CSEC Mathematics

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CSEC Mathematics

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 69

Instant Trig

Trigonometry is math, so many people find it scary

Its usually taught in a one-semester high-school course

However, 95% of all the trig youll ever need to know

can be covered in 15 minutes

And thats what were going to do now

The angles of a triangle always add up to 180

20

44

68

44

68

+ 68

180

68

30

120

20

30

+ 130

180

Right triangles

We only care about right triangles

Heresthe

rightangle

opposite

Heres a right triangle:

hyp

ote

nus

e

Herestheangle

wearelookingat

adjacent

We pick one of the other angles--not the right angle

We name the other two sides relative to that angle

If you square the length of

the two shorter sides and

add them, you get the

square of the length of the

hypotenuse

adj2 + opp2 = hyp2

32 + 42 = 52, or 9 + 16 = 25

hyp = sqrt(adj2 + opp2)

5 = sqrt(9 + 16)

5-12-13

There are few triangles

with integer sides that

satisfy the Pythagorean

formula

3-4-5 and its

multiples (6-8-10, etc.)

are the best known

5-12-13 and its multiples

form another set

25 + 144 = 169

opp

hyp

adj

cosine = cos = adj / hyp

tangent = tan = opp / adj

redundant with these and

can be ignored

hyp

ote

nus

e

adjacent

shape of the triangle

(the angles) but not on

the size

opposite

sides, there are six ways

to divide the lengths of

the sides

Each of these six ratios

has a name (and an

abbreviation)

Three ratios are most

used:

opposite

Ratios

hyp

ote

nus

e

adjacent

opposite

addition to the right angle) and the length of a side,

you can compute all other angles and lengths of

hyp

sides

ote

nus

e

adjacent

you know the length of the adjacent side, then

tan A = opp / adj, so length of opposite side is given by

opp = adj * tan A

cos A = adj / hyp, so length of hypotenuse is given by

hyp = adj / cos A

If you understood this lecture, youre in great shape for

doing all kinds of things with basic graphics

Heres the part Ive always found the hardest:

Memorizing the names of the ratios

e

s

u

en

t

o

hyp

adjacent

opposite

cos = adj / hyp

tan = opp / adj

The formulas for right-triangle trigonometric functions

are:

Sine = Opposite / Hypotenuse

Cosine = Adjacent / Hypotenuse

Tangent = Opposite / Adjacent

Some Old Horse Caught Another Horse Taking Oats Away

Saints On High Can Always Have Tea Or Alcohol

Please visit for 100s more free powerpoints

TheSineRuleisusedtosolveanyproblemsinvolving

triangleswhenatleasteitherofthefollowingis

known:

a)twoanglesandaside

b)twosidesandanangleoppositeagivenside

the convention that

b is the side opposite angle B

A

In the some triangles where there is not a right angle.

Consider a general triangle ABC.

C

SinB

CP

CP bSinA

b

aSinB bSinA

a

P

Draw CP perpendicular to BA

CP

CP aSinB

a

also SinA

aSinB

b

SinA

a

b

SinA SinB

a

b

c

or equivalently

a

b

c

the sine rule can be stated

Either

Or

a

b

c

sin A

sin B

sin C

a

b

c

Use [2] when finding an angle

[1]

[2]

Example:

7cm

Given

Angle ABC =600

Angle ACB = 500

Find c.

c

b

sin C sin B

c

7

sin 50 0 sin 60 0

7 x sin 50 0

c

sin 60 0

c= 6.19 ( 3 S.F)

In BAC AC 6cm,

BC 15cm and A 120 0

Find B

C

SOLUTION:

sin B sin A

b

a

sin B sin 120 0

6

15

6 x sin 60 0

sin B

15

sin B = 0.346

B= 20.30

6 cm

15 cm

A

1200

Calculating Sides

Using The Sine Rule

Example 1 : Find the length of a in this triangle.

B

a

10m

A

41

34o

10

a

o

sin 34o

sin 41

10sin 41o

a

sin 34o

Solve for a.

10 0.656

11.74m

0.559

Calculating Sides

Using The Sine Rule

Example 2 : Find the length of d in this triangle.

D

10m

o

133

C

37o

E

d

d

10

o

sin133

sin 37 o

Solve for d.

10sin133o

d

sin 37 o

10 0.731

= 12.14m

0.602

Find the unknown side in each of the triangles below:

12cm

(1)

32

72o

47o

b

93o

a = 6.7cm

11 Feb 2015

(2)

16mm

b = 21.8mm

Calculating Angles

Using The Sine Rule

Example 1 :

Find the angle A

45m

38m

23o

45

38

45sin 23o

sin A

= 0.463

38

Calculating Angles

Using The Sine Rule

75m

Example 2 :

Find the angle Bo

Bo

143o

38m

75

38

o

sin143o

sin B

75sin B o 38sin143o

o

38sin143

sin B o

75

= 0.305

o

Calculate the unknown angle in the following:

(1)

100o

8.9m

Ao

(2)

12.9cm Bo

14.5m

Ao = 37.2o

14o

14.7cm

Bo = 16o

DRILL:

SOLVE THE FOLLOWING USING THE SINE RULE:

Problem 1 (Given two angles and a side)

In triangle ABC, A = 59, B = 39 and a = 6.73cm.

Find angle C, sides b and c.

Problem 2 (Given two sides and an acute angle)

In triangle ABC , A = 55, b = 16.3cm and

a = 14.3cm. Find angle B, angle C and side c.

In triangle ABC A =100, b = 5cm and a = 7.7cm

Find the unknown angles and side.

Answer Problem 1

C = 180 - (39 + 59)

= 82

ANSWER PROBLEM 2

14.3

16.3

0

sin B

sin 55

16.3

c

0

sin 69

sin 56 0

16.3 sin 55 0

sin B

14.3

16.3 sin 56 0

c

sin 69 0

= 0.9337

= 14.5 cm (3 SF)

B 69.0

C 180 0 69 0 55 0

56 0

Answer Problem 3

solve for a non-right angled triangle.

For example:

C

14

300

18

to use the sine rule. That is, the sine rule only provided t

Following:

a

14

18

0

sin B sin C

sin 30

Where there are too many unknowns.

Cosine Rule

Learning Intention

1. To show when to use the

cosine rule to solve REAL

LIFE problems involving

finding an angle of a

triangle .

11 Feb 2015

Success Criteria

1. Know when to use the cosine

rule to solve REAL LIFE

problems.

2. Solve REAL LIFE problems

that involve finding an angle of

a triangle.

Cosine Rule

Works for any Triangle

as long as we have been given enough information.

a =b +c - 2bc cos A

2

c

A

11 Feb 2015

C

b

when:

Two sides and the INCLUDED

angle (SAS)

OR

Finding Angles

Using The Cosine Rule

Works for any Triangle

Consider the Cosine Rule again:

We are going to change the subject of the formula to cos A o

b2 + c2 2bc cos Ao = a2

-2bc cos Ao = a2 b2 c2

2

2

2

a

c

cos Ao

2bc

b c a

cos A

2bc

o

Divide by 2 bc.

Divide top and bottom by -1

You now have a formula for

finding an angle if you know all

three sides of the triangle.

Finding Angles

Using The Cosine Rule

Works for any Triangle

Example 1 : Calculate the

unknown angle xo .

2

2

2

b

a

cos Ao

2bc

a = 11 b = 9

Ao = ?

92 162 112

cos A

2 9 16

Cos Ao = 0.75

Calculate cos Ao .

Ao = 41.4o

Finding Angles

Using The Cosine Rule

Works for any Triangle

Example 2: Find the unknown

Angle in the triangle:

2

2

2

b

a

cos Ao

2bc

A o = yo

a = 26

b = 15

c = 13

2

2

2

15

13

26

cos Ao

2 15 13

cosA = - 0.723

o

Ao = yo = 136.3o

Find the value of cosAo

The negative tells you

the angle is obtuse.

Calculate the unknown angles in the triangles below:

(1)

5m

Ao

10m

Ao =111.8o

7m

(2)

12.7cm

Bo

8.3cm

7.9cm

Bo = 37.3o

A

c b

B

C

B a C

(One side)

=

(other side)2+(last side)2

2(other side)(last side)cos(angle of

1st side)

length of side a

3 sig figs!!

3.38

0

8.3

72

3 sig figs!!

5.4 cm

cm

8.39

0

measure of the unknown

angles

G

3 sig figs!!

13

11 cm

cm

68.7

0

12 cm

3 sig figs!!

cm

m

c

0

1

7 cm

112

0

angle of a triangle with sides

11cm, 13cm, and 19cm.

3 sig figs!!

104

0

COSINE RULE. The Cosine Rule maybe used when:

a. Two sides and an included angle are given.

b. Three sides are given

C

C

A

b

B

c

c

B

a2 = b2+ c2 - 2bc cos A

b2 = a2 + c2 - 2ac cos B

c2 = a2 + b2 - 2ab cos C

In triangle ABC, a = 4cm, b = 5cm and

c = 7cm. Find the size of the largest

angle. The largest angle is the one

facing the longest side, which is angle

C.

<>

c = 2.9cm

By cosine rule,

a2 = 2.42 + 2.92 - 2 x 2.9 x 2.4 cos 55

= 6.1858

a = 2.49cm

Mixed problems

Learning Intention

1. To use our knowledge

gained so far to solve

various trigonometry

problems.

11 Feb 2015

Success Criteria

1. Be able to recognise the

correct trigonometric formula

to use to solve a problem

involving triangles.

T

10o

36.5

35o

B

Angle DTA = 180 170 = 10o

TD

15

15Sin 25o

TD

36.5 m

Sin10

The angle of

elevation of

the top of a

building

measured

from point A

o

is 25 . At

145o

25o

D

15 m

Sin 35o

TB

36.5

The angle of elevation of the top of a column measured from point A, is 20o. The

angle of elevation of the top of the statue is 25o. Find the height of the statue when

the measurements are taken 50 m from its base

Angle BCA = 180 110 = 70o

Angle ATC =

65o

110o

C

70o

50

TC

53.21

AC

50

AC

53.21 Sin 5

5.1 m(1dp )

Cos 20o TC

Sin 65o

53.21 m (2dp )

Cos 20o

21

53.

5o

20

25o

50 m

A fishing boat leaves a harbour (H) and travels due East for 40 miles to a

marker buoy (B). At B the boat turns left and sails for 24 miles to a

lighthouse (L). It then returns to harbour, a distance of 57 miles.

(a) Make a sketch of the journey.

(b) Find the bearing of the lighthouse from the harbour. (nearest degree)

CosA

2x 57x 40

20.4o

A

57 miles

24 miles

A

40 miles

Waddington (W) on a navigation

exercise. It flies 530 miles North to

a point (P) as shown, It then turns

left and flies to a point (Q), 670

miles away. Finally it flies back to

base, a distance of 520 miles.

Find the bearing of Q from point P.

b2 c 2 a2

CosA

2bc

5302 6702 5202

CosP

2x 530x 670

P 48.7o

Bearing 180 48.7 229o

Not to Scale

670 miles

530 miles

Q

520 miles

Bearings

L.I. To use compass bearings to describe position.

Bearings

Tell us in what direction something is

Are more accurate than using compass points

Are always three figures

Always measure the angle clockwise from North

000

315

29

270

3

24

225

8

33

8

20

180

02 045

3

06

090

8

11

135

3

15

Measuring bearings

Find the bearing of B from A.

Mark the North line on at A

(if there isnt a North line

draw one in)

Draw the line connecting A

to B.

A

B

clockwise from the North line

to B

Measuring bearings

Find the bearing of B from A.

Place your protractor over

the north line with 0 at the

top.

Give the answer as a threefigure bearing

Measuring bearings

Find the bearing of A from B.

Mark the North line on at B

(if there isnt a North line

draw one in)

Draw the line connecting B

to A.

Ax

xB

clockwise from the North line

to A

Measuring bearings

Find the bearing of A from B.

Place your protractor over

the north line with 0 at the

bottom.

Ax

xB

clockwise you need to

measure the exterior angle.

The angle has gone past

180 so you will need to add

your measurement to 180

Measuring bearings

Find the bearing of A from B.

1

3Ax

5

bottom 0 is 135.

135 + 180 = 315.

xB

Bearings

To Find the bearing of B from A.

A

Worksheet 3

060o

B

1. Draw a straight line between both points.

2. Draw a North line at A.

3. Measure the angle between.

Bearings

To Find the bearing of A from B.

B

240o

Worksheet 3

2. Draw a North line at B.

3. Measure angle between.

Bearings

N

240o

Worksheet 3

060o

B

How are the bearings

of A and B from each

other related and

why?

Bearings

N

P

1. Draw a straight line between both points.

2. Draw a North line at P.

3. Measure angle between.

118o

Q

Worksheet 3

Bearings

To Find the bearing of P from Q.

N

298o

2. Draw a North line at Q.

3. Measure angle between.

Q

Worksheet 3

Bearings

N

N

298o

P

118o

each other related and why?

Worksheet 3

3 6 0 /0 0 0

B e a r ing s

B e a r in g s a r e M e a s u r e d

1 . F ro m N o rth

2 . C lo c k w i s e

3 . U s in g 3 fi g u r e s

330

F in d t h e b e a rin g s o f t h e f o llo w in g :

1 . A fro m B

4 . M f ro m N

2 . C f ro m D

5 . P f ro m Q

3 . T f ro m S

6 . V f ro m W

2.

A

B

4.

270

060

120

240

5.

M

Worksheet 4

150

S

180

3. S

030

300

210

1.

090

Bearings:

Trainee pilots have to to learn to cope when the unexpected

happens. If their navigation equipment fails they can quickly find

Fixing

Position

their position by

calling controllers

at two different airfields for

a bearing. The two bearings will tell the pilot where he is. The

initial call on the controllers radio frequency will trigger a line on

the radar screen showing the bearing of the calling aircraft.

Thankyou

300o

050o

Airfield (A)

283.2 MHZ UHF

Airfield (B)

306.7 MHZ UHF

from A and 290o from B.

B

A

D

Worksheet 5

Bearings

000/360o

N

270o

Worksheet 1

180o

090o

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