive Displacement Compressor

http://www.city-compressors.co.uk/

Centrifugal Compressors
Rotors
Stators
Jet
Engine
Design

Piston Compressor

Expander

Reverse of Compressor
Let flow produce shaft work
Types
Centrifugal
Positive Displacement
Piston
Lobed
Screw

Methods of Calculation in Simulators


Polytropic, PVk-1/k= constant,
Isentropic, s(T1,P1)=s(T2,isentropic,P2)
Theoretical Power
Powerisentropic= f*(h2,isentropic-h1)

Efficiency s=Powerbrake/Powerisentropic= (h2-h1) /(h2,isentropic-h1)

Cost
Size factor = Power

http://www.city-compressors.co.uk/

Fans and Blowers


Types
Centrifugal (103-105 acfm, P=1-40 in H2O)
Backward Curved
Straight radial

Vane Axial
Tube Axial

Cost of Fans and Blowers


Size factor = Volumetric Flow Rate
Motor

Choice to Increase Pressure


Heuristic 34
Use a Fan
Atm to 1.47 psig

Use a Blower
< 30 psig

Compressor (or staged system)


> 30 psig

Heuristic 34 - Number of Stages


Up to a Compression ratio 4 for each stage
With intercooler between stages (P=2 psi)

Equal Hp for each stage (equal compression ratio)

Producing Vacuum
Steam Ejector

Producing Vacuum
Types
Ejector - advantage = large volumetric flow rate
Multi-Stage with interstage condensers

Liquid (Oil) Ring Vacuum Pump


Dry Vacuum Pump (rotary screw, lobe) (advantage =low
pressure) Designs similar to Expanders

Design for
Flow Rate at suction plus
Air Leakage Rate
Function of pressure and Volume of vessel

Cost
Size factor = Flow Rate at suction
Motor for pumps

Ejector
Produces Vacuum
Provides Low Pressures for
Distillation Columns
Fluid (P Psat)
Steam
for suction pressure below 100 mbar
absolute, more than one ejector will be
used, with condensors between the
ejector stages

Air
Water
Collects Particles in Gas Stream
Venturi Scrubber