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STRENGTH OF

MATERIALS

BY

PPPTDH42M PRODUCT DESIGN

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

POLITEKNIK MUADZAM SHAH

CHAPTER 1

JJ31

0

FORCES ON

MATERIALS

This topics will analyses the effect of

forces on materials, HOOKEs LAWS,

Shear stress and Shear and Shear strain

Objective

s

Explain the effect of forces on materials

Differentiate between tensional , compression and shear forces

Define stress, strain and YOUNGS MODULUS

OUTLINE

Forces on materials

LOADINGS

Dynamics

Statics

Impact

Fatigue and Alternating loads

STRESS, STRAIN

Tensile

compressive

Type of forces

Tensional

compression

shear

Modulus of Elasticity

Force

interaction between two physical bodies, such as

an object and its environment. Force is proportional to

acceleration. In calculus terms, force is the derivative

ofmomentumwith respect to time. Unit in N or kgm/s 2

Where

loadings

Dynamics

The rigid body in analysis is in motion.

Statics

The rigid body in analysis is in stationary state.

Impact

is a highforceorshockapplied over a short

time period when two or more bodies collide

Fatigue

weakening of a material caused by

repeatedly applied loads( alternating loads)

Alternating loads

Load that is applied, removed and applied again, always acting on the same

direction

Alternating load that reverse direction during every cycle of loading.

Fluctuating load that varies about an average value.

commonly associated with machinery, engines, turbines, generators, shafts,

propellers, airplane parts, automobile parts..

TYPE OF FORCES

Tensile

Compression

Shear

Tensile is a force

that tends to stretch

a material.

Compressive

is

a

force that tends to

squeeze or crush a

material.

tends to slide one

face of the material

over an adjacent

face.

Example?

Example?

Example?

Problem 1

Figure (a) represents a crane and Figure

(b) a transmission joint. State the types

of forces acting, labeled A to F.

STRESS

The intensity forces acting on a material in

normal direction that cause deformation or

change of dimension.

Ratio of applied force F, cross sectional area

A of the material

@

1 Pa =

1N/m2

Tensile stress

Compressive stress

Example 1

Figure 1. Shows a steel block with cross

area of 15000mm2 subjected to loading

shown. Determine the normal stress

M=500

KG

= 327000

Example 2

Figure 2 shows a steel cable used to lift

a mass of 600kg. The cable cross

section area is A = 2000mm2

i.

ii.

What will happen if the cable cross section area

is reduce to 1000mm2

Strain

orignal length

Where; = the deformation

L= original length

Percentage Strain;

x100

Tensile strain

Compressive strain

Example 3

A bar 1.60 m long contracts axially by 0.1

it. Determine the strain and the percentage

strain.

Strain; = = ==

Percentage strain;

Example 4

A wire of length 2.50 m has a

percentage strain of 0.012% when

loaded with a tensile force. Determine

the extension of the wire.

Modulus of elasticity

ratio of stress (force per unit area) along

an axis to strain (ratio of deformation over

initial length) along that axis

is ameasure of stiffnessof an elastic

material.

It is used to describe the elastic properties

of objects like wires, rods or columns when

stretched or compressed.

Modulus of elasticity

Sign

Formula given

= =

=

HOOKES LAW

Law of elasticity founded by Robert

Hooke

State that

the extension of a material is

proportional to applied force.

Where ;

K ; is a

constant

X ; distance

HOOKES LAW

Factor of safety

Ratio of maximum stress that a

structure or material can with stand to

the maximum stress estimated for it.

HOOKES LAW

Working stress @ allowable stress

Maximum Stress value within the elastic

region that must not exceed

@

HOOKES LAW

Ductility

deformed by elongation, without fracture. This is a property

that enables a material to be drawn out into wires.

Brittleness

by fracture without appreciable prior plastic deformation.

Brittleness is a lack of ductility, and brittle materials such

as cast iron, glass, concrete, brick and Ceramics.

Malleability

can be shaped when cold by hammering or rolling. A

malleable material is capable of undergoing plastic

deformation without fracture. Examples of malleable

materials include lead, gold, putty and mild steel

Stress-Strain

Diagram

Ultimate tensile Test

BRITTL DUCTIL

E

E

POISSONS

DEFINITION ;

RATIO

longitudinal strain

Dimensionless

Usually provided by the manufacturer of

the material

Formula given;

where

Example 5

A bar made of A-36 steel has the dimension of shown in figure

below. If an axial force of P = 80kN is applied to the bar,

determine the change in its length and the change in the

dimension of its cross section after applying the load. The

material behave elastically.

Given;

= 200GPa

Modulus of Rigidity

Definition

The ratio between sheer stress and shear

strain

Value can be obtained experimentally

from the slope of STRESS STRAIN

diagram.

denoted by symbol G, unit Pa.

Formula given

SINGLE SHEAR

DOUBLE SHEAR

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