You are on page 1of 57

Gas Turbine

Prepared by: Ayaz Ahmed

CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

OPERATION PRINCIPAL & THERMODYNAMIC CYCLE

INTRODUCTION TO GE GAS TURBINES AT FATIMA

LAYOUT OF TURBINE & GENERATOR

MAIN COMPONENTS & THEIR WORKING

STARTING EQUIPMENT

AIR INLET EQUIPMENT

AIR COMPRESSOR

VARIABLE INLET GUIDE VANES

COMBUSTION SECTION

TURBINE

EXHAUST SECTION

GENERATOR
2

TURBINE AUXILARY SYSTEMS & THEIR


WORKING

GAS FUEL SYSTEM


LUBE OIL/ HYDRAULIC OIL SYSTEM
COOLING & SEALING AIR SYSTEM
ATOMIZING AIR SYSTEM
COOLING WTER SYSTEM

FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF GAS


TURBINE
OPERATION PRACTICES & TURBINE
MONITORING
3

PRIME MOVERS

Gas Turbine
Steam Turbine
I.C. Engine
Electric Motor
Expansion Turbine

Comparison

Thermal efficiency of G.T. ~25- 32% whereas in I.C. Engine ~35-45%.


For the same power output, larger size Engine required as compared to
G.T.
Maintenance cost at I.C. Engine is much higher than G.T.
Thermal efficiency of Steam Turbine ~70-80 %.
Steam turbine requires installation of Boiler, condenser, pumps etc. so
initial capital investment becomes higher.
Motors becomes un-economical at higher power output because of
in-efficient conversion of energy into electric power.
Expansion Turbines used to recover waste energy from process. These
supplement the main prime mover.
4

GAS TURBINE APPLICATIONS

Gas Turbine developments in early nineties.


G. T. available in wide power range ( 7 KW-300 MW )

Stationary applications

Applications.
As a Prime mover for;
Compressors
Large Pumps
Electric Generators

Mobile Applications

Aircraft field
Marine propulsion
5

GAS TURBINE OPERATING PRINCIPLE

Conversion of Chemical Energy of fuel to Mechanical


Energy.

Air Compressor/Turbine mounted on single shaft are brought to


speed by diesel engine.

Air Compressor draws atmospheric air & increases its pressure.

High pressure air flows to combustion chamber where fuel


admitted under pressure.

Spark ignites fuel/air mixture initially.

Hot gases at high pressure expand thru Turbine wheels.

Rotor spins and produces shaft output.

Part of the shaft output is used internally by air compressor, the


remaining output available for driven unit.

Gas Turbine Flow Diagram


6

G E TURBINES AT FATIMA (O&U Plant)

No. of Gas turbine Units at Fatima : 02


Gas Turbine make
: General Electric

Data Summary

Gas Turbine model series

: MS-5001 PA
: Single Shaft Unit

Gas Turbine application

: Generator Drive

Base out put

: 26.3 MW

Operation cycle

: Simple

Shaft speed

: 5100 rpm

Air inlet temp.

: 43C

Exhaust temp. (On Gas fuel)

: 507 C

Atmospheric Pressure

: 0.99 bar
7

Compressor Section

: Axial Flow (Horizontal Split


: 17
: Variable
: 10.5 : 1

Turbine Section

Compressor type
Casing)
No. of compressor stages
Inlet Guide Vanes
Pressure Ratio
No. of Turbine Stages

: 2

Combustion Section

Combustors
: 10
( multiple combustors, reverse flow design)
Chamber Arrangement
: Concentrically (located
around the compressor)
8

: 04, ultra-violet type

Starting device

: Diesel Engine

Reduction Gear

: Pressure atomizing 1 per chamber


: 02, Electrical type, spring
injected, self

Starting system

Fuel nozzle
Spark plugs
retracting
Flame detectors

Shaft speed ratio

: 5100/1500 rpm

Generator

Type
Rating
Rpm
Volts
Frequency

:
:
:
:
:

air cooled open ventilate


26,250 kVA, at p.f. 0,80
1500
11000 volts
50 Hz.
9

LAYOUT OF TURBINE & GENERATOR


LOAD GEAR
COUPLING

ACCESSORY COMPARTMENT

AIR
INLET
PLENUM

TURBINE
COMPARTMENT

EXHAUST
PLENUM

10

11

MAIN COMPONENTS & THEIR WORKING

STARTING EQUIPMENT

Diesel Engine make

: DEUTZ (TYPE: TBB 616 V8)

Engine Power

: 450 KW

Engine rpm

: 2100

Cranking or rotation of Gas turbine Shaft By Diesel Engine.

Diesel Engine transmits rotating speed through torque converter


& Jaw clutch to accessory gear.

Main functions of Starting Device

Supply high torque at zero speed to breakaway the turbine.

Drive the unfired Gas Turbine to Firing Speed (18% or 1000 rpm)

Assist the Fired Gas turbine to self sustaining speed after which
starting device is declutched from Gas Turbine.
12

STARTING SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Diesel Engine

Hydraulic torque converter Assembly

Hydraulic Ratchet system

Starting Jaw clutch

ENGINE OPERATION

With start signal , Ratchet Pump starts , Starting Clutch


engaged, & Diesel Engine starting DC motor energized.

Engine at idle speed (600 rpm) for two minutes warm up period.

13

At the end of warm-up period, Engine governor set at maximum


speed (2100 rpm) until Turbine shaft starts rotation.

Engine speed set between idle & maximum ( 1800 rpm , governor
speed).

Turbine correct firing speed (1000 rpm of Turbine shaft) is


achieved. Engine speed remains at 1800 rpm while Gas Turbine
warm-up period is completed.

At 50% of unit speed (2800-2900rpm) Gas Turbine becomes self


sustaining & overtakes diesel Engine. Diesel Engine returns to
idle speed & idles for 05 minutes cool down period & then stops.
14

RATCHETING
Ratcheting is slow turning of gas turbine shaft.

Ratcheting Required:

During the cool down period of gas turbine to avoid Shaft BOW.

During the start-up to help diesel Engine for Gas turbines shaft
break away from zero speed.

In ratcheting Turbine shaft rotates 47 degrees in 10 seconds after


every 03 minutes.

A small DC-motor (125V) rotates the shaft through Hydraulic self


sequencing valve assembly.

Ratchet mechanism de-energized when the G.T shaft break-away


achieved.
15

AIR INLET EQUIPMENT (Filter House)

Gas turbine kind of air breathing machine.

Design consumption of Air at our Gas turbine is 103 kg/sec at


430C & 0.983 bar corresponding Air/fuel ratio of 40.

Performance of Gas turbine very sensitive to the quality of


Air & affected through:

Fouling of compressor Blades

Erosion of compressor/Turbine Blades

Fouling reduces the efficiency of the axial compressor by ingestion of


substances which adhere to surface e.g., oil vapors & smoke.

Erosion results due to hard particles in air such as sand & mineral dust
etc. These particles when hit on the blades, cut away as small portion of
metal thus causing serious damage to machine.

Filtration of Air upto 10 micron size before entering axial


compressor.
16

Filter House consists of three stage filter assembly:

Inlet screens

Inlet screens & Inertial separators


Pre-Filters (Primary Filters)
High Efficiency filters (secondary filters)
Screens/weather hoods at upstream of inertial separators to avoid
entry of birds, leaves, twigs papers etc.

Pre-Filters (Primary Filters)

Pre-filters can be installed immediately upstream of high efficiency


filters.
Pre-filters extend the useful life of high efficiency filters. These are
layer type & directly attached to high efficiency filters. Generally
replaced when P across the filter house reaches 12 cm wc.

17

High Efficiency Filters (Secondary Filters)

Made with special paper fabric & have efficiency of 99.7% particles removal.
Large particles remove by sieve-like action where as smaller ones adhere to
fabric. Normal life is about 6 months.

Inlet ducting & silencing

An air inlet duct connects the Filter House to air inlet plenum at compressor
suction.
Silencing provided in the duct by the use of acoustically perforated sheets.
Silencing baffles eliminate typical compressor tone.

18

AIR COMPRESSOR

17 stage axial compressor with inlet variable guide vanes.


Compressed air exits through compressor discharge casing to the
combustion chambers.
Air also extracted from the compressor for turbine cooling & bearing oil
sealing.

Compressor divided into four portions:

Inlet section
Forward section
Aft section
Discharge section

FIG. (Comp/Turbine Rotor assembly)


FIG. (Compressor Casing Lower half)

Inlet section

The inlet section directs air flow from Filter House into compressor blading.
This section contains variable inlet guide vanes assembly, the No. 1 bearing
assembly & Low pressure air seals.
Variable inlet guide vanes (IGV) permit fast, smooth acceleration of Gas
turbine without compressor surge.
19

IGV operated through hydraulic system & rotate through a large ring gear
& multiple small pinion gears.
At start up of Gas turbine IGVs are set at 4 33position & when Turbine
accelerates to 95% speed they turn to 853 position.
When turbine stops vanes rotated to 4 33 at once.

FIG. (Guide Vanes Pinion gear ring)

Aft Section

This is at down stream of inlet section & contains the stator Blading for
stages 4 through 9.

Bleed air from the 4th rotor stage (between 3rd & 4th stator stage) used
for cooling of turbine shell & supports.

Discharge Section

This section down stream of the aft section, contains the stator blading for
the stages 10 through 16 & exit guide vanes stages 1& 2.

This section provides the mounting surface for combustion chambers.


20

COMBUSTION SECTION

Components of Combustion section

Combustion chambers
Fuel Nozzles
Spark plugs
Flame detectors
Transition pieces

Combustion Chambers (Diagrams)

Ten combustion chambers arranged concentrically around the axial flow


compressor & bolted to compressor discharge section bulkhead.
Combustion Air supplied directly from the discharge of axial flow
compressor to combustion chambers.
Fuel fed into the chamber through the fuel nozzles that extend into each
chambers liner cap.
Combustion chamber outer casing bolted to compressor discharge.
Combustion takes place in inner liner.
Chambers called as reverse flow type.
21

Spark Plugs

Combustion of fuel & air mixture initialed by spark plugs.


Spark plugs installed in two of combustion chambers & receive
power from the ignition transformers.
The chambers without spark plugs (08 chambers) fired with flame
from the fired chambers through interconnected cross-fired tubes.

Flame Detectors

Four ultra-violet type flame detectors provided on the combustion


chambers opposite to those having spark-plugs.
They detect the presence of ultra-violet radiation which is emitted
by a hydrocarbon flame. The detectors provide a signal when the
radiation is sensed for approx. 0.2 sec.
On failure of both flame detectors Gas Turbine trips.
Flame sight ports on individual chambers.
Flame detectors ensure combustion in other 08 chambers thru
cross-fired tubes.
22

TURBINE SECTION

High temperature gases from combustion section converted to shaft


horsepower.
Power required to drive load package & compressor provided by the twostage turbine rotor.

Turbine components

First stage nozzles


First stage Buckets & wheel
Second stage nozzles
Second stage Buckets & wheel

FIG. (1st & 2nd Stage Wheels & Nozzles)


Combustion gases at about 800 C expand through two stages of
Turbine.
Expansion takes place in fixed nozzles of both stages.
Nozzles convert heat & pressure energy into high velocity or kinetic
energy and direct this energy to buckets/rotating blades.
Rotating blades convert kinetic energy into useful shaft horse power.
23

Temperature limitation on turbine wheels due to metallurgy.

Cooling of turbine parts (stationery nozzles, rotary blades, turbine shaft


& supports) with air drawn through compressor from different stages.

Turbines 1st Stage buckets are hollow & have cooling holes in the
buckets.

Cooling of wheel space area with compressor air.

Use of seals between nozzles & rotating buckets to restrict the hot gases
from leaking into the wheel space.

Operation of turbine with excessive wheel space temperatures can cause


failure of rotor studs connecting the turbine wheels.

Exhaust Section

Turbine exhaust gases discharged thru diffuser into the exhaust plenum at
temperature of about 5073C.

FIG. (Turbine Wheels, Exhaust Hood & Deflector)


24

Generator

Principle

Conversion of mechanical energy into electrical energy.

When magnetic field is cut by conductor, voltage is


produced in the conductor.
The higher the strength of magnetic field, the higher
would be the voltage produced in the conductor.

Generator having two parts: 1. Stator 2. Rotor

Stator has 3-phase armature winding (stamping insulated with


paper) In star connection.

Rotor contains field winding which develops electromagnet.

Field excitation (Rotor magnetization) initially obtained thru


battery & then thru Static Excitation System.
25

Fuel Gas System

Gas Stop/Speed ratio valve (SRV)

This valve is operated thru hydraulic cylinder & has two functions;

Stop Function

Tight shut-off of fuel gas achieved by hydraulic oil drainage thru SOV
(20FG).

Speed ratio Function

Regulated inlet pressure to upstream of control valve.

Pressure at downstream of stop/speed ratio valve maintained at 14.0


kg/cm.2

Electro-hydraulic servo ( 90 SR ) gives position control.

Input to electro-hydraulic servo ( 90 SR ) is the speed signal &


downstream pressure signal ( 96 FG ).

Actual position of valve sensed thru LVDT (liner variable differential


transformer,96 SR ).

LVDT installed on stem provides feedback signal to speedtronic.


26

Gas Control Valve (GCV)

Gas control valve provides the final precise metering of fuel gas flow to gas turbine.
It regulates gas pressure of 8-10kg/cm2 to fuel nozzles.

Speed tronic control gives its output signal called VCE to the electro-hydraulic
servo (65 GC). This servo adjusts the hydraulic pressure to the piston of gas
control valve.

Two LVDTs (96 GC-1/2) provided at the stem of gas control valve give position
feedback to the speed tronic control.

VCE signal by the control circuit is compared with the position feed back signal by
LVDTs. If the two signals do not match an error signal is generated and acts to
reposition the valve until the VCE & feed back signals match.

Fuel Gas Vent valve (20 VG)

Solenoid operated valve (20 VG) vents the gas from the piping in-between gas
stop/speed ratio valve & Gas control valve.

This solenoid is energized & vent valve closes when start signal is given to turbine,
it will remain closed until turbine is shutdown.

It provides block-n-bleed arrangement while gas turbine is shutdown.

27

LUBE OIL / HYDRAULIC OIL SYSTEM

Closed loop forced oil lubrication system.

Lube oil Tank

Three lube oil pumps

Integral part of the turbine base in the area under accessory section.
Capacity of the system (tank & other components) is 9000 litres.
Lube oil feed piping is contained within the lube oil tank or drain headers
to avoid safety risk in case of leakage.
The main lube oil pump is positive displacement type mounted in & driven
by accessory gear.
The auxiliary lube oil pump is a submerged centrifugal pump driven by
380V AC motor.
The emergency lube oil pump is a submerged centrifugal pump driven by
110 V DC motor.

Lube Oil Securities

High lube Oil Temperature alarm at 75 C


High lube Oil Temperature Trip of turbine at 80 C
28

Cooling & Sealing Air System

Different Turbine parts to be cooled;

First & second stage turbine wheel forward & aft faces.

First & second stage nozzles

Turbine shell

Turbine supports

Combustors casing , liners, transition Pieces.

Cooling air obtained from the compressor at following


locations;

Fourth stage Extraction Air.

Tenth Stage Extraction Air.

Compressor High Pressure Seal Leakage.

Compressor Discharge Air.

FIG (Schematic cooling sealing air)


29

Fourth stage extraction air

Tenth stage extraction air

Main part goes through bleed valves to exhaust plenum


Second part for cooling of 1st. & second stage nozzles
Third part routed to bearings seals through dirt separator

Compressor high pressure seal air leakage

Portion of shell surrounding the first & second stage nozzles


Aft surface of second stage turbine wheel
Supports which are in the exhaust gas hot path

Cooling for first stage wheel & discharged to exhaust hot gas path

Compressor discharge air

Cooling of aft surface of first stage turbine wheel forward surface


of second stage turbine wheel 1st stage nozzle ring & partitions
30

FACTORS AFFECTING PERFORMANCE OF GAS TURBINE

Atmospheric Pressure

Increase in P across filter house reduces Turbine efficiency.

Humidity in Air

Increase in ambient temperature also reduces specific weight of air which


reduces power output.
For every 10 3C increase in ambient temperature efficiency reduces by ~ 1 %.

P Across Filter House

With pressure reduction, Specific weight of air reduces which reduces power
output.
For the same power output fuel consumption increases.
For every 100 mm wc pressure reduction efficiency reduces by ~ 1 %.

Ambient Temperature

Performance of Gas Turbine affected by:

Humid air tends to clog filters & increases P across filters.

Load

At higher load Turbine efficiency improves & vice versa.


31

32

33

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

41

Vortex generator

Temperature induced
Primary Air Inlet
Material failure

FUEL NOZZLE
Cap cowl assy

Cross fire tube collar

Louvers

Dilution holes

Fuel Nozzle inlet

Primary air holes

Liner stop

Secondary/Mixing air

Spring Hula skirt


42

43

DUAL FUEL NOZZLE

1. Crossfire Tube
2. Atomizing Air Inlet Pipe
3. Oil Fuel Inlet Pipe
4. Dual Fuel Nozzle
5. Sighting Port
6. Gas Fuel Inlet Pipe

44

C - Gas Fuel

B - Atomizing Air

A - Liquid Fuel

Fuel Nozzle Body

45

46

47

48

49

50

51

52

53

54

55

56

57