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Trigonometry

Feb 11, 2015

Instant Trig
Trigonometry is math, so many people find it scary
Its usually taught in a one-semester high-school course
However, 95% of all the trig youll ever need to know
can be covered in 15 minutes
And thats what were going to do now

Angles add to 180


The angles of a triangle always add up to 180
20
44

68
44
68
+ 68
180

68

30

120
20
30
+ 130
180

Right triangles
We only care about right triangles

Heresthe
rightangle

opposite

A right triangle is one in which one of the angles is 90


Heres a right triangle:

hyp
ote
nus
e

Herestheangle
wearelookingat

adjacent

We call the longest side the hypotenuse


We pick one of the other angles--not the right angle
We name the other two sides relative to that angle

The Pythagorean Theorem


If you square the length of
the two shorter sides and
add them, you get the
square of the length of the
hypotenuse
adj2 + opp2 = hyp2

32 + 42 = 52, or 9 + 16 = 25
hyp = sqrt(adj2 + opp2)
5 = sqrt(9 + 16)

5-12-13
There are few triangles
with integer sides that
satisfy the Pythagorean
formula
3-4-5 and its
multiples (6-8-10, etc.)
are the best known
5-12-13 and its multiples
form another set

25 + 144 = 169

opp

hyp
adj

sine = sin = opp / hyp


cosine = cos = adj / hyp
tangent = tan = opp / adj

The other three ratios are


redundant with these and
can be ignored

hyp
ote
nus
e

adjacent

The ratios depend on the


shape of the triangle
(the angles) but not on
the size
opposite

Since a triangle has three


sides, there are six ways
to divide the lengths of
the sides
Each of these six ratios
has a name (and an
abbreviation)
Three ratios are most
used:

opposite

Ratios

hyp
ote
nus
e

adjacent

Using the ratios

opposite

With these functions, if you know an angle (in


addition to the right angle) and the length of a side,
you can compute all other angles and lengths of
hyp
sides
ote
nus
e
adjacent

If you know the angle marked in red (call it A) and


you know the length of the adjacent side, then
tan A = opp / adj, so length of opposite side is given by
opp = adj * tan A
cos A = adj / hyp, so length of hypotenuse is given by
hyp = adj / cos A

The hard part


If you understood this lecture, youre in great shape for
doing all kinds of things with basic graphics
Heres the part Ive always found the hardest:
Memorizing the names of the ratios

e
s
u
en
t
o
hyp

adjacent

opposite

sin = opp / hyp


cos = adj / hyp
tan = opp / adj

Mnemonics from wikiquote


The formulas for right-triangle trigonometric functions
are:
Sine = Opposite / Hypotenuse
Cosine = Adjacent / Hypotenuse
Tangent = Opposite / Adjacent

Mnemonics for those formulas are:


Some Old Horse Caught Another Horse Taking Oats Away
Saints On High Can Always Have Tea Or Alcohol

Powerpoint hosted on www.worldofteaching.com


Please visit for 100s more free powerpoints

TheSineRuleisusedtosolveanyproblemsinvolving
triangleswhenatleasteitherofthefollowingis
known:

a)twoanglesandaside
b)twosidesandanangleoppositeagivenside

In Triangle ABC, we use


the convention that

a is the side opposite angle A


b is the side opposite angle B
A

The sine rules enables us to calculate sides and angles


In the some triangles where there is not a right angle.

The Sine Rule


Consider a general triangle ABC.

Deriving the rule


C

SinB

CP
CP bSinA
b
aSinB bSinA

a
P

Draw CP perpendicular to BA

CP
CP aSinB
a

also SinA

aSinB
b
SinA
a
b

SinA SinB

This can be extended to


a
b
c

SinA SinB SinC

or equivalently

SinA SinB SinC

a
b
c

Using this label of a triangle,


the sine rule can be stated
Either

Or

a
b
c

sin A
sin B
sin C

sin A sin B sin C

a
b
c

Use [1] when finding a side


Use [2] when finding an angle

[1]

[2]

Example:

7cm

Given
Angle ABC =600
Angle ACB = 500
Find c.

To find c use the following proportion:

c
b

sin C sin B
c
7

sin 50 0 sin 60 0
7 x sin 50 0
c
sin 60 0
c= 6.19 ( 3 S.F)

In BAC AC 6cm,
BC 15cm and A 120 0

Find B
C
SOLUTION:

sin B sin A

b
a
sin B sin 120 0

6
15
6 x sin 60 0
sin B
15
sin B = 0.346

B= 20.30

6 cm
15 cm
A

1200

Calculating Sides
Using The Sine Rule
Example 1 : Find the length of a in this triangle.
B
a
10m
A

41

34o

Match up corresponding sides and angles:

10
a

o
sin 34o
sin 41

Now cross multiply.

a sin 34o 10sin 41o

10sin 41o
a
sin 34o

Solve for a.
10 0.656
11.74m
0.559

Calculating Sides
Using The Sine Rule
Example 2 : Find the length of d in this triangle.
D
10m
o
133
C

37o

Match up corresponding sides and angles:

E
d

d
10

o
sin133
sin 37 o

Now cross multiply.

d sin 37o 10sin133o

Solve for d.

10sin133o
d
sin 37 o

10 0.731
= 12.14m
0.602

What goes in the Box ?


Find the unknown side in each of the triangles below:

12cm

(1)

32

72o

47o

b
93o

a = 6.7cm

11 Feb 2015

(2)

16mm

b = 21.8mm

Calculating Angles
Using The Sine Rule
Example 1 :
Find the angle A

45m

38m

23o

Match up corresponding sides and angles:

45
38

sin Ao sin 23o

Now cross multiply:

38sin Ao 45sin 23o

Solve for sin Ao

45sin 23o
sin A
= 0.463
38

Use sin-1 0.463 to find Ao

Ao sin 1 0.463 27.6o

Calculating Angles
Using The Sine Rule
75m

Example 2 :
Find the angle Bo

Bo
143o

38m

Match up corresponding sides and angles:

75
38

o
sin143o
sin B

Now cross multiply:

75sin B o 38sin143o

Solve for sin Bo

o
38sin143
sin B o
75

Use sin-1 0.305 to find Bo

= 0.305

B sin 0.305 17.8


o

What Goes In The Box ?


Calculate the unknown angle in the following:
(1)

100o

8.9m

Ao

(2)

12.9cm Bo

14.5m
Ao = 37.2o

14o

14.7cm
Bo = 16o

DRILL:
SOLVE THE FOLLOWING USING THE SINE RULE:
Problem 1 (Given two angles and a side)
In triangle ABC, A = 59, B = 39 and a = 6.73cm.
Find angle C, sides b and c.
Problem 2 (Given two sides and an acute angle)
In triangle ABC , A = 55, b = 16.3cm and
a = 14.3cm. Find angle B, angle C and side c.

Problem 3 (Given two sides and an obtuse angle)


In triangle ABC A =100, b = 5cm and a = 7.7cm
Find the unknown angles and side.

Answer Problem 1
C = 180 - (39 + 59)
= 82

ANSWER PROBLEM 2

14.3
16.3

0
sin B
sin 55

16.3
c

0
sin 69
sin 56 0

16.3 sin 55 0
sin B
14.3

16.3 sin 56 0
c
sin 69 0

= 0.9337

= 14.5 cm (3 SF)

B 69.0

C 180 0 69 0 55 0

56 0

Answer Problem 3

Sometimes the sine rule is not enough to he


solve for a non-right angled triangle.
For example:
C

14

300
18

In the triangle shown, we do not have enough informatio


to use the sine rule. That is, the sine rule only provided t
Following:

a
14
18

0
sin B sin C
sin 30
Where there are too many unknowns.

Cosine Rule
Learning Intention
1. To show when to use the
cosine rule to solve REAL
LIFE problems involving
finding an angle of a
triangle .

11 Feb 2015

Success Criteria
1. Know when to use the cosine
rule to solve REAL LIFE
problems.
2. Solve REAL LIFE problems
that involve finding an angle of
a triangle.

Cosine Rule
Works for any Triangle

The Cosine Rule can be used with ANY triangle


as long as we have been given enough information.

a =b +c - 2bc cos A
2

c
A
11 Feb 2015

C
b

We use the Cosine Rule


when:
Two sides and the INCLUDED
angle (SAS)
OR

All three sides (SSS)

Finding Angles
Using The Cosine Rule
Works for any Triangle
Consider the Cosine Rule again:
We are going to change the subject of the formula to cos A o
b2 + c2 2bc cos Ao = a2

Turn the formula around:

-2bc cos Ao = a2 b2 c2

Take b2 and c2 across.

2
2
2
a

c
cos Ao
2bc

b c a
cos A
2bc
o

Divide by 2 bc.
Divide top and bottom by -1
You now have a formula for
finding an angle if you know all
three sides of the triangle.

Finding Angles
Using The Cosine Rule
Works for any Triangle
Example 1 : Calculate the
unknown angle xo .
2
2
2
b

a
cos Ao
2bc

a = 11 b = 9

Ao = ?

92 162 112
cos A
2 9 16

Write down the formula for cos Ao

c = 16 Label and identify Ao and a , b and c.

Substitute values into the formula.

Cos Ao = 0.75

Calculate cos Ao .

Ao = 41.4o

Use cos-1 0.75 to find Ao

Finding Angles
Using The Cosine Rule
Works for any Triangle
Example 2: Find the unknown
Angle in the triangle:
2
2
2
b

a
cos Ao
2bc

A o = yo

a = 26

b = 15

Write down the formula.


c = 13

2
2
2
15

13

26
cos Ao
2 15 13

cosA = - 0.723
o

Ao = yo = 136.3o

Identify the sides and angle.


Find the value of cosAo
The negative tells you
the angle is obtuse.

What Goes In The Box ?


Calculate the unknown angles in the triangles below:
(1)
5m

Ao
10m
Ao =111.8o

7m

(2)

12.7cm

Bo
8.3cm

7.9cm
Bo = 37.3o

The Cosine Rule

A
c b
B
C
B a C
(One side)

=
(other side)2+(last side)2
2(other side)(last side)cos(angle of
1st side)

Practice Together: Find the


length of side a

Find the length of side r in km:

3 sig figs!!

3.38
0

Find the length of AC in cm:

8.3

72

3 sig figs!!

5.4 cm

cm

8.39
0

Practice Together: Find the


measure of the unknown
angles

Find the measure of angle GHI


G
3 sig figs!!
13

11 cm

cm
68.7
0

12 cm

Find the measure of angle DEF:

3 sig figs!!

cm

m
c
0
1

7 cm

112
0

Find the measure of the largest


angle of a triangle with sides
11cm, 13cm, and 19cm.

3 sig figs!!
104
0

For this reason we derive another useful result, known as the


COSINE RULE. The Cosine Rule maybe used when:
a. Two sides and an included angle are given.
b. Three sides are given
C
C

A
b

B
c

c
B

The cosine Rule: To find the length of a side


a2 = b2+ c2 - 2bc cos A
b2 = a2 + c2 - 2ac cos B
c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C

Example 1 (Given three sides)


In triangle ABC, a = 4cm, b = 5cm and
c = 7cm. Find the size of the largest
angle. The largest angle is the one
facing the longest side, which is angle
C.

Example 2 (Given two sides and an included angle)

<>

Solve triangle ABC in which A = 55, b = 2.4cm and


c = 2.9cm
By cosine rule,
a2 = 2.42 + 2.92 - 2 x 2.9 x 2.4 cos 55
= 6.1858
a = 2.49cm

Mixed problems
Learning Intention
1. To use our knowledge
gained so far to solve
various trigonometry
problems.

11 Feb 2015

Success Criteria
1. Be able to recognise the
correct trigonometric formula
to use to solve a problem
involving triangles.

T
10o
36.5
35o
B

Angle TDA = 180 35 = 145o


Angle DTA = 180 170 = 10o
TD
15

Sin 25o Sin10o


15Sin 25o
TD
36.5 m
Sin10

The angle of
elevation of
the top of a
building
measured
from point A
o
is 25 . At

145o
25o
D
15 m

Sin 35o

TB
36.5

TB 36.5Sin 35o 20.9 m

The angle of elevation of the top of a column measured from point A, is 20o. The
angle of elevation of the top of the statue is 25o. Find the height of the statue when
the measurements are taken 50 m from its base
Angle BCA = 180 110 = 70o

Angle ACT = 180 70 = 110o

Angle ATC =

65o
110o
C
70o

50
TC
53.21

Sin5o Sin 65o


AC
50
AC
53.21 Sin 5
5.1 m(1dp )
Cos 20o TC
Sin 65o
53.21 m (2dp )
Cos 20o

21
53.

180 115 = 65o

5o
20

25o
50 m

A fishing boat leaves a harbour (H) and travels due East for 40 miles to a
marker buoy (B). At B the boat turns left and sails for 24 miles to a
lighthouse (L). It then returns to harbour, a distance of 57 miles.
(a) Make a sketch of the journey.
(b) Find the bearing of the lighthouse from the harbour. (nearest degree)

572 402 242


CosA
2x 57x 40
20.4o
A

Bearing 90 20.4 070

57 miles

24 miles
A

40 miles

An AWACS aircraft takes off from RAF


Waddington (W) on a navigation
exercise. It flies 530 miles North to
a point (P) as shown, It then turns
left and flies to a point (Q), 670
miles away. Finally it flies back to
base, a distance of 520 miles.
Find the bearing of Q from point P.

b2 c 2 a2
CosA
2bc
5302 6702 5202
CosP
2x 530x 670

P 48.7o
Bearing 180 48.7 229o

Not to Scale

670 miles
530 miles

Q
520 miles

Bearings
L.I. To use compass bearings to describe position.

Bearings
Tell us in what direction something is
Are more accurate than using compass points
Are always three figures
Always measure the angle clockwise from North

Matching compass points


000
315

29
270
3
24
225
8

33
8

20

180

02 045
3
06
090
8
11
135
3
15

Measuring bearings
Find the bearing of B from A.
Mark the North line on at A
(if there isnt a North line
draw one in)
Draw the line connecting A
to B.

A
B

Measure the angle


clockwise from the North line
to B

Measuring bearings
Find the bearing of B from A.
Place your protractor over
the north line with 0 at the
top.
Give the answer as a threefigure bearing

The bearing of B from A is 135.

Measuring bearings
Find the bearing of A from B.
Mark the North line on at B
(if there isnt a North line
draw one in)
Draw the line connecting B
to A.

Ax
xB

Measure the angle


clockwise from the North line
to A

Measuring bearings
Find the bearing of A from B.
Place your protractor over
the north line with 0 at the
bottom.

Ax
xB

Because you are measuring


clockwise you need to
measure the exterior angle.
The angle has gone past
180 so you will need to add
your measurement to 180

Measuring bearings
Find the bearing of A from B.

1
3Ax
5

The measurement from the


bottom 0 is 135.
135 + 180 = 315.

xB

The bearing of A from B is 315.

Bearings

Measuring the bearing of one point from another.


To Find the bearing of B from A.

A
Worksheet 3

060o

B
1. Draw a straight line between both points.
2. Draw a North line at A.
3. Measure the angle between.

Bearings

Measuring the bearing of one point from another.


To Find the bearing of A from B.

B
240o
Worksheet 3

1. Draw a straight line between both points.


2. Draw a North line at B.
3. Measure angle between.

Bearings

Measuring the bearing of one point from another.


N

240o

Worksheet 3

060o

B
How are the bearings
of A and B from each
other related and
why?

Bearings

Measuring the bearing of one point from another.


N

To Find the bearing of Q from P.

P
1. Draw a straight line between both points.
2. Draw a North line at P.
3. Measure angle between.

118o

Q
Worksheet 3

Bearings

Measuring the bearing of one point from another.


To Find the bearing of P from Q.
N
298o

1. Draw a straight line between both points.


2. Draw a North line at Q.
3. Measure angle between.

Q
Worksheet 3

Bearings

Measuring the bearing of one point from another.


N
N
298o

P
118o

How are the bearings of A and B from


each other related and why?

Worksheet 3

3 6 0 /0 0 0

B e a r ing s

B e a r in g s a r e M e a s u r e d
1 . F ro m N o rth
2 . C lo c k w i s e
3 . U s in g 3 fi g u r e s

330

F in d t h e b e a rin g s o f t h e f o llo w in g :
1 . A fro m B
4 . M f ro m N
2 . C f ro m D
5 . P f ro m Q
3 . T f ro m S
6 . V f ro m W

2.

A
B

4.

270

060

120

240

5.
M

Worksheet 4

150

S
180

3. S

030

300

210

1.

090

Bearings:
Trainee pilots have to to learn to cope when the unexpected
happens. If their navigation equipment fails they can quickly find
Fixing
Position
their position by
calling controllers
at two different airfields for
a bearing. The two bearings will tell the pilot where he is. The
initial call on the controllers radio frequency will trigger a line on
the radar screen showing the bearing of the calling aircraft.

Thankyou

300o
050o
Airfield (A)
283.2 MHZ UHF

Airfield (B)
306.7 MHZ UHF

1. Find the position of a point C, if it is on a bearing of 045o


from A and 290o from B.

2. Find the position of a point D if it is on a bearing of 120

from A and 215o from B.

B
A
D

Worksheet 5

Bearings
000/360o
N

270o

Worksheet 1

180o

090o