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# JJ310

STRENGTH OF
MATERIALS
BY

## MOHAMMAD AIZRULSHAH BIN KAMARUDDIN

PPPTDH42M PRODUCT DESIGN
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
POLITEKNIK MUADZAM SHAH

CHAPTER 1

JJ31
0

FORCES ON
MATERIALS
This topics will analyses the effect of
forces on materials, HOOKEs LAWS,
Shear stress and Shear and Shear strain
Objective
s
Explain the effect of forces on materials
Differentiate between tensional , compression and shear forces
Define stress, strain and YOUNGS MODULUS

OUTLINE

Forces on materials
LOADINGS

Dynamics
Statics
Impact
Fatigue and Alternating loads

STRESS, STRAIN
Tensile
compressive

Type of forces
Tensional
compression
shear

Modulus of Elasticity

Force

## Force is a quantitative description of the

interaction between two physical bodies, such as
an object and its environment. Force is proportional to
acceleration. In calculus terms, force is the derivative
ofmomentumwith respect to time. Unit in N or kgm/s 2

Where

## Effects forces on materials

loadings
Dynamics
The rigid body in analysis is in motion.
Statics
The rigid body in analysis is in stationary state.
Impact
is a highforceorshockapplied over a short
time period when two or more bodies collide

## Effects forces on materials

Fatigue
weakening of a material caused by
repeatedly applied loads( alternating loads)
Alternating loads
Load that is applied, removed and applied again, always acting on the same
direction
Alternating load that reverse direction during every cycle of loading.
Fluctuating load that varies about an average value.
commonly associated with machinery, engines, turbines, generators, shafts,
propellers, airplane parts, automobile parts..

TYPE OF FORCES
Tensile

Compression

Shear

Tensile is a force
that tends to stretch
a material.

Compressive
is
a
force that tends to
squeeze or crush a
material.

## Shear is a force that

tends to slide one
face of the material
over an adjacent
face.

## bend, slide or twist.

Example?
Example?

Example?

Problem 1
Figure (a) represents a crane and Figure
(b) a transmission joint. State the types
of forces acting, labeled A to F.

## STRESS & STRAIN

STRESS
The intensity forces acting on a material in
normal direction that cause deformation or
change of dimension.
Ratio of applied force F, cross sectional area
A of the material
@

1 Pa =
1N/m2

Tensile stress
Compressive stress

Example 1
Figure 1. Shows a steel block with cross
area of 15000mm2 subjected to loading
shown. Determine the normal stress
M=500
KG

= 327000

Example 2
Figure 2 shows a steel cable used to lift
a mass of 600kg. The cable cross
section area is A = 2000mm2
i.
ii.

## Calculate the stress in the cable

What will happen if the cable cross section area
is reduce to 1000mm2

Strain

## Strain is the deformation per unit of the

orignal length
Where; = the deformation
L= original length
Percentage Strain;
x100

Tensile strain
Compressive strain

Example 3
A bar 1.60 m long contracts axially by 0.1

## mm when a compressive load is applied to

it. Determine the strain and the percentage
strain.

Strain; = = ==
Percentage strain;

Example 4
A wire of length 2.50 m has a
percentage strain of 0.012% when
loaded with a tensile force. Determine
the extension of the wire.

Modulus of elasticity
ratio of stress (force per unit area) along
an axis to strain (ratio of deformation over
initial length) along that axis
is ameasure of stiffnessof an elastic
material.
It is used to describe the elastic properties
of objects like wires, rods or columns when
stretched or compressed.

Modulus of elasticity
Sign

## for Youngs modulus = E

Formula given
= =
=

HOOKES LAW
Law of elasticity founded by Robert
Hooke
State that
the extension of a material is
proportional to applied force.

Where ;
K ; is a
constant
X ; distance

HOOKES LAW
Factor of safety
Ratio of maximum stress that a
structure or material can with stand to
the maximum stress estimated for it.

## Must be greater than 1.0

HOOKES LAW
Working stress @ allowable stress
Maximum Stress value within the elastic
region that must not exceed
@

HOOKES LAW
Ductility

## is the ability of a material to be plastically

deformed by elongation, without fracture. This is a property
that enables a material to be drawn out into wires.

Brittleness

## is the property of a material manifested

by fracture without appreciable prior plastic deformation.
Brittleness is a lack of ductility, and brittle materials such
as cast iron, glass, concrete, brick and Ceramics.

Malleability

## is the property of a material whereby it

can be shaped when cold by hammering or rolling. A
malleable material is capable of undergoing plastic
deformation without fracture. Examples of malleable
materials include lead, gold, putty and mild steel

Stress-Strain
Diagram
Ultimate tensile Test

BRITTL DUCTIL
E
E

POISSONS
DEFINITION ;
RATIO

## A ratio between lateral strain and

longitudinal strain
Dimensionless
Usually provided by the manufacturer of
the material
Formula given;

where

Example 5
A bar made of A-36 steel has the dimension of shown in figure
below. If an axial force of P = 80kN is applied to the bar,
determine the change in its length and the change in the
dimension of its cross section after applying the load. The
material behave elastically.

Given;
= 200GPa

Modulus of Rigidity

Definition
The ratio between sheer stress and shear
strain
Value can be obtained experimentally
from the slope of STRESS STRAIN
diagram.
denoted by symbol G, unit Pa.
Formula given

SINGLE SHEAR

DOUBLE SHEAR