Thomas A. Little, Ph.D.

President, Thomas A. Little Consulting

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Audience

Presentation is designed for those Executives and Managers who are considering implementing Six Sigma and want to understand its core concepts and benefits. Provides an overview and orientation of six sigma methodologies and organizational requirements. The Executive Overview is presented prior to six sigma implementation, Champion and Black Belt training.

382 Stanwick Street
Brentwood, CA 94513

1-925-285-1847 drlittle@dr-tom.com www.dr-tom.com

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Objectives
As a result of attending this course the participant will be able to: • Describe the Six Sigma Breakthrough strategy • Understand the Champion’s role in the Six Sigma Initiative • Relate the roles and responsibilities of the Champion, Black Belt, Green Belt and Team Members • Identify projects with high probability for success • Understand the DMAIC methodology and how it applies to improvement projects • Establish and utilize dashboard metrics • Assist in project management and project goal completion

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Presentation Outline

Section I Section II Section III Section IV

Six Sigma Introduction Management and Organizational Infrastructure for Six Sigma DMAIC Breakthrough Methodology Implementation Strategy

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Section I

Section I Six Sigma Introduction What is Six Sigma? Three elements of Six Sigma DMAIC roadmap Expected benefits of Six Sigma Corporate results of Six Sigma

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Technical Definition of Six Sigma
Technical Definition (Motorola)
LSL

75% ±1.5 σ

USL

12.5%
Cp=2 Cpk=1.5

12.5%
Cp=2 Cpk=1.5

3.4 DPMO

Cp=Cpk = 2

3.4 DPMO

- 6σ

−5σ

−4σ

-3 σ

−2σ

−1σ

0

+1σ

+2σ +3σ

+4σ

+5σ

+6σ

6σ to LSL
Evolution to:

6σ to USL

A Management driven, scientific methodology for product and process improvement which creates breakthroughs in financial performance and Customer satisfaction
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What is Six-Sigma?

Management mandated and directed improvement program focused on breakthroughs in financial performance and customer satisfaction Uses Champions, Black Belts and Green Belts to facilitate change Focused on core business and Customer needs A systematic method for process and product improvement A Greek symbol for measuring performance variation A metric for evaluating performance quality A standard of excellence (3.4 defects per million opportunities)
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• • • • • •

Customer Satisfaction + Efficient Systems = Improved Profitability

Two types of projects to improve financial performance: Increase Revenue “Grow the Business” Improve Customer satisfaction, sales, capacity and market position Decrease the Cost of Goods Sold Reduce variation and defects Improve yields Understand root cause of issues and eliminate the source of problems Automate process “workflow” Improve process performance and reduce waste using lean principles
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Reduce Process Variation & Defect Rates
Off-Target Too Much Variation

Center Process

Centered On-Target

Reduce Spread

The objective is to understand customer requirements and reduce process variation and defects

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Breakthrough and Continuous Improvement

Breakthrough Strategy

1

2

3

4

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Three Emphasis Areas for Six Sigma

Focused on product design excellence, design for manufacturability, Customer satisfaction and cost reduction within all components of the development and new product introduction process. Focused on operational excellence, Customer satisfaction and cost reduction within all components of the operation. Areas of focus include Sales, HR, Finance, Materials, etc. Focused on product production excellence, variation and defect reduction, lean production techniques, Customer satisfaction and cost reduction within all components of the production and delivery process. Six Sigma touches on all aspects of the Business Enterprise
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Past Improvement Activity Failure Modes

Unsuccessful Projects No clear Management mandate No roadmap for the project… not sure where we are going No dedicated resources No Management and performance review No ability to measure performance and examine effectiveness… not sure if we accomplished anything No financial ROI during project definition and measurement at completion No clear answer as to “why are we doing this project?”
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What Makes Six Sigma Work?
• Select and work on the most important problems and projects to the business and Customer • Assure those projects impact customer satisfaction and financial performance • Allocate the time to get the work done • Have your best people work on them • Provide those individuals with all the training, tools, and resources they need to make the performance breakthrough • Provide Management direction, support and routine review of performance • Require a well thought out, objective and data driven solution • Verify the dollar savings of your efforts • Sustain the benefits of the solution over time
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Six Sigma 3 Critical Elements
Defining and using business objectives and metrics that focus our attention on performance and defects that are most important to the customer and have the greatest potential for impacting the bottom line

Dedicated resources and focused infrastructure, trained in the use of the 6 Sigma problem solving and process improvement methodology

Systematic Approach to improving performance and reducing defects which are important to the customer (qualitative & statistical)

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Strategic Business and Quality Metrics
CSI, Sales, delivery times, cost per unit, Yield, DPU, DPMO, customer response times, Web hit rates, Rework/scrap rates, etc. (Critical Business Elements)

Management objectives and dashboard forms the core of the strategic Business & Quality Metrics and is flowed down to other departments and process areas to provide leading and lagging indicators of performance

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Hierarchy of Operational Dashboards
Executive Dashboard Level 1
Processes

Can we see measurable progress in our key business critical metrics?

Director Level Level 2
Processes

Manager Level Level 3 Engineering Level Level 4 Operator Level
Processes
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Processes

Six Sigma DMAIC Road Map
Define
Identify Project, Champion and Project Owner Determine Customer Requirements and CTQs Define Problem, Objective, Goals and Benefits Define Stakeholder/Resource Analysis Map the Process Develop Project Plan

Key Analytical Tools Process Mapping and Modeling Measurement Systems Analysis & Process Capability Statistical Tests, Modeling & Root Cause Analysis Brainstorming Design of Experiments, FMEA, & Validation Statistical Process Control
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Measure
Determine Critical Xs and Ys Determine Operational Definitions Establish Performance Standards Develop Data Collection and Sampling Plan Validate the Measurements Measurement Systems Analysis Determine Process Capability and Baseline

Analyze
Benchmark the Process or Product Establish Causal Relationships Using Data Analysis of the Process Map Determine Root Cause(s) Using Data

Improve
Design of Experiments Develop Solution Alternatives Assess Risks and Benefits of Solution Alternatives Validate Solution using a Pilot Implement Solution Determine Solution Effectiveness using Data

Control
Statistical Process Control Determine Needed Controls (measurement, design, etc.) Implement and Validate Controls Develop Transfer Plan Realize Benefits of Implementing Solution Close Project and Communicate Results

Process Flow for achieving 70%+ Improvement

Champion
Select project that is considered critical to operational success

Review performance and assure results

Review and approve solutions

Authorize process change

Communicate and celebrate results

Black Belt
Form team and follow DMAIC for project management Develop alternative solutions and complete benefit and risk assessment Determine financial benefit

Process or Product
Understand root cause of problem Validate Solution

Implement and standardize process changes
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For a breakthrough to occur… everything is on the table

Six Sigma Results
Improved Customer satisfaction • Assure products and services meet customer requirements Improved quality, efficiency and cost of goods sold • Waste, defect and variation reduction • Financial savings (hard and soft) Self-sustaining infrastructure • Defined roles and responsibilities • Empower Champions, Black Belts and all employees to make meaningful improvements in performance • Communication Commonality • Language, training materials, tools & software • Methodology • Expectations • Solutions • Financial tracking (establish, maintain metrics)

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Honeywell & DOW Results

"We achieved $600 million in Six Sigma cost savings in 1999, but cost savings are only one part of the story. Delighting customers and accelerating growth completes the picture. When we are more efficient and improve work flow throughout every function in the company, we provide tremendous added value to our customers– through higher quality solutions that are more competitively priced, delivered on time and invoiced correctly. That makes us a more desirable business partner."
- Honeywell 1999 Annual Report http://www-a.honeywell.com/investor/ar99_intro_smarter.html

"We expect Six Sigma to elevate our company to an entirely new level of operational performance, delivering $1.5 billion in EBIT cumulatively by 2003 from the combined impact of revenue growth, cost reductions and asset utilization."
- Dow 1999 Annual Report http://www.dow.com/financial/99ann/letter03.htm

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GE & DuPont Results

"The Six Sigma initiative is in its fifth year — its fifth trip through the operating system. From a standing start in 1996, with no financial benefit to the Company, it has flourished to the point where it produced more than $2 billion in benefits in 1999, with much more to come this decade."
- GE 1999 Annual Report http://www.ge.com/annual99/letter/letter_three.html

"Six Sigma implementation continues to gain momentum. At the end of the year 2000, there were about 1,100 trained Black Belts and over 3,400 active projects. The potential pretax benefit from active projects was $700 million."
- DuPont Fourth Quarter and Full Year 2000 Earnings Report http://www.dupont.com/corp/whats-new/releases/01/010124.html

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Section II

Section II Management Infrastructure for Six Sigma Site Champion and Executive Staff Hands on Champions Master Black Belt Black Belts / Green Belts All Employees

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Interrelationship Digraph of Six Sigma Infrastructure

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Site Champion and Executive Staff
Functions Set the vision Create the mandate for improvement Initiate and fund the activity Establish and maintain the reporting structure Responsibilities (10%+ of time) Identify Champions in each functional area Monthly review of projects by Champion Measure Champion results Training 4 hour Executive Overview 2 day Champion Training
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Hands-On Champion
Functions Communicate the vision Create the mandate for improvement Provide direction and remove barriers Achieve financial results and communicate success Responsibilities (10%+ of time) Identify Black Belts and Green Belts Identify and approve all Six Sigma projects Biweekly review of all projects Measure Black Belt performance Training 2 day Champion Training
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Master Black Belt
Functions Provide technical expertise on Six Sigma and Lean methodology to Black Belts and Green Belts Work in support of the Black Belt and Champion Assist in education and training activities Responsibilities (100% of time) Work daily with team members, Black Belts and Champions Participate in the review of projects Monitor all Six Sigma projects Training 15 day Black Belt Training, 2 years minimum as a Black Belt and a Masters Degree in a related field
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Black Belts and Green Belts
Functions
Black Belts 100% dedicated for 2 years to process improvement, Green Belts 20% Work on improvement projects with other Green Belts and Team Members Achieve financial results for each project $350K+ Goal of

Responsibilities (100 – 20%+ of time)
Use the DMAIC methodology to create breakthroughs in performance Report progress to the Champion Hold team meetings and provide excellent project management Work with the Master Black Belt

Training
15 day Black Belt Training 5 day Green Belt Training
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All Employees
Functions Work to achieve excellence in daily work Participate in Six Sigma projects Support team activities Identify opportunities for improvement Responsibilities (5-10%+ of time) Participate in Six Sigma activities as requested Complete action items as assigned by the team Attend team meetings Training 1 day Six Sigma Employee training
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Section III

Section III

DMAIC Breakthrough Methodology Define Measure Analyze Improve Control

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DMAIC Process Improvement Methodology

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DMAIC Process

Establish Controls on the critical Xs so the improvements will be maintained

Identify ways to improve the process and validate the solution

X1 X2 X3 X4

PROCESS
Measure and Analyze data and process performance to determine the critical variables and root cause of the problem

Y1 Y2 Y3

Metrics (Ys) linked to CTQs Define the Problem Project Objective Project Goal

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Six Sigma DMAIC Define

Define Activities
Identify Project, Champion and Project Owner Determine Customer Requirements and CTQs Define Problem, Objective, Goals and Benefits Define Stakeholder/Resource Analysis Map the Process Develop Project Plan

Define Quality Tools
Project Charter and Plan Effort/Impact Analysis Process Mapping Tree Diagram
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“Define” Flow
VOC, Examine Candidate Projects

Effort/Impact Analysis
SIX SIGMA Project Charter
Resource Requirements Project No: Project Name: Project Leader: GB/BB: Master BB: H/O Champion: Team Members: Name Function General Information Location: Business Segment: Business Objective: Customer Initials CTQ(s): Current Process Capability: Sigma, Cpk, DPMO, Cycle-time, etc. Date: Review Schedule Activity Date Start D M A I C Close

Effort / Impact Analysis
10 9 8 7 Impa ct 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 Effort 8 10 12 Impact

GB Projects

BB Projects

% Time

Project Definition
Proje ct Problem Statement:

Proje ct Obje ctive Statement:

Define Customer CTQs

Proje ct Scope/Limitations:

Proje ct Goals and Targets:

Develop and Approve Project Charter
Time frame:

Proje ct Plan: See page 2 of the project c harter. Project Plan and Gantt Chart Expected Benefits: Hard Dollar Savings: Soft Dollar Savings: Strategic: Other Benefits:

Stakeholder Approval
Hands On Champion: Name: Signature: Functional Manager: Name: Signature: Other: Name: Signature: Date: Master Black Belt: Name: Signature: Black / Green Belt: Name: Signature: Other: Name: Signature:

Response Response (Y) (Y)
What must my Who are the suppliers for our product suppliers provide to or service? How capable are they in my process to meet meeting our process requirements? my needs?

Operational Operational Definition Definition

What is the most appropriate end point for the process? What Determine the start and end points of the process product or service does associated with the problem and the major steps the process deliver to in the process. the customer?

Who are the customers for our product or service? What are their requirements for performance

CTQ(s)
Voice of Voice of The Customer The Customer Product Product arrives on-time arrives onon-time Target Target

Specification Specification Limit(s) Limit(s)

Complete SIPOC and Process Map

Suppliers
1 2

Input
1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3

Process
Start Point:

(High Level)

Output
1 2

Customers
1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

3

4

Add additional rows where needed

Operation or Activity 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 End Point:

3 4 5 6

Error Rate Error Rate
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Voice of the Customer (VOC)
• Why don’t you guys learn how to meet a schedule? • Your service quality to poor • When will you learn how to provide service and a Customer first attitude? • Why don’t you tell us when there is a problem? • I sent out e-mail after e-mail with no response! • Why do you try and make your customers responsible for your quality problems? • Your RMA frequency is unacceptable

DMAIC Methodology Define

VOC is often full of emotions. We need to restate customer statements into fact based, performance requirements that we need to focus on Of course… Customers expect perfection
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Critical to Quality (CTQ) Characteristics
Use the tree diagram to define Customer CTQs

DMAIC Methodology Define

Detailed Specifications
Response (Y)

Performance to Schedule

Customer Requirement
Customer Needs Product arrives on-time

Measure

Deviation from schedule in completed units

Target

100% of committed ships prior to 5:00 pm as received on Customer receiving dock LSL = 0 hours late USL = 6 hours early

Specification Limit(s)

Allowable defect Rate

< 3.4 DPMO
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Moving to Specific Candidate Projects

DMAIC Methodology Define

Champions drive the project selection as they own the business objectives aligned to the Executive Staff
Interview Customers (Internal and External), on core business issues and opportunities for improvement Use Voice of the Customer when collecting and analyzing data Complete CTQ gap analysis and prioritization Determine a candidate project list Estimate project benefits in financial and measurable terms & rank projects by their impact Determine the effort required for each project Conduct effort to impact analysis and prioritize the project list Select the top projects and determine the Champion and Owner

Critically examine Business Objectives and select projects aligned to them with financial impact and benefits

Candidate Six Sigma Project(s) With financial impact!!!

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Potential Projects
Determine a candidate project list and potential benefits: Manufacturing Materials Management NPI Finance Design HR

DMAIC Methodology Define

Conduct effort to impact analysis and prioritize the project list
Project 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Effort 6 3 4 7 10 2 5 8 1 9 Impact 1 3 3 3 3 6 6 6 9 9

Candidate Six Sigma Project(s) Project Champion and Owner
Effort / Impact Analysis
10 9 8 7 Impact 6 5 4 3 2 1 Impact

Projects with high impact are preferred

0 0 2 4 6 Effort 8 10 12

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Detailed Project Selection Criteria

DMAIC Methodology Define

• Achieving breakthroughs requires prioritization of opportunities. There are many more opportunities than there is time and resources to work on them. • When selecting a process, we are trying to prioritize exactly which problem to solve. If the problem is clear we move on to define the problem. • In selecting a project, consider these issues: a. b. c. d. e. f. Financial and strategic benefits Improved customer satisfaction, CSI Compatible with current goals and objectives Translatable to other areas of the business Probability of success Level of effort, amount of resources needed to complete project

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Example: Prioritizing Projects

DMAIC Methodology Define

Are your projects the things you like to do, easy to do or important to do?

Rank 2 3 4 5 6 1 7

Potential Projects Reduce lead time Receiving process Customer complaints MRO material reduction Change control system Inventory reduction Chip test yields

Benefits Business Goals Champion Financial Translatability Defined Supports HC 9 9 9 9 MP 6 9 6 3 DS 6 6 6 9 LC 6 3 6 9 JM 6 9 0 6 AB 9 9 9 9 JF 6 3 0 0

Clear 6 9 9 9 6 9 9

Risk Complexity 6 6 6 6 6 9 6

p(S) 3 9 6 6 6 6 6

Total 80% 77% 73% 70% 63% 93% 53% 0% 0% 0%

Project name

Manager responsible for results

Hard dollar savings

Solutions are likely to be applicable across the site and the corporation

Currently defined business objective

Supports immediate goals and objectives for the org.

Clear problem definition with clear project boundaries

Complexity is a function of time to complete and the difficulty of the problem. Scope (target for BB project is 7-8) 3 = <3 months 6= 4-5 months 9= 6+ months

Probability of success

3 < $100k 6 = $300k 9> $1M

3 = local 6 = some external 9 = all locations

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Develop Charter
SIX SIGMA Project Charter
Resource Requirements Project No: Project Name: Project Leader: GB/BB: Master BB: H/O Champion: Team Members: Name Function

DMAIC Methodology Define

step you will establish ion for the project cumenting
• • • • • • • •

% Time

Initials

General Information Location: Business Segment: Business Objective: Customer CTQ(s): Current Process Capability: Sigma, Cpk , DPMO, Cycle-time, etc. Date:

Review Schedule Activity Date Start D M A I C Close

Problem
Project Problem Statement:

Project Definition

Objective & Scope Goal/target Resource requirements Financial benefits Strategic benefits Team resources Project approval
Project Objective Statement:

Project Scope/Limitations:

Project Goals and Targets:

Project Plan: See page 2 of the project charter. Project Plan and Gantt Chart Expected Benefits: Hard Dollar Savings: Soft Dollar Savings: Strategic: Other Benefits:

Time frame:

Stakeholder Approval
Hands On Champion: Name: Signature: Functional Manager: Name: Signature: Other: Name: Signature: Date: Master Black Belt: Name: Signature: Black / Green Belt: Name: Signature: Other: Name: Signature:

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Develop Charter – Problem Statement
A clear description of the problem to communicate to other people in the process and rally support to improve it • A description of the issue or problem • What, when, where and how the problem occurs • What is critical to quality (CTQ) from the customer perspective? What is nonconforming to specifications? • Define the boundaries of the problem, how big is the problem? • What are the consequences of the problem to the Company and or Customer? • Do not state a solution when describing a problem

DMAIC Methodology Define

Description of the “Pain”

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State Objective and Scope
Project Objective and Scope
• • • • •

DMAIC Methodology Define

What process will the team focus on? What are the boundaries of the process we are to improve? Where does the process begin? Where does it end? Which customers will be affected / included What is outside of scope for the team? What constraints or timelines must the team work under?
Site or Line Process Process 1 Process 2 Process 3
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Customer or Suppliers

Goal Statement

DMAIC Methodology Define

Describe, in measurable terms, what success will look like when you’ve solved the problem Include a statement of the performance level that will satisfy your CTQ and the time frame in which you plan to implement the improvement. State targets and tolerances where appropriate.

Goal Statement: Reduce late shipment costs (Express Mail) to all customers by 70% from $1.5M to $45K by January 200x.

Where

When

How Much
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Determine Resources
Determine the Stakeholders

DMAIC Methodology Define

Who will need to be involved and at what level for this project to be successful? Determine Team Members Who will need to be on the team and at what % of their time? Determine any Capital, Test or HR Requirements What materials, testing, software programming, outside services or equipment will be needed? Are those costs acceptable to management? Other Support to be Successful
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Project Plan
SIX SIGMA Project Plan
Site:
Problem Statement:

DMAIC Methodology Define
Project Name & Number: Revision Date:

Location:

Improvement Objective and Scope:

Goal and Targets Metric(s)

Benefits Baseline Goal Improvement Goals Date Date Date Date

Phases Define

Tasks and Timelines Activity Project's Customer CTQ Project Charter SIPOC Financial analysis of project's benefits Detailed process map

Project Assigned to: Start Date: End Date: Status: Review Date

Project plan remains through the life of the project

Measure

Analyze

Improve

Control Team Members Team Leader: Team BB: Team Members:

On Plan/On Schedule Behind Plan, with effort can return to schedule Behind Plan Task Completed

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Champion:

Benefits

DMAIC Methodology Define

Benefits may include any of the following: • • • • • • Hard dollar savings (cost reduction) Soft dollar savings (cost avoidance) Improved Customer satisfaction Improvement in the performance metrics (cycle time, yield, defects, etc.) Improved job satisfaction (reduction in frustration) When considering benefits… what must change for the savings to occur?
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Financial Benefits Example

DMAIC Methodology Define

Cost Improvements Quantified:
Curr Cost ($1, 000's Process Touch-up & Handsolder Wash QA/ Final Inspection Rework QA (QA E ngineers) Production Control/Expediting Total per week for costs elements above Total per Year
per w eek) New Cost

$ $ $ $ $ $ $

73 24 58 20 5 27

$ $ $ $ $ $

70 23 45 16 4 26

95% 95% 78% 78% 78% 95%

Improvement $ 3.7 $ 1.2 $ 12.5 $ 4.4 $ 1.0 $ 1.4 $ $ 24.2 1,257 k

207 $

183 per Week

$ 10,782 k $ 9,525 k per Year

Determine costs of current baseline and the impact to cost if the goal is achieved. Consider also the full impact to all effected lines and production operations. If financial analysis shows poor ROI you may want to select another project.
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Begin Mapping the Process with a SIPOC

DMAIC Methodology Define

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Move to a detailed Process Map

DMAIC Methodology Define

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Model and Automate Workflow
Discrete Transactions Performance Monitoring and Improvement

JMP for analysis and root cause determination

Workflow Automation

Database

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Begin Management/Champion Reviews

DMAIC Methodology Define

Once the project charter has been approved and the team formed around the project it is essential to begin periodic management reviews of project performance. Black Belts and Green Belts meet with Management to report performance. Champions report to executive staff on project performance. Where possible integrate reviews into current management forums.
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Six Sigma DMAIC Measure

DMAIC Methodology Measure

Measure Activities
Determine Project Critical Xs and Ys Determine Operational Definitions Establish Performance Standards Develop Data Collection and Sampling Plan Validate the Measurements Measurement Systems Analysis Determine Process Capability and Baseline

Measure Quality Tools
Quality Function Deployment (QFD) Measurement Systems Analysis (MSA) Check sheet Process Capability
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“Measure” Flow
Data Collection Plan & Sample Size
Data Collection Plan
Define What to Measure
Measure Type of Measure Operational Definition

List Of Measures (Xs and Ys)

Define How to Measure
Measurement or Test Method Data Tags Needed to Stratify the Data Data tags are defined for the measure. Such as: time, date, location, tester, line, customer, buyer, operator, etc. Data Collection Method Manual? Spreadsheet? Computer based? etc.

Who will Do it?
Person(s) Assigned What?

Sample Plan
Where? When? How Many?

Name of X or Y parameter attribute or or condition discrete to be data, measured product or process data

Clear definition of Visual the measurement inspection defined in such a or automated way as to achieve test? repeatable results Test instruments from multiple are defined. observers Procedures for data collection are defined.

State What who has measure is the being responsibility? collected

Location for data collection

How often the data is collected

The number of data points collected per sample

Data Collection, Process Baseline and Capability Determination

MSA, GR&R, Inspector Effectiveness
Goal

Add Specifications and Compute Sigma and Capability

Baseline

Restate Improvement Goals

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Determining Critical Xs and Ys
(Xs) Leading Process --> Product -->
XZY errors Temperature Offset Viscosity Pressure

Lagging (Ys)

DPU/Yield Scrap Rework, RMA Processing time Wait time Delivery time

Manufacturing Cost of Quality

Supplier, Receiving and Process Times

Transaction Cycle Time

Transactional and product defects and errors by operation

Accuracy of transaction Transaction time Product or service quality Inventory levels Materials management Materials costs
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Customer satisfaction

T&Cs, planning systems, production systems

Using QFD to Prioritize and Select Project Ys and Xs
Product or Process:

DMAIC Methodology Measure

Current Measures
Unit Delivery Deviation from Commit

Needed Measures
Deviation from target on delivery time

Time to Schedule Confirmation

Customer Satisfaction

First Pass Yield

Units delivered

Delivery Time

Defect Rate

Importance

Cum Yield

RMAs

Customer Wants Rapid schedule confirmation On time performance Defect free products Routine cost reduction Routine WIP reduction Minimum lead times

4 1 2 5 7 6

3 9 0 3 3 0

0 0 9 3 0 0

3 6 6 6 3 3

0 0 9 6 3 0

3 3 0 3 0 3

0 3 3 0 0 0

3 3 0 0 0 6

3 9 0 0 0 0

0 3 6 9 3 0

9 3 0 0 0 9

Total 24 39 33 30 12 21

Total Unit of Measure Raw data available? Std. report available? Reliable data source? Frequency of the report? Needed frequecy? Target Lower Limit Upper Limit Measurement capability Measurement validated? Competitive comparison Ranking Relationship key: 9 6 3 0

18
Min. Y Y Y Daily Daily 5:00 4:45 5:15

12
# Y Y Y Wk Wk 0 n/a 1

27
CSI Y Y Y Wk Wk 5 4.5 n/a

18
PPM Y Y Y Wk Daily 0 n/a 100

12
# Y Y Y Daily Daily Plan 5% 5%

6
% Y Y Y Daily Daily 100% 95% n/a

12
# Y N N Daily Daily 0 1 1

12
Min. Y N Y Daily Daily 0 -0:15 0:15

21
% Y N Y Daily Shift 100% 50% n/a

21
Hrs. N N N n/a Daily 1 hr. n/a 2 hr.

0

0

0

Translate customer requirements into objective measures and prioritize project metrics

5

9

6

8

7

10

2

1

4

3

Strong relationship Moderate relationship Weak relationship No relationship

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Performance Standards for Each Y
All Processes Need Clear Specifications

DMAIC Methodology Measure

Larger is Better
One-sided - lower specification limit only LSL

Smaller is Better
Target zero and upper specification limit USL

Target is Best
Two-sided specifications LSL
Unacceptable Good

USL
Unacceptable

Unacceptable

Good

Good

Unacceptable

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Develop Data Collection Plan
Elements for a data collection plan
Data Collection Plan
Define What to Measure
Measure Type of Measure Operational Definition

DMAIC Methodology Measure

Define How to Measure
Measurement Data Tags Needed or Test Method to Stratify the Data Data tags are defined for the measure. Such as: time, date, location, tester, line, customer, buyer, operator, etc. Data Collection Method Manual? Spreadsheet? Computer based? etc.

Who will Do it?
Person(s) Assigned What?

Sample Plan
Where? When? How Many?

Name of X or Y parameter attribute or or condition discrete to be data, measured product or process data

Clear definition of Visual the measurement inspection defined in such a or automated way as to achieve test? repeatable results Test instruments from multiple are defined. observers Procedures for data collection are defined.

State What who has measure is the being responsibility? collected

Location for data collection

How often the data is collected

The number of data points collected per sample

Data means nothing… without an understanding of what the data is, how it was collected, and the conditions under which it was measured Data properly collected and analyzed will help us to understand the root cause(s) of the problem
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Collect Visual Data to See the Problem

DMAIC Methodology Measure

Where possible use a Digital or Video Camera and capture the defect or process problem. “A picture is worth a thousand words in” understanding and communication of the origin and nature of problems.

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MSA for Validated Measurement
Short Term Capability

DMAIC Methodology Measure

Long Term Capability

True Value

xA xB xC

Accuracy Reproducibility Repeatability

xA xB xC

Stability

First period of time

Second period of time

Useful for characterization of variable gages and inspection capability The data is only as good as the quality of the measurements

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Six Sigma DMAIC Road Map

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Analyze Activities
Benchmark the Process or Product Establish Causal Relationships Using Data Analysis of the Process Map Determine Root Cause(s) Using Data

Analyze Quality Tools
Statistical analysis of data Cause and effect or event diagram Histogram Pareto diagram Run chart Scatter graph
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Analyze Flow
Project Data Xs and Ys
Measure
Responses or Outputs (Ys) Dependent Variable Factors (Xs) USL LSL Target Independent Variable(s) USL LSL Target

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Analysis and Stratification of Data

Root Cause Analysis Summary % Explained and % Unexplained

Root Cause Validation

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Benchmarking

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

No company is the best at all it does. Typically there are some core competencies that make a company great. There is much to be learned by benchmarking other companies who are the best at what they do. Benchmarking begins with identification of the process or business area we wish to examine. This should be clear from our problem statement and objective. Knowledge that there are other ways of doing things can be obtained from benchmarking. Benchmarking often speeds up the solution generation process.

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Root Cause Analogy

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Like pulling weeds… unless we address the root that causes the problem, poor results will keep coming back. Addressing the results or symptoms of a problem will never provide lasting solutions - given a little time… the problem will come back We need to understand the Root Cause of the problem from our problem statement

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Forward Problem Solving Versus Backwards
Define Problem

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Collect Problem Related Data Forward Problem Solving Analyze Data Determine Root Cause(s) Validate No Idea of Root Cause Determine what is unexplained

Define Problem List Probable Root Causes Collect Supporting Data Validate Determine what is unexplained Strong Idea of Root Cause
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Backwards Problem Solving

Evaluate Data to Determine Root Cause

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Goal is to determine cause & effect relationships

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Stratify Data to Understand Root Cause

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Data Collection Late Deliveries 1 2 3

Vendor Purch. Agent

Order Date

Mat. Type

Week in Quarter ordered

100 80 60 40 20 0

# Late Items

ASICs Connectors Flex c. SMT partsSolder

25 20 15 10 5 0
Tom Shauna Kris Adam John

25 20 15 10 5 0 IBM DEC HP Vendor NEC

# Late Items

Material Type

# Late Items

Purchasing Agent

MOT

Stratification: Analysis of the same data grouped and classified by the data tags to examine frequencies at different logical levels

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List Of Vital Few Xs and Critical Ys
Collected X and Y data

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Hypothesis testing t-test F-test ANOVA Chi-square Logistical regression Regression analysis and Model fitting

List Of Probable Root Causes and key process sensitivities
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Analysis of Data

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Provides the ability to visualize the relationship between process variables and to understand the source and fundamental behavior of problems

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Analyze the Process Map for Waste

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

When Mapping the Process Consider the Following: What you think it is... What it actually is... What it could be...

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Check List for Root Cause Determination

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Check and investigate all those that apply to the problem under consideration

Measurement
       Poor repeatability Poor reproducibility Poor accuracy Poor stability Poor linearity Invalid measurement or test method Excessive test or measurement

Materials
          Defective Off-specification Contaminated Improper storage conditions Labeling or identification Incorrect amount or quantity Improper transportation or handling Expiration date exceeded or unknown Problem with product design Wrong materials

Methods
            Incorrect definition Incorrect sequence Missing definitions, implicit rules Poor process controls Poor measurement controls Lack of critical information Incorrect information Excessive queues or out-time Handling Orientation Poor management of change Incorrect revision

Environment
     Physical environment (temperature, lighting, ESD) Security or safety systems Distractions in the environment Particulates Contamination

People
           Level of staffing Training Competency or experience Supervision Conflicting goals Compliance with procedures Personality issues Physical ability or function Cognitive ability and function Knowledge deficit Communication with peers or supervisor

Machine (process & test)
       Machine maintenance or calibration Machine controls or lack of controls Machine fault or defect Software or network fault Machine related contamination Machine tooling or fixtures Incorrect machine or tester

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5 Whys Example

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

State the problem, then ask why did this problem occur until you reach root cause.

Missing Parts on the Board During NPI
Improper cassette loading Missing cassette Failed to locate cassette Supplier problem Machine Malfunction

WHAT? Why? Why? Why? Why? Why?
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Part not available

Order incorrect Lack of lead time Design change Customer schedule

Design error

Performance improvement

Root Cause(s) Determination

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Root Cause is achieved when we have identified the source of the problem (use the 5+ Why approach) For any problem there are typically many Roots. They vary in frequency of occurrence. We need to know each root and their associated frequency and or % of impact. Proper Root Cause identification requires some explanation of the failure mechanism based on understanding the process, the physics, mechanics or chemistry. We must be able to explain how changes in X cause changes in Y (otherwise we don’t understand it!) Root Cause is verified when we can recreate or manipulate the problem To fix the Root Cause it must be controllable Knowing Root Cause does not assure we know the solution to the problem. Solutions can be formulated once we know the root of the problem
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List of Potential Root Causes

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Final investigation needs to be made to determine if the factors identified are actually the root cause of the problem
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Summarize All Root Cause Analysis

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

For each possible root cause, determine those you will verify. Summarize each possible root cause with the following codes: Non Contributor (NC) Possible Contributor (PC) Insufficient Data (ID) Data not available (IDX) Root Cause (RC) Non Controllable Root Cause (RCX) Does not contribute to the problem A factor which may have an effect on the response Not enough data to determine the effect of the factor (may require additional effort) Data not available concerning the factor Determined to be a root cause of the problem A root cause; however, outside the control of the company, individual or team
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Root Cause(s) Validation and Summary

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

• List all probable Root Cause(s) • Rank them in terms of effect size • Determine the additional tests and or manipulation you plan to use to validate the factors (X) which have the greatest effect on the response (Y) • Identify potential methods for controlling the factors which create the problem • When validation is complete summarize all selected Root Cause(s) and their effect size
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Root Cause Analysis Example

DMAIC Methodology Analyze

Root Cause(s) Analysis Summary
Analysis Method
Completed Potential Factor Residual Material in Bulk Fill Wrong Materials Improper use of SOP Invalid Assay NC - Non Contributor PC - Partial Contributor ID - Insufficient Data Review Date 15-Mar 9-Mar 12-Mar 12-Mar IDX - Data not available RC - Root Cause RCX - Root Cause Not Controllable Who? Tien Tien Kris Anna Investigation Method
Review use logs for PK

% Result Effect RC NC NC NC

Validation Method

Validation Date 28-Mar

Process Review
Priority 1

100% Test for residual material 0% 0% 0% 0%

Process Map
Priority 3
Review inventory use for PK

Visual Analysis
Priority 4 Priority 2
Review SOP use on the line

Cause and Effect (Event) Analysis
Verify Test Procedure

% Unexplained

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Six Sigma DMAIC Improve

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Improve Activities
Develop Solution Alternatives Assess Risks and Benefits of Solution Alternatives Validate Solution using a Pilot Implement Solution Determine Solution Effectiveness using Data

Improve Quality Tools
Design of Experiments Brainstorming FMEA Risk assessment
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Improve Flow
Based on RCA Brainstorm Potential Solutions, Costs, Risks and Benefits

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Design Experiments where appropriate

Test and Validate solutions
Installed New Process Equipment DPU

Review and approve solutions with Management

N Implement changes and determine improved process capability.
Reach Goals?

Y

Examine opportunities for standardization and translation
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Brainstorm Potential Solutions

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Use general brainstorming techniques to generate process and design change ideas which will eliminate the root cause of the problem. Separate ideas into short term and long term. Long term with take 3 months or more to implement, short term is less than 3 months. Use voting and management involvement to generate consensus on direction of approach A single solution is not required at this point in the improvement process. 2 - 3 short term solutions should be selected and ranked. 1 to 2 long term solutions should also be selected for evaluation and experimentation.

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Consider Solutions That Remove Process Waste
Seven muda: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Over production ahead of demand Waiting for the next process step or information Transporting materials unnecessarily Over processing Inventory that is more than bare minimum Motion by employees that is unnecessarily Producing non-conforming parts

For each area of waste, examine each process step to determine if waste occurs in the operation and how to remove the waste from the production system

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Solutions Centered on Lean Methods

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Production Control

Material Flow

Machine Management

Reduce inventories and production costs while improving quality

Workplace Management

Process Management

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Consider Solutions that Automate the Workflow
Discrete Transactions Performance Monitoring and Improvement

DMAIC Methodology Improve

JMP for Analysis

Periodic Management Reports Workflow Automation

Database

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DOE to Characterize, Improve the Process or Product and Get Ready to Control

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Design experiments which improve the robustness of the process. Improve process parameter design, tolerance design and reduce the source of defects.

Once experiments are complete critical process parameter sensitivities can be modeled and determined how to be targeted and controlled.
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Evaluate Cost, Complexity, Impact, Benefit and Risk for Each Solution
• • •

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Assure solution costs and timelines are acceptable to management Determine the complexity of each solution in terms of time and ease of completion Identify potential impact (change to the baseline) of each solution. Explain how each solution will address the root cause and impact real change in performance. Financial benefit = benefit of solution – cost to implement Assess the risks associated with each solution and the likelihood of occurrence Determine need to involve/notify customer concerning any product or process changes Make sure that proper validation occurs associated with the solution prior to across the board implementation
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• • • •

Solution Evaluation Form

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Solution Evaluation Form
List Root Cause(s) Root Cause 1 List Solutions Solutions 1 % Effect % of effect solution will have on the root cause Estimated Cost cost of solution implementation Complexity time or effort to implement short term? long term? Estimated Benefit savings due to solution or improvement in customer satisfaction Risk* High Medium or Low Priority Order of potential solution implmentation 1st, 2nd, 3rd Validation? Need to verify effectiveness of solution

Root Cause 2

* Use Risk Assessment Form

Evaluate solution alternatives to assure the best solution has been selected

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Evaluating Risk
Risk Assessment Form
List the Solution or Major Elements of Your Solution 1. New Software Failure Mode (What can go wrong) List each failure mode a) Software does not link correctly to database b) Software is not available on time c) Software needs revisions prior to deployment a) b) c) Severity (1-10) 10 is Worst 10 6 3 Probability Score (10 is (High scores very probable) need attention) 6 7 9 60 42 27 Action Plan

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Owner

Due Date

Need to test database link Fred early during implementation James Need to review progress during weekly meeting

15-Feb

Bill 25-Feb Watson

2. Solution

3. Solution

a) b)

Evaluate failure modes and probability to minimize any negative effects of changes to the product or process
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Involve the Champion, Discuss with Management

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Once the team has completed their work it is now time to review solutions with Management. Allow the team to benefit from a fresh perspective and add Management’s insight and experience to the priorities. This step improves the alignment of Management to the Teams efforts

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Evaluate Improvements in Series
Installed New Process Equipment

DMAIC Methodology Improve

Retrained the Workforce on the Process

DPU (miss, no change) (hit, improvement)

Implement one solution at a time. Allow for sufficient time to determine effect, then move to next solution.

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Six Sigma DMAIC Road Map

DMAIC Methodology Control

Control Activities
Determine Needed Controls (measurement, design, etc.) Implement and Validate Controls Develop Transfer Plan Realize Benefits of Implementing Solution Close Project and Communicate Results

Control Quality Tools
Statistical Process Control Out of Control Action Plan (OCAP) Design Changes to eliminate the defect

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“Control” Flow
Based on Solution, Brainstorm appropriate controls to sustain the gains
Select SPC controls where appropriate

Implement and validate controls

Review and approve control plan with Management

Cost Improvements Quantified:
Curr Cost ($1, 000's Process Touch-up & Handsolder Wash QA/ Final Inspection Rework QA (QA Engineers) Production Control/Expediting Total per week for costs elements above Total per Year
per w eek) New Cost

$ $ $ $ $ $ $

73 24 58 20 5 27

$ $ $ $ $ $

70 23 45 16 4 26

95% 95% 78% 78% 78% 95%

Improvement $ 3.7 $ 1.2 $ 12.5 $ 4.4 $ 1.0 $ 1.4 $ $ 24.2 1,257 k

207 $

183 per Week

$ 10,782 k $ 9,525 k per Year

Determine costs of current baseline and the impact to cost if the goal is achieved. Consider also the full impact to all effected lines and production operations. If financial analysis shows poor ROI you may want to select another project.

Realize savings and determine final financial benefits and ROI

Determine long term owner and close the project
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Benefits Of Control Phase

DMAIC Methodology Control

25 20 15
Process Improvement

Process Improvement

Process Improvement

Improvement

No Controls

10 5 0

17

25

33

49

65

73

81

89

97

105

113

Time

121

41

57

1

9

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Process Controls

DMAIC Methodology Control

TYPES of CONTROLS Measurement Based Control
Management Dashboards & Review Statistical Process Control

Test & Inspection
Test (error prone) Inspection (poor effectiveness and costly)

Documentation
Process Flow Diagrams Product Drawings, Schematics Process Management Plans Written Procedures Training

Periodic Checks
Scheduled Maintenance Scheduled Calibration Training and Operator Certification Audits Periodic Management Reviews

Design
Design out Product Problems Mistake Proofing Robust Design Concepts

Incentives
Measures which are associated with a bonus Measures which are associated with a penalty
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Elements of a Control System

DMAIC Methodology Control

Sensor (measurement technology & control chart) Allows the system to monitor the current process performance Alarm (control limits and trend rules) Establish limit(s) and run rules which require attention Control Logic (OCAP) A predefined set of actions to follow that are alarm specific Validate (next sample) Assure the action was effective Add alarms where needed and assure we do not ignore valid alarms. SPC methods should be used to establish alarms.

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Define Sustaining Requirements
What Vacuum will be created when you leave?

DMAIC Methodology Control

Now that the solution is known and you are ready to finish the project…. • Determine the activities that need to continue after the team is dissolved • Define who is doing them now… who should be the long term owner? • Determine who needs to do them in a sustaining long term mode • Define the set of tasks or systems that must be installed prior to completing the project and backing out of the work • What else will be needed to make the solution effective and sustainable? • From the above issues, develop a transfer plan
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Realize the Benefits of Improvement

DMAIC Methodology Control

How did you justify the cost savings for the project? What changes will have to occur to create the savings? Based on the impact of the benefits of the solution have you made changes to the process to realize the benefits? Possible Actions: Re-deploy personnel Reorganize the floor Reduce inventory levels in Planning System Eliminate inspection or test operations Modify Vendor/Customer contracts Other cost saving changes to the operation
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Close the Project or Improvement Team

DMAIC Methodology Control

• The goals have been met and the team has been successful • The solutions have all been implemented and demonstrated to be • • • • •
effective Assure all documentation is complete Determine what standardization opportunities are available Make sure the accomplishments of the individual or team are appropriately recognized personally and publicly Measure and communicate results of the project (benefits and savings) Celebrate! We did it!
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Section IV

Section IV

Implementation Strategy

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How Do We Do It?

Define Goal alignment Roles and responsibilities Develop Assemble materials Identify people Select software Select training/consulting resources Deploy Executive Overview Champion training / black belt & project selection Black Belt training / project execution Management review of progress Realize results

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Typical Six Sigma Implementation Timeline
Start 1st Wave March-August, 2002
1st Month Six Sigma Executive Overview Training ½ day Champion Selection Champion Training 2 days Select software (JMP) and schedule the training resource (ASQ-SVC) Black Belt Selection and 1st Wave Six Sigma Projects 2nd Month 100% Commitment of Black Belts to Process Improvement Begin Black Belt, Green Belt Training 2 days Define, 3 days Measure, 3 days Analyze, 3 days Improve, 3 days Control, scheduled every three-four weeks for 5 sessions Begin Management Review of Six Sigma projects Select Master Black Belt (Hire or Contract) 6 + Months Realize savings from 1st Wave, savings fund second wave etc. Establish key metrics and dashboards if not present Register in September for ASQ Certified Black Belt

2nd Wave – September 2002

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Expected Cost/Benefits of One Wave of Training
Cost/Benefit Analysis of One Wave of Six Sigma Costs Training and Consulting Days Training Costs Executive Overview 0.5 $ 1,475 Champion Training 2 $ 5,900 Black Belt Training Define 3 $ 8,850 Measure 3 $ 8,850 Analyze 3 $ 8,850 Improve 3 $ 8,850 Control 3 $ 8,850 Master Black Belt 50 $ 60,000 Total Training and Consulting Costs $ 111,625 Employee Costs Number Days Labor Costs Champions 5 60 $ 60,000 Black Belts 8 1056 $ 844,800 Green Belts 12 312 $ 249,600 $ 1,154,400 Benefits Activity Number Savings Total Benefits Completed Projects 15 $ 325,000 $ 4,875,000 ROI (annualized) $ 3,608,975

% of ROI 0.0% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 0.2% 1.7% 3.1% 1.7% 23.4% 6.9% 32.0%

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Implementation Case Study
Six Sigma Financial Analysis 3Q Total Department Expense Six Sigma Project Benefits Alta Quote on Hold Process PN Reduction Lost Units Defective from Stock FTF Fed Ex Sweep NEC RMA Optimization CSP Warranty Total Six Sigma Project Benefits $ 25,281.00 $ 4Q 187,156.00 $ YTD

212,43

$ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $ $

-

$ $ (5,074.13) $ $ (187.60) $ $ 25,740.00 $ 71,867.04 $ 562,328.94 $ 542,729.99 $ 1,197,404.24

$ $ (5,07 $ $ (18 $ $ 25,74 $ 71,86 $ 562,32 $ 542,72 $ 1,197,40

Results from one wave of training as verified by the Finance department
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ASQ-SVC & TLC Team Up for Training Excellence
Six Sigma Improvement Programs for West Coast Industries
Certified Black Belt
Exam Date: October 19, 2002 Registration: August 23, 2002

The Statistical Discovery Software

TM

Workflow Modeling and Automation
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JMP and Ultimus Software Support

All ASQ-SVC Participants receive software use for six months during their Six Sigma training

JMP Software for Windows and Macintosh links statistics with graphics, helping you explore your data, make discoveries and gain knowledge for better decision-making. See why so may professional choose JMP as their quality-improvement tool of choice for Six Sigma and quality improvement.

Ultimus software allows for effective process modeling, analysis and automation. Transactional modeling and full workflow automation tools are available using Ultimus®.

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Low Cost, High Quality, Local Six Sigma Training
Public and On-site Training
Champion Training
Six Sigma for Champions 16 hrs. $975 Mar/21-22/02

Black Belt Training and ASQ National Black Belt Certification
BB Six Sigma “Define” BB Six Sigma “Measure” BB Six Sigma “Analyze” BB Six Sigma “Improve” BB Six Sigma “Control” 16 hrs. 24 hrs. 24 hrs. 24 hrs. 24 hrs. $975 $1475 $1475 $1475 $1475 Apr/4-5/02 May/1-3/02 Jun/5-7/02 Jul/10-12/02 Aug/7-9/02

Green Belt Training
GB Six Sigma “Define” GB Six Sigma “Measure” GB Six Sigma “Analyze” GB Six Sigma “Improve” GB Six Sigma “Control”
Location
Harmonic, Inc. 549 Baltic Way, Sunnyvale, CA.

8 hrs. 8 hrs. 8 hrs. 8 hrs. 8 hrs.

$475 $475 $475 $475 $475

Apr/12/02 May/10/02 Jun/14/02 Jul/19/02 Aug/16/02

2nd Wave begins in September
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Six Sigma for Champions

Six Sigma for Champions
Dates: March 21-22, 2002 Audience & Prerequisites: Executive officers, Directors and Managers who will define and manage Six Sigma Projects Content:
Section I Section II Section III Section IV Section V Section VI Six Sigma Introduction Management Infrastructure for Six Sigma, Roles and Responsibilities Managing the DMAIC process Project Selection and Charter Implementation Issues, timelines and Black Belt, Green Belt selection Measures of Success
Harmonic, Inc. 549 Baltic Way Sunnyvale, CA

Location:

Bring your own laptop
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Black Belt Six Sigma “Define”

Black Belt Six Sigma “Define”
Dates: April 4-5, 2002 Audience & Prerequisites:
Those individuals who will work on breakthrough projects as the PRIMARY focus of their work activities. All individuals are required to have a project to work on and an identified Champion for the project.

Content:
Section I Section II Section III Section IV Section V Section VI Section VII Section VIII Six Sigma Introduction Identify Project, Champion and Owner Determine Customer Requirements and CTQs Define Project Statement, Objectives, Goals and Benefits Define Resource/Stakeholder Analysis Develop Project Plan Map the Process Project Leadership
Harmonic, Inc. 549 Baltic Way Sunnyvale, CA.

Location:

Bring your own laptop

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Green Belt Six Sigma “Define” Green Belt Six Sigma “Define”
Date: April 12, 2002 Audience & Prerequisites:
Those individuals who will work on breakthrough projects as the SECONDARY focus of their work activities. All individuals are required to have a project to work on and an identified Champion for the project.

Content:
Section I Section II Section III Section IV Section V Section VI Six Sigma Introduction Determine Customer Requirements and CTQs Define Project Statement, Objectives, Goals and Benefits Define Resource/Stakeholder Analysis Develop Project Plan Map the Process
Harmonic, Inc. 549 Baltic Way Sunnyvale, CA.

Location:

Bring your own laptop

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Project Based and Value Oriented

All training is Hands On and applied to your company’s projects. All training is done with computer applications. Complete the training and complete a project. Seating is limited! ~20 seats per class.

Registration Information You can register on-line using www.asq-svc.org or www.dr-tom.com. Or register for the Six Sigma public courses by contacting Tom Little at (925)-285-1847 or by e-mail drlittle@dr-tom.com. www.asq-svc.org

www.dr-tom.com
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Six Sigma Executive Overview Summary

• There are tremendous improvement and savings available to companies in their operations if they will mobilize their resources toward reduction of waste and improvement of quality • Six Sigma requires Leadership from the Executive Staff • The roadmap is clear and the methods for improvement are well defined • Software tools make the data collection and analysis clear • Development of an implementation and training plan is the next step

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References & Resources

Books:

E.L. Grant & R.S. Leavenworth, Statistical Quality Control (New York: NY, McGraw Hill, 1996). D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments. (New York: NY, John Wiley & Sons, 1996). G.E. Box, J.S. Hunter & W.G. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building (New York: NY, John Wiley & Sons 1978). Damelio, Robert. (1996). The Basics of Process Mapping. Productivity Press, Portland, OR.
Web Sites: Thomas A. Little Consulting at www.dr-tom.com ASQ Silicon Valley Section at www.asq-svc.org Software: SAS JMP contact SAS Institute at www.jmpdiscovery.com

382 Stanwick Street Brentwood, CA 94513 1-925-285-1847 drlittle@dr-tom.com www.dr-tom.com

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