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Technical Assistance

for MoT IPA Unit and


End-recipients
Port Design and Construction
Technique by Msc. Jorge C. Palma

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients

Index
Section 1. Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and
Perspectives

Section 2. Port Planning and Development. Case Study


Section 3. Port related maritime structures
Section 4. Breakwaters
Section 5. Navigation Channel Design
Section 6. Dredging

Section 7. Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront


Structures

Section 8. Environmental Factors in Port Planning and Design


Section 9. Extreme Maritime Construction Technology (videos)

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Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and Endrecipients


Section 1
Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives
Port Design and Construction is a blend of engineering disciplines and sciences:
Civil
Structural
Geotechnical
Hydraulic
Oceanographic
Naval
Architectural
Environmental
Socioeconomics
Other

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Section 1
Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives
Ports are a link in a total transportation chain for goods and people to flow into
cities.
Ports secure links with trade partners around the globle
Ports serve as supply centers and bases for shipping and marine industries (fishing,
offshore petroleum).
Port costs (ships turnaround, rail, cars, trucks, etc) total in excess of 50 % all
transport costs of international trade.
55% of are the result of time loss.

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Section 1
Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives

World exported almost 18 000 000 million USD in 2011(United Nations).


World exports by provenance and destination
Exports FOB:
million USD /1
Exports to

Developed economies 2/

Commonwealth of
Independent States

Asia-Pacific
Exports from
World

Europe

North America

Year
2000

World
6337849

Total
4374903

Total
413661

Japan
337372

Total
Germany
Total
2549479 474942 1411764

U.S.A.
1176012

Total
77403

Europe
65291

2008

15945179

9579855

811829

607480

6348816

1117793

2419210 1966121

516893

426699

2009

12396195

7208259

607995

441563

4794318

860956

1805946 1449941

313402

243914

2010

15031655

8401878

754568

551775

5437338 1000207 2209971 1776381

399754

324616

2011

17 928 779 9 774 881 908003

667246 6 327 305 1146456 2 539 573 2037885

464 548

383359

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Section 1
Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives

Ports developments are motivated by economic and technology evolution from global
industrial and technology revolution.

Development influenced by changing nature of ships and demand of cargo to be


handled more rapidly.
Revolutionary shifts to new technologies ocurred in the 1950s with specialised container
ships and new equipment (Straddle carriers, heavy-lift forklift trucks, gantry cranes,
special tractors,other).
Further, Roll On Roll Off to handle containers, cars, tracks, trains, etc.
Ports developed in harbors, but now demand area and depths (15- 18 m post-Panamax
vessels in 1990s) and move to offshore island ports and moving up-river shallowdraft ports and down river to deep waters.
New vessels above 8000 TEU (20-foot equivalent unit) and future 12 000 -15 000 TEU,
120 000 DWT, L. aprox 380 to 400 m, beam 60 m. draft 14,8 m and speed ~23-25 knots.
New cranes outreach of 60 + m, lifting capacity 50 to 70 tons. Overhead cranes stacking
nine high and 10 rows operated remotely, fully automated and high speed.

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Section 1
Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives
1.
2.
3.

Megaports able to receive largest vessels will be serviced by traffic from small ports.
Worldwide demand for energy and raw materials create strong need for specialized liquid and dry bulk material ports.
Deepwater facilities able to handle supertanquers or superbulkers constructed. Key factor: High capacity loading and
unloading technology.
4. Presently tankers 500 000 ton ply the oceans. Shipyards capacity: 1,000,000-dwt tankers.
5. Production, transport, and consumption of LNG steady increase. New Terminals: Vessels 65,000-70,000 dwt, 300 m
lenght, draft ~12 to 13 m.
6. Bulk carriers with terminals of 20 000 tonnes/hour of dry bulk and 220 000 m3 of crude oil per day.
7. Avoiding dredging go construction of offshore fixed or floating marine facilities. Moved 2 km and more offshore and
linked to the shore by submarine piplelines or bridgelike trestle.
8. New generation of cruise vessels with more than 350 m for 6400 passengers.
9. The challenge: Environment protection programms. Features:

Identification and classification of environmental impacts,

Monitoring and enforcement of laws,

Public participation

Effective communication,

Cooperation with industries


10. Negative effects

Leaking of oil and ballast water

Noise, vehicles and transport, visual intrusion, atmosferic pollution, water quality reduction by dredging,
effects of coastal morfology and fauna and global war on terrorism.

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Section 1
Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique and Perspectives
Passenger Ships
Rank

Ship

Year

Gross
Tonnage

Length

Beam

Staterooms

Max
Capacity

Allure of
The Seas

2011

225,282 GT

361.8 m

65 m

2,706

6,400

Oasis of
The Seas

2010

225,282 GT

362 m

65 m

2,706

6,296

Norwegian Epic

2010

155,873 GT

329.5 m

41 m

2,114

5,183

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Section 1. Introduction to Port Design and Construction Technique
Top 20 Container Terminals of the World
Rank
1

Port, Country
Shanghai, China

Volume 2010 (MillionTEUs)


29.07

Volume 2011 (MillionTEUs)


31.74

Singapore, Singapore

28.43

29.94

3
4
5
6

Hong Kong, China


Shenzhen, China
Busan, South Korea
Ningbo-Zhoushan, China

23.70
22.51
14.18
13.14

24.38
22.57
16.17
14.72

Guangzhou Harbor, China

12.55

14.26

12.01

13.02

11.60

13.01

10
11
12

Qingdao, China
Jebel Ali, Dubai, United Arab
Emirates
Rotterdam, Netherlands
Tianjin, China
Kaohsiung, Taiwan, China

11.14
10.08
9.18

11.88
11.59
9.64

13
14
15
16

Port Kelang, Malaysia


Hamburg, Germany
Antwerp, Belgium
Los Angeles, U.S.A.

8.87
7.91
8.47
7.83

9.60
9.04
8.66
7.94

17

Keihin Ports, Japan*

7.48

7.64

18
19
20

Tanjung Pelepas, Malaysia


Xiamen, China
Dalian, China

6.47
5.82
5.24

7.50
6.47
6.40

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China

31,7 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China
Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China

31,7 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China

31,7 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shanghai, China

31,7 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Singapore CT, Singapore

29,9 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Hong Kong CT, China

24,3 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Shenzhen, China

22,5 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Busan, South Korea

16,7 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Ningbo Zhoushan Terminal, China

14,7 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Guangzhou,China

14,2 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Guangzhou,China

14,2 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Qingdao, China

13,0 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Jebel Ali, Arabian Emirates
13,0 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Rotterdam, Holland

11,8 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Rotterdam CT, Holland
11,8 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Tianjin, China

11,6 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Tianjin, China

11,6 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Kaosiung, Taiwan China

9,6 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Kelang, Malaysia

9,6 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Hamburg,Germany
9,0 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Antwerp

8,6 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Antwerp, Belgium

8,6 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Los Angeles, CA

km
2
1
~

7,9 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Los Angeles, CA

7,9 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin Bay, Japan

km
~50

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1.Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1.Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Keihin, Japan

7,6 million TEU


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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world. Xiamen, China

6,4 million TEU


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Section 1.Introduction. Ports of the world.Dalian,China

6,4 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of the world.Dalian,China

6,4 million TEU

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Aliaga

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Ambarli

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Diliskelesis

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Aliaga

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Izmit

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Izmit

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Section 1. Introduction. Ports of Turkey. Izmit CT

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis of Port Operations and Development
The Port Planning Process
Port Development
Port Design and Equipment Selection
Port Project Management
Port Operations and Management

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis
The role of ports have changed and largely driven by:
Economies of scale in ship size and speed, specialization and ship types
Economics of physical form change of cargoes with new methods of cargo
handling, storage and processing
Economies of specialization in cargo types of form such as bulk and unitized
carriage of goods
Main stimulus to development is existing or expected need for improved port
capacity and services. It can not be clearly defined, then vital to determine the
actual condition of the entire transport system of the port and hinterland, or
region.
Projection of total demand, modal distribution of traffic, forecast of
technological changes in shipping and handling can be made on this base.

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis. Basic Guidelines:
Site selection
Sufficient demand
Ports natural sea and land conditions
Special material-handling equipment available
Efficient inland distribution networks available
Information requirements
Ranking procedure
Physical requirements for port site

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis. Proposed steps:

Step1. Description of the proposed port projects. Potential benefits and beneficiaries and
alternatives of port configurations
Step 2. Forecast of traffic flow
Step 3. Assessmnet of costs and benefits:
Port facility costs
Material-handling equipment cost.
Inland transportation costs
Benefits. Savings in shipping costs, reduction of waiting time, saving in investment costs,
other.
Step 4. Alternatives for timing of investments: Possibility of later expansion to demand
growth. Determine a port expansion strategy with minimum cost and desired level of service.

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis. Proposed steps:

Step 5. Economic feasibility analysis. Present value and internal rate of return calculation.
Choose the combination of a port site and inland transportation alternative with largest net
present value of total costs and benefits.

Step 6. Sensitivity analysis. Determine how the selected site and the inland transport mode
will be affected as traffic volume or capital investment costs change. (Example: If investment
costs for road facilities increase proporcionally with traffic volume, the preferred inland
transportation mode may be rail, instead of road)

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis.
Information Requirements. Relevant data for terminal site selection are:
Characteristics of alternate terminal sites
Audit of currents conditions

Demand centers in a region to be served by port


Import-export generated by each center
Inventory of available resources in port).

Information for economic analysis:

Inland transportation network distances from each terminal to each demand center
New investment costs for each alternate inland transportation mode and actual operating cost
Financial resources available
Revenue schedule
Appropiate rate of return
Foreign exchange earnings
Construction period and economic life of the project equipment

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Economic and Financial Analysis.
Ranking Procedures.
From described methodology for logistic site can be chosen based on pure cost-benefit analysis. But nonqualtifiable factors have important effects on terminal-siting decision. Relevants are:

Availability of labor
Skill level of labor
Available financial resources
Port expandability
Exisitng infrastructure around prospective port site
Regional development considerations
Atractiveness of location to ship operators (depths, accesibility)
Economic analysis (NPV calculation)
Sensitivity analysis result

Next step is to assign weights to each factor, by relative importance. In scale from 1-5, 1 representing poor and
5 representing excellent, for each site. Total weighted score for each alternate is calculated by summing up the
product of the assigned weightof each factor and the given rank.

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development.
Physical Requeriments for Port Sites.
Choise of particular location depends on many physical characteristics such as:
Depth requirements
Area requirements
Basic Physical Criteria
Astronomical tide and wind
Changes in water level (storm surges and the negative surges)
Waves (direction, amplitude, heights)
Currents
Fog and ice

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
The Port Planning Process starts with master planning in line with defined
objectives. Tasks:

Economic Base Survey: Detailed commodity flow, type, and form forecast: Economical
transport base of ports. Growth of economic activity. Trade development
analysis.Commodity flow analysis.
Transport System. Water transportation, Rail transportation, Higwayroad transport
Change in Shipping Pattern. Commodity flow and physical form.
Study of Shipping and Land Transportation Technology Changes
Cargo Handling, Transfer and Storage
Inventory of Port Facilities and Analysis of Operations
Analysis of present facilities and future needs
Engineering Study
Identification of Port Development Alternatives
Financial Study
Environmental Analysis

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Development Strategy:

Whether the need should be met?


How it should be met? (improving institutions, operations, or facilities or construction of new
facilities)
Where it should be met ex. in wich port, and what parts in that port?
When it should be met - the time schedule for implementaiton of planned improvements?

Answers depend on the development objectives, on government policy and on


resources availability

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Development Strategy and Objectives
Criteria:

Optimization of number of Berths and Other Major Fixed Investments


Minimizing Total Transportation Costs. (Discounted total investment costs + operating costs
over the economic life of the project)
Promoting Economic Growth (Often strengthen the economic of region or country)

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Identification of Development Opportunities
Project identification is done defining problems and potential solutions by port authorities
and users:

Problem Definition. Capacity, Service level, Navigational features, Inland transportation networks,
Technological changes
Institutional Improvement. Complete reorganization, custom procedures, documentation, labor relations,
training programs for dock laborers
Operational Improvements. Working procedures. Mechanization, Improvement of equipment and
maintenance
Modification and Expansion of Existing Facilities
Development of New Port

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Design and Equipment Selection
It is carried out after the requirements for a port in term of demand and
expected performance are established.
Design of the port is performed at two to three levels
Details of engineering are postponed to the final design stage
Formalization of project status is done at the end of each stage
Project successively refined until translated into detailed design, construction plans and designs.

Rules of thums about port design:


Average capacity of discontinuos machines about 60% of their maximum performance
Design capacity of conveyors serving discontinous machines should be equal their maximum performance
The rated capacity of a conveyor should be 115 % of the required maximum performance

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Design and Equipment Selection
Rules of Thumb:
Storage Capacity
Shiploading and unloading 1.5 to 2.5 times maximum size of vessel expected
Train loading and unloading - 1.5 to 2.5 times maximum size of train
Barge loading 2 to 3 operating shifts
Truck loading - Variable try one days throughput
Overland conveyor - 1.5 to 2.0 days supply at delivery end
Steel plant - 1.5 to 2.0 months supply
Power plant - 2.0 to 3.0 months supply
Cement plant 1.5 to 2.0 month supply

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Design and Equipment Selection
Risk Analysis. It can be applied to evaluate risks involved:
Choosing port capacity, equipment and technology, layout, and location considering the estimated future demand by
cargo and ship types
Estimating the probability distribution of NPV based on the probability distribution of future port throughput in the port
investment evaluation.
Estimating the failure risks associated with the conceived overall design of the port by estimating the failure risks of
its individual components.

We attemp to evaluate statistically the probability, frecuency and severity of events causing damages of certain levels
to port structures or equipment being port protective, coastal protective, offshore exploitation, cargo handling,
storages or other.

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Design and Equipment Selection. Risk Analysis. To be considered:
Make thorough analyses of the stability of the port strutures, including overall stability as the stability of single
elements.
Determine the failure risks associated with the design by estimating the failure risks of its individual components.
(Dangerous level of loads, special stress due to static and dynamic, vibratory, cycles, impact, analize environmental
forces like waves, currents, winds, ice and earthquakes, forces by port operations, conditions of maximum loads and
combinations.)
Determine the possibility of the occurrence of combinations of phenomena that produce damages and their
probability of joint ocurrence.
Determine the expected life of the structure may be altered by: The changes in the objectives that initiated the
project, new port technologies, inability of fulfill the purpose for which it is designed, durability of some materials.
Construction risks
Schedule risk is the most important non physical one
Financial reliability risk of contractors
Changes in taxation
Forex exchange risks
Liability for insufficient or unreliable data.

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Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study
This Case Study aims to define a value proposition for Port case study.
Port to be privatized in short term and seeks for a vision on business development.
Present installations show a weak technical level, lack of efficiency, and low
competitiveness.
The method applied is a review of port scenarios, alternatives, and indexes to
maximize the efectiveness of core resources.

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Section 2
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Layout

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Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study
The reluctance of private investors with regards to Country/Region is explained
among others by the inadequacy of transport infrastructures.
The improvements will focus on specialized technologies and innovations, to support
a value proposition to the market that maximizes investment efficiency and port
competitiveness.
A key question is about dropped general cargo that requires half of port areas, xx %
of berthing capacity, and represented up to xx% of exports over the last XX years.

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72

Ad
m
in
is

73

Ro

tr
at
io

R
o
Zo

er
al
go

ne

Pier III

Zo

Ca
r

To
ur
is
m

ne

G
en

Zo

ne

ta
in
er

Zo

ne

Z one

Pier II
Future development

C
on

Bulk

Scenario 1: Prefeasibility Case Study Port main regions


Pier I

Pier V

Scenario 2: Keep storages in General Cargo Zone


Pier I
Pier II

To
Zo u r
ne ism

en
er
al
C

Pier III

n
tr
at
io
Ad
m
in

is

R
oR

Zo

ne

Co
n

ta
i

ar
go

ne

Zo

ne

Zo

ne

Pier V
Future development

74

Scenario 3: Maximixing container Zone


Pier I

N1

Pier II

on

Future development

n
tr
at
io
is
Ad
m
in

R
oR

Zo

ne

C
on

ta
in

er

Zo

Co
n

To
Zo u r
ne ism

Pier III

ne

ta
i

N2

ne
rZ

Pier V

Scenario-4: Maximizing Ro-Ro areas


Pier I

ne

To
Zo u r
n e i sm

Pier II

Pier V

Pier III

Ad
m
in

is
tr
at
io

Zo
o
en
t

R
oR

Fu
Ro ture
-R de
o
ve
lop
m

ne

Ro
-R

Zo

C
on

ne

ta
in

er

Zo

Future development

Future d
evelopm
ent Ro-R
o

76

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


End-recipients
Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Analysis
An effort to maximize containers, either Ro-Ro operations against dropped
General Cargo will result in exceding berthing capacities respect to existing
port areas.
But trying to use the existing berthing lines with dropped general cargo,
forces us to a lower port efficiency, dismissing more port specialization and
innovation.
Mix marketing question is related to Country/Region import-export demands
and imbalances.

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77

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


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Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. International Trade
Total exports

$494,479,704 $561,674,731 $523,133,694 $350,017,237

Variations year/year (%)

$407,915,185 $590,533,140

14%

-7%

-33%

17%

45%

COVERAGE EXPORT/IMPORT

31,6%

22,3%

16,1%

17,5%

22,0%

27,5%

EXPORTS ($)

494479704

561674731

523133694

350017237

407915185

590533140

IMPORTS ($)

1566635401

2513736389

3241753715

2003420319

1850049084

2145869958

IMPORTS+EXPORTS ($)

2061115105

3075411120

3764887409

2353437556

2257964269

2736403098

Trade Balance: Deficit ($)

-1072155697

-1952061658

-2718620021

-1653403082

-1442133899

-1555336818

Years

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

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78

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and End-recipients

Section 2 .
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Metal shares

A key to Country/Region is increasing export/import coverage lower than XX %-; diversifying and
improving the GDP structures.

In case, metal industry has represented up to XX % in 200X-0X of total export cash flows and must
continue through Case Study port.
METAL EXPORTS AS SHARE OF TOTAL
Metal 1 exports ($)

19252447

39118115

56187550

22044119

30927751

56604641

Metal 2 exports ($)

321074758

351303588

267596093

159390767

176651148

257821232

Metal exports ($)

340327205

390421703

323783643

181434886

207578899

314425873

0,69

0,70

0,62

0,52

0,51

0,53

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

2011

Share of total exports


Years

Metal 1 industry has been recovered from private hands and is planned to re-privatize under better
conditions. Prices up in 20XX.

Metal 2 production center has been sold to a foreign firm and has resumed activity with investment plan
to produce XXX Ton/year.

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79

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


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Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study, Port Cargoes
2004

2005

2006

2007

2008

2009

2010

Mean
values

Mean
values

Products
Shares in total (%)
Cement

5,5

12,3

13,3

11,8

13

17,9

7,3

11,6

bananas

11,3

11,2

7,9

8,7

6,1

10,7

4,7

8,7

containers full
containers
empty
Metal 2 products
Metal 1 products

14,6

11,4

12,8

20,2

34,4

46,7

30,6

24,4

2
23,1
4,2

1,5
18,2
19,9

1,5
14,8
31,3

2
12,3
24,1

3,8
13,7
15,1

5
13,4
20,9

3,1
12,1
32,9

2,7
15,4
21,2

sugar

11,8

4,7

9,2

17,1

1,8

3,5

6,9

timber

2,5

1,6

0,8

0,9

0,8

1,2

0,3

1,2

ro-ro

14,1

8,3

6,4

5,8

6,7

7,7

7,9

7,9

other

10,9

10,9

2,1

4,8

4,7

2,3

3,2

5,6

5,6

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27,1
36,6

80

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


End-recipients
Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study
36,6 % of Prefeasibility Case Study port operations has been related to metal
import/export for more than 7 years.
Metals products can be unitized and transported by containers, improving overall port
efficiency.
Other products like bananas can be operated in refrigerated containers. Cement to
operate in bulk -if demand to increase- either in containers.
In short term, the export sectors will suffer from slower demand in Country 1 and
Country 2, respectively the second and third most important markets.

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81

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Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Tourism
The tourism industry, whose contribution to GDP is expected to rise from xx% to yy %
from now to 20xx, will continue its upsurge, supported by tax incentives, growing investments
in hotel and infrastrutures and the signing of partnerships with foreign companies.
Year

Inbound

Increment %

2002

136000

2003

142000

4,2%

2004

188000

24,5%

2005

272000

30,9%

2006

378000

28,0%

2007

984000

61,6%

2008

1031000

4,6%

2009

1044000

1,2%

2010

1088000

4,0%

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82

Future
develo
pm ent

83
ar ea

Admin
istratio
n

Multi s
to
Parkin re
g
Area:
75000
15000
to
0 m2

en
er
al
C

ar
go
Ro-ro 1
-ro
o
R

Ro Ro Zone

2 Pier III

Pier V

Tourism

Pier II

ne

Zo

ne

Ke
D r pt i n
Ca opp Mi
rgo ed x

ta
i

Future development

nt

Bananas

me

Co
n

Ce

Bulk
Zone

GenPlan 1. Keeps Dropped cargo.Maximum berthing


Pier I

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


End-recipients
Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Plan 1.

Proposed GenPlan1 represents a continuity strategy. It seeks for maximum use of berthing
capacities and KEEPS existing technologies. Same import/export structures with minimal
investments.

Bulk products operated with closed technology for environmental issues.

The container berth to be mainteined and portainer crane replaced. This increases XX % the
terminal capacity. Additional areas for future storage available, but restricted and difficult to
arrange apron, marshalling and freight station areas.

Dropped General Cargos keeps operating metal and other with existing mix structures, but
moving bananas to containers, and cement/or to closed bulk lines.

Using existing Ro Ro berth (XXX m.), for demand xxx vehicles/day will require storage areas of
xxxx-xxxxx m2 that can be solved with multi- story parking . Difficult allocating new berthing lines
for future development.

Tourism capacity can be increased up to xxx/xxx %, rising to xx % rates in 2021.

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84

Parkin
g
develo
p

85

Ro R
o

m e nt

Ro-r
o

Bananas

a r ea

Admin
istratio
n

PH
Multi s ASE I
to
75000 re Parking
- 15 00
00 m2

PHA
Multi s SE II
to
Parkin re
g
150 0
00 - 2
5 0 00
m2
0

Ro
-

Ro
-ro

Pier III
2

Zone

r1

ig
ht

St
at
io
ns

M
ar
sh
al
lin
g

ar
e

D
Dr ismis
Ge oppe ses
Ca ner d
rgo al
!!

Fr
e

ine

Ap Co
r o nt
a
n
ar iner
ea
2

Co
nt
a

Future development

Pier II

Pier V

Tourism Zone

ro

Fu
de ture
ve
lop Ro
m -Ro
en
t

Co
nt
ai
ne
r

nt

rs

me

C
Zo o nt
n e ai n
e

Ce

Bulk
Zone

Plan-2.1 Balanced modernization of General Cargo


Pier I

Parkin
g
develo
p

86

Ro-r
o

Ro R
o

Bananas

m e nt
a r ea

Admin
istratio
n

PH
Multi s ASE I
to
75000 re Parking
- 15 00
00 m2

PHA
Multi s SE II
to
Parkin re
g
150 0
00 - 2
5 0 00
m2
0

Ro
-

Ro
-ro

Pier III
2

Zone

ine

r1

ta
tio
ns

ar
e

D
Dr ismis
Ge oppe ses
Ca ner d
rgo al
!!

re
ig
ht
S

M
ar
sh
al
lin
g

Ap Co
r o nt a
n
ar iner
ea
2

Co
nt
a

Future development

Pier II

Pier V

Tourism Zone

ro

ine
Fu
r3
Co ture
lop nta
m i ne
en rd
t
ev
e

Co
nt
a

Co
nt
ai
ne
rF

nt

rs

me

C
Zo o nt
n e ai n
e

Ce

Bulk
Zone

Plan-2.2 Maximum containers and use of berthing lines


Pier I

Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


End-recipients
Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study

GenPlan 2 is a big bet strategy. It seeks for high specialization, answering to future
import/export demand, lowering labour costs, improving vessels turnaround, and increasing
port competitivenes.

Dropped General Cargos from marketing mix excluded. Container and Ro Ro areas are
balanced.

Metal products to be operated in containers.

Existing container berth to be enlarge. It increases about XX % the CT capacity

Areas for export/import of vehicles is guarateed with multi-stores parking solutions.


Prefeasibility Case Study becomes an atractive regional port.

Depending on RoRo berthing lines to use, the needed storage areas (X00 000 m2) up to
(Y00 000 m2) guaranted.

Tourism berthing is increased by phases up to xxx %, rising to xx % rates in 20xx.


Bulk products to be operated with closed technology for environmental requirements.

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Section 1.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Spaces increments
PHYSICAL SPACES

Existing GenPlan

Berth subto
tal
(m)
%*

Area
(m2)

Target GenPlan2.1

%** Area/Berth Berth (m)

subtot
al

%*

Area (m2)

%**

Area/Berth

Bulk

560

560

19% 144000

18%

257

560

560

22%

144000

13%

257

Containers

350

350

12% 162000

20%

463

500

500

20%

461250

43%

923

Drop general cargo 1

350

Drop general cargo 2

300

Drop general cargo 3

300

0%

0%

Ro-ro 1

230

590

24%

400000

37%

678

950

32% 420750

52%

443

230
130

Ro-ro 2
Ro-ro 3

230

8%

15000

2%

65

230

Passengers 1

140

140

Passengers 2

200

200

Passengers 3

200

200

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88

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Section 2.
Port Development. Prefeasibility Case Study. Conclusions

The value proposition from Genplan-2 reduces vessels turnaround time and labor costs based
on high specialized services improving port efficiency and competitiveness including:
I.
General Cargo in Containers
II.
Ro-Ro
III.
Cruise Tourism
Port areas to be exploited with a relation Area/berths coefficient of YYY m2/m.
Existing Container Terminal to be enlarged increasing more than X times its capacity.
Port of Prefeasibility Case Study to become an important regional competitor with xxx
vehicles/day.
Possible rising tourism berthing rates to xx % in 20xx without high investments. Cruise global
demand doubled over ten years.

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89

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Project Management. It consists of a project cycle that includes a
formative, an implementation, and an evaluation stages.
We check:
Is the project goal clearly and understandably stated?
Is the project goal possible /realistic?
Is the attainment of the goal, in fact, desired?. If it is the elimination of a problem, the real cause
must be known
Does the project, in fact, try to solve the problem, or simply to ameliorate the problems symptoms?
Is sufficient information available or can be obtained?
Do outside variables influence what happens?
Do resources exist with capability completing the job?
Is communication of decisions and actin plans possible in appropiate period of time?
Is the orgnizational struture stable enough to complete the project?

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Project Management.

Port identification, appraisal initiation and approval is a process that in many cases takes 2-3
years.

A total cycle tme of 5-8 years may result. Actual construction may occur only 1-2 years later.

The delay in the approval affects the accuracy of the information and analysis on wich the
approval is based and is therefore a somewhat self-defeating process.

In a world of inflation, resources missallocation, changing political and fiscal alignments and
major economic fluctuations, timeliness of project appraisal may be much more important
than accuracy of the appraisal efforts.

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91

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Project Management. Methodology:
Establishment of Need for Project
Criteria and Economic/Financial Constraints (total investment, NPV, limited
negative NPV, limited operating costs in a given period, employment generated
to exceed a certain number)
Project Alternatives Development.
Appraisal and Project Selection (here differs most widely from traditional
approach)
Estimate for each alternative financial capital costs over time
Estimate of loan and financing costs
Estimate of accounting operating costs for different levels, or development of inputs or
outputs.
Estimate of accounting receipts and revenues

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92

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Section 2
Port Planning and Development
Port Operations and Management. Major categories.

Waterfront operations. Navigation control, accomodation of ships, loading and unloading


vessels, servicing ships, ship maintenance, marine operations administration
Inland operations. Cargo storage and processing, interfacing transportaiton modes, traffic
control, short term accomodation and administration of passengers.
General operations. Safety and environment control, port operation control, maintenance of
port facilities dredging, repairs of piers, repairs and equipment maintenance.
Security and protection
Special (military) Operations
Documentation and Information control
Environmental control

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment

Containers
General cargo
Ro Ro
Liquid bulk cargo
Dry bulk cargo

Vessel characteristics (Design vessel, Dead Weight Tonnage, loaded displacement,


length, beam. Loaded draft)

Types of structures
Wharves (closed and open)
Piers
Dolphins

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94

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. Portainers

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95

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. Transtainers

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96

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. Container forklift and reach stacker 6

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97

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. General Cargo equipment

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98

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. General Cargo equipment

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99

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. Liquid Cargo equipment

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100

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Cargo handling equipment. Bulk Cargo equipment. Belt conveyors

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Structure components and materials

Piles
Sheet piles bulkheads
Pile caps
Decks
Fenders
Mooring fittings

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Design loads

Dead loads
Vertical live loads
Mooring loads
Berthing loads
Earthquake loads
Earth pressure
Ice forces
Loading combinations. (Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant mistakes dismissing possibilities of
earthquake near shore and tsunami simultaneosly.)

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Geotechnical issues

Axially loaded piles


Laterally loaded piles
Shallow foundations
Lateral earth pressure
Slope stability
Settlement
Liquefaction
Geotechnical investigations

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104

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Section 3
Port related maritime structures
Design of structures

Gravity-stabilized bulkheads
Tied-Back bulkheads
Pile-supported wharves
Pile supported piers
Dolphins
Fender Systems
Mooring fittings

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105

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Section 4
Breakwaters
Breakwater Design

Breakwater Layout
Stopping Area
Maneuvering Area
Anchorage Area
Harbor entrance
Modeling and testing Breakwater layout and Harbor Entrances. Numerically and Labs.
Economy of breakwater construction. A compromise between waves action and level of
services

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Section 5
Navigation Channel design
Channel Design
Ship characteristics
Environmental conditions
Design methods
Aids to navigation

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Section 6
Dredging
Dredging methods and equipment
Underwater surveys
Cutters, dragheads, and buckets
Pipeline transport of dredged material
Dredge material placement
Contaminated sediment and capping
Environmental considerations

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

Deterioration of structural materials in a marine environment


Concrete deterioration
Corrosion of steel
Wood degradation

Physical damage to waterfront structures attributed to dock operations


Inspection of waterfront structures. System approach.
Engineering evaluation and interpretation. Structural analysis
Maintenance repair and rehabilitation.

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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110

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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111

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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112

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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113

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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114

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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115

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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116

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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117

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Section 7
Repair, Rehabilitation,Maintenance and Upgrading of Waterfront Structures

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Section 8
Environmental factors in Port Planning and Design

8.1 Environmental guidelines and regulations.

8.2 Dredging disposal, and land reclamation

Env. Impact Assesment is required by World Bank consistent


with international standards, ex: International Association of Ports and Harbors, American Association of of Port Authotities,
European Seaports Organization, PIANC, London Dumping Conference.

Planning for dredging


Environmental impacts for dredging. Physical, structural, chemical and biological
Dredging impact mitigation. Disposal options Ocean, confined aquatic disposal CAD, Confined Upland
Disposal Confined Disposal Facilities. Permit Applications,
Land Reclamation. Geotechnical issues, liquefaction

8.3 Regional Environmental Impacts. Infrastructure impacts, Biological and wetlands impacts, Water quality
impacts, Erosion and sedimetation impacts, Flood impacts and control, Shipping and navigation issues impacts, Vehicular
and rail traffic impacts, Air quality impacts, Noise and vibration impacts, Socioeconomic and Environmental Justice,Cultural
Impacts, Visual Impacts.

8.4 Soil contamination and site remediation


8.5 Marine Petroleum and Dry Bulk Terminals (water quality control, air quality control, mainly)

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Section 8
Environmental factors in Port Planning and Design

8.6 Factors Affecting Project Feasibility

Dredge disposal options area available, at reasonable cost.


Dredge does not include large quantities of rock requiring drilling and blasting
Dredge material does not include highly contaminated sediments .
Suitable reclamation material is available at reasonable costs from the ongoing dredging, or nearby sources.
Feasible mitigation options for impacts to high-value biological resources, including tidal marshes, sea-grasses, and endangered
species.
Permits for dredging, disposal and reclamation works can be obtained from regulatory agencies within reasonable time frame.
The port development, including the breakwater, will not have major adverse effects on adjacent coastline due to erosion,
sedimentation, or water quality.
The infrastruture servicing the project including roads and utility, are adequate or can be improved with project budget .
Adequate upland area is available for environmental mitigation, such as wetlands mitigation, screens and buffer zones, and storm
drainage detention ponds.
The upland area soils and groundwater are not excessively contaminated and do not require extensive cleanup and site remediation.
The project has not major cultural resources impacts, such as important archeological artifacts or historical structures.
The project will not have major regional impacts that affect socioeconomics or cause environmental injustice
All reasonable alternatives have been considered and evaluated in terms of environmental impacts costs, and benefits.
The project is economically sound and can be adequately financed for initial construction phases, and future operations.
The project has a reasonable level of community and political support.

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Technical Assistance for MoT IPA Unit and


End-recipients
Section 9
Maritime Construction Technology (40 minutes videos selection)

Driving Deep Pile Foundations


Extreme Ocean Engineering Conditions.
Offshore Oil and Gas Plattform Project.

Very Large Container Carrier Construction

http://www.portengineering.com/courses/master/wg15a/morevideos10.html
Additional Information:

Arcelor Mittal Piling Handbook


Design of Pile Foundations Eurocode 7
Retaining Walls and Geotechnical Design Eurocode 7
Static Pile-Soil-Pile interaction in Offshore Piles Group
USSteel Steel Sheet Piles Design Manual
World_Export_BY_Provenance_Destination2011

Total Import Export by Countries 2003-2011.

Copyrights 2012 WSPGroup and Google Earth images copyrights for personal use only.

End of Presentation

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