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How can we create high performance

teams?
How can team processes be improved?
How can team communications be
improved?
How can team decisions be improved?
Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Characteristics of High Performance Teams


Set a clear and challenging direction.
Believe in the goals and motivated to work hard to

accomplish them.
Turn a general sense of purpose into specific objectives.
Set standards for measuring results and obtain

feedback.
Members have the right mix of technical, problem-

solving and interpersonal skills.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Team Building
Collaborative way to gather and analyze

data about the teams work. The goal is


improved teamwork and increased team
effectiveness.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Teamwork
Participation by
all members

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Formal retreat approach


Team building occurs during an offsite retreat.

Outdoor experience approach


Members engage in a variety of physically

challenging situations that require teamwork.

Continuous improvement approach


The manager, team leader, or group members

take responsibility for ongoing team building.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

New members may worry about:


Participation
Goals
Control
Relationships
Processes

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Distributed leadership
Sharing of responsibility for meeting group task and

maintenance needs.

Task activities
Various things members and leaders do that directly

contribute to the performance of important group tasks.

Maintenance activities
Support the social and interpersonal relationships

among team members.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Disruptive behaviors:
Bullying and being overly aggressive toward

other members.
Withdrawing and refusing to cooperate with

others.
Using the group as a forum for self-confession.
Talking too much about irrelevant matters.
Trying to compete for attention and recognition.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Role
Set of expectations associated with a job or position on a team.

Role ambiguity
Occurs when a person is
uncertain about his or her
role and what is expected.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Role overload
Occurs when too much is expected of the

individual.

Role underload
Occurs when too little is expected of the

individual.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Role conflict
Occurs when a person is

unable to respond to role


expectations that conflict
with one another.
Forms of role conflict
Intrasender,
Intersender, Person-role,
Inter-role.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Role negotiation
Process for discussing and agreeing upon

what team members expect of one


another.
Team members meet to discuss, clarify,

and agree on their individual role


expectations each holds for the other.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Norms
Represent ideas or beliefs about how

members are expected to behave.


Considered rules or standards of conduct

that are supposed to guide members.


Help members to guide their own behavior

and predict what others will do.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Key norms that can have positive or


negative implications.
Performance norms.
Ethics norms.
Organizational and personal pride norms.
High-achievement norms.
Support and helpfulness norms.
Improvement and change norms.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Cohesiveness
The degree to which members are

attracted to a group and motivated to


remain a part of it.
There is a strong relationship between

cohesiveness, conformity to group norms,


and performance.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Inter-team dynamics
The relationships between groups

cooperating and competing with one


another.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Ways to achieve positive inter-team dynamics


Refocusing members on a common enemy or goal.
Negotiating directly.
Engaging members, of different teams, in activities

learning how to work cooperatively together.


Refocusing reward systems to emphasize

contributions to overall organizational performance


and on how much teams help one another.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

To assure high performance, team


interaction patterns and communication
networks must be aligned with
interaction patterns and team tasks.
Centralized
Decentralized
Restrictive

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Decentralized communication
network
Members communicate directly, as

needed, and share information with one


another.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Centralized communication network


Team leader acts as a central control point.
Team leader collects and distributes

information among members.


Members work independently. Results are

passed to the team leader and pooled to


create finished product.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Restricted communication network


Subgroups disagree with one anothers

positions.
Poor communication is characteristic of

this type of situation.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Proxemics involves use of space as people


interact.
Architects and consultants that specialize in office

design help executives create spaces conducive to


intense communication and teamwork needed in
todays work environment.
Design of office space, and the size and availability

of meeting rooms can positively impact the


effectiveness of team communication.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Virtual communication networks


Technology provide numerous

resources for real time


communication.
Empowers team members to be in

constant electronic contact with one


another or a central database.
Online team building activities are

critically important to high quality


results.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Teams make decisions by choosing from alternative


actions.
Decision by lack of response

One idea after another is suggested without any


discussion-taking place.
Decision by authority rule

The chairperson, manager, or leader makes a decision


for the team.
Decision by minority rule

Two or three people are able to dominate or railroad


the group into making a decision to which they agree.
Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Decision by majority rule

Formal voting usually takes place, or members may be


polled, publicly or confidentially, to find the majority
viewpoint.
Decision by consensus

Discussion leads to one alternative being favored by


most members and the other members agree to support
it.
Decision by unanimity

All group members agree totally on the course of


action to be taken.
Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Brainstorming
Used in teams to actively generate as

many ideas and alternatives as possible.


All criticism is ruled out
All ideas are welcomed
Emphasis on creativity and imagination
Quantity is wanted
Building on others ideas or piggybacking is encouraged

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Nominal group technique


Members are asked to respond individually

and in writing to a nominal question.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Delphi technique
Involves generating decision-making

alternatives through a series of survey


questionnaires.

Copyright 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.