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CHAPTER

MEC 451
Thermodynamics
Lecture Notes:
MOHD HAFIZ MOHD NOH
HAZRAN HUSAIN & MOHD SUHAIRIL

Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450
Shah Alam, Selangor

First Law of
Thermodynamics
For students EM 220 and EM 221 only

ENERGY ANALYSIS
OF CLOSED SYSTEM

First Law of Thermodynamics

The First Law is usually referred to as the Law of Conservation
of Energy, i.e. energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but
rather transformed from one state to another.
The energy balance is maintained within the system being
studied/defined boundary.
The various energies associated are then being observed as
they cross the boundaries of the system.

Energy Balance for Closed System

Heat

Closed
System

Work
z

Reference Plane, z = 0

or

4

Qnet Wnet E system

The total energy of the system, Esystem, is given as

E = Internal energy + Kinetic energy + Potential energy

E = U + KE + PE
The change in stored energy for the system is

E U KE PE
The first law of thermodynamics for closed systems then can be
written as

Qnet Wnet U KE PE
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If the system does not move with a velocity and has no change in
elevation, the conservation of energy equation is reduced to

Qnet Wnet U
The first law of thermodynamics can be in the form of

qnet wnet

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

u 2 u1

2000
1000

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000
1000

For a constant volume process,

2
2

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000
1000

2
2

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net m u2 u1

2000
1000

(kJ / kg )

( kJ )

For a constant pressure process,

Q net W net

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

m u2 u1

2000
1000

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net P (V2 V1 ) m u2 u1

2000
1000

Q net

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

m u2 u1 P(V2 V1 )

2000
1000

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

h2 h1

2000
1000
2

Q net m

Rigid tank

Piston cylinder
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Example 3.1
A closed system of mass 2 kg
The work done on the system is
30 kJ. The velocity of the system
changes from 3 m/s to 15 m/s.
During the process, the elevation
of the system increases 45 meters.
Determine the change in internal
energy of the system.

Rearrange the equation

V2 2 V12 g ( z2 z1 )
Qnet W net m u2 u1

2000
1000

V2 2 V12 g ( z2 z1 )
Wnet m u2 u1

2000
1000

9.81 45
152 32
30 2u 2

2000
1000

u 14.451 kJ Ans..

Solution:

Energy balance,
Q net W net

V V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

m u2 u1 2

2000
1000

Example 3.2

Solution:

Steam at 1100 kPa and 92 percent

quality is heated in a rigid container
until the pressure is 2000 kPa. For a
mass of 0.05 kg, calculate the amount
of heat supply (in kJ) and the total
entropy change (in kJ/kg.K).

State1
at P1 1100 kPa, x1 0.92
v1 v f 1 x1v fg1
0.00113 0.92 0.17753 0.001133
0.1634 mkg

u1 u f 1 x1u fg1
780.09 0.92 1806.3
2441.9 kL
kg
s1 s f 1 x1 s fg1
2.1792 0.92 4.3744
6.204 kgkJ.K

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For a rigid container,

v2=v1=0.1634 m3/kg

State2

superheated

0.15122

2945.9

7.1292

0.1634

u2

s2

0.17568

3116.9

7.4337

0.1634 0.15122
3116.9 2945.9
0.17568 0.15122

u2 2945.9

3030.42 kJ
kg
0.1634 0.15122
7.4337 7.1292
0.17568

0.15122

s2 7.1292

7.2790 kgkJ. K
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Q m u2 u1

29.43 kJ

s s2 s1
7.2790 6.204
1.075 kgkJ.K

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Example 3.3

Solution:

A rigid tank is divided into two equal

parts by a partition. Initially one side
of the tank contains 5 kg water at 200
kPa and 25C, and the other side is
evacuated. The partition is then
removed, and the water expands into
the entire tank. The water is allowed to
exchange heat with its surroundings
until the temperature in the tank
returns to the initial value of 25C.
Determine (a) the volume of the tank
(b) the final pressure (c) the heat
transfer for this process.

State1
Comp. liquid 3
m
v1 v f @ 25oC 0.001003 kg

P1 200 kPa,

T1 25o C
initial volume of half resevoir
V1 mv

5 0.001003
; 0.005 m3

The initial volume for entire tank

Vresevoir 2 0.005
0.01 m3

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The final pressure

u1 u f @ 25oC 104.88 kJ
kg

State 2
v 0.001003 m
f
kg

T2 25 C
o

u2 u f x2 u fg

0.01
3
0.002 mkg
5

check region !
v2

vg 43.34 mkg

x2

v2 v f
v fg

2.3 105
5
u2 104.88
2304.9
104.83 2.3 10 (2304.3)

v f v vg saturated mixture

104.88 kJ
104.93
kg

then : P2 Psat 3.169 kPa

Then :
The heat transfer for this process

Qnet Wnet m u ke Pe

Qnet Wnet m u ke Pe
Qnet mu m u2 u1

(104.88-104.83)
Qnet 5 104.93
104.88

0.25 kJ

into the system.
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Supplementary Problems 1
1.

Two tanks are connected by a valve. Tank A contains 2 kg of carbon

monoxide gas at 77C and 0.7 bar. Tank B holds 8 kg of the same gas
at 27C and 1.2 bar. Then the valve is opened and the gases are
allowed to mix while receiving energy via heat transfer from the
surrounding. The final equilibrium temperature is found to be 42C.
Determine (a) the final pressure (b) the amount of heat transfer. Also
[P2=105 kPa, Q =
+37.25 kJ]

2.

A piston cylinder device contains 0.2 kg of water initially at 800 kPa

and 0.06 m3. Now 200 kJ of heat is transferred to the water while its
pressure is held constant. Determine the final temperature of the water.
Also, show the process on a T-V diagram with respect to saturation
lines.
[ 721.1oC]
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Supplementary Problems 1
3.

4.

5.

A piston-cylinder device contains 6 kg of refrigerant-134a at 800 kPa

and 50oC. The refrigerant is now cooled at constant pressure until it
exist as a liquid at 24oC. Show the process on T-v diagram and
determine the heat loss from the system. State any assumption made.
[1210.26
kJ]0.5 m3 rigid tank contains refrigerant-134a initially at 200 kPa and 40
A
percent quality. Heat is now transferred to the refrigerant until the
pressure reaches 800 kPa. Determine (a) the mass of the refrigerant in
the tank and (b) the amount of heat transferred. Also, show the process
on a P-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.
[12.3 kg, 2956.2
kJ]
An insulated tank is divided into two parts by a partition. One part of
the tank contains 6 kg of an ideal gas at 50C and 800 kPa while the
other part is evacuated. The partition is now removed, and the gas
expands to fill the entire tank. Determine the final temperature and the
pressure in the tank.
[50C, 400 kPa]
MEC 451 THERMODYNAMICS

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Closed System First Law of a Cycle

Some thermodynamic cycle composes of processes in which
the working fluid undergoes a series of state changes such
that the final and initial states are identical.
For such system the change in internal energy of the
working fluid is zero.
The first law for a closed system operating in a
thermodynamic cycle becomes

Qnet Wnet
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Boundary Works
P
2

3
4
1

V
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According to a law of

P V n constant

No

Value of n

isochoric

isobaric

constant pressure (P1 = P2)

isothermal

constant temperature
(T1 = T2)

1<n<

polytropic

-none-

Process

isentropic

Description

Result of IGL

P1 P2

T1 T2
V1 V2

T1 T2

P1V1 P2V2
P1 V2

P2 V1

T1

T2

n
n 1

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Process

Boundary Work

isochoric

W12 P(V2 V1 ) 0

isobaric

W12 P(V2 V1 )

isothermal
polytropic
isentropic

W12 P1V1 ln

V2
V1

P2V2 P1V1
W12
1 n

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Example 3.4
Sketch a P-V diagram showing the following processes in a cycle
Process 1-2:

isobaric work output of 10.5 kJ from an initial volume of 0.028

m3 and pressure 1.4 bar,
Process 2-3: isothermal compression, and
Process 3-1: isochoric heat transfer to its original volume of 0.028 m 3 and
pressure 1.4 bar.
Calculate (a) the maximum volume in the cycle, in m3, (b) the isothermal work,
in kJ, (c) the net work, in kJ, and (d) the heat transfer during isobaric expansion,
in kJ.

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Solution:

Process by process analysis,

Section 1 2 isobaric
W12 P V2 V1 10.5

V2 0.103 m3

The isothermal work

Section 2 3 isothermal
PV
2 2 PV
3 3
0.103
140 515 kPa
0.028

V3
W23 PV
ln
2 2
V2
P3

0.028

0.103

140 0.103 ln
18.78 kJ

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The net work

Section 3 1 isochoric
W31 0
Wnet W12 W23 W31
10.5 18.78
8.28 kJ

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Example 3.5
A fluid at 4.15 bar is expanded reversibly according to a law PV = constant to
a pressure of 1.15 bar until it has a specific volume of 0.12 m 3/kg. It is then
cooled reversibly at a constant pressure, then is cooled at constant volume
until the pressure is 0.62 bar; and is then allowed to compress reversibly
according to a law PVn = constant back to the initial conditions. The work
done in the constant pressure is 0.525 kJ, and the mass of fluid present is 0.22
kg. Calculate the value of n in the fourth process, the net work of the cycle and
sketch the cycle on a P-V diagram.

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Solution:

Process by process analysis,

Section 1 2 isothermal
PV
1 1 PV
2 2
115
0.22 0.12
415

0.00732 m3
V2
W12 PV
ln
1 1
V1
V1

415 0.00732 ln

0.0264
0.00732

3.895 kJ

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Section 2 3 isobaric
W23 P V3 V2 0.525 kJ
0.525
0.0264
115
0.03097 m3

V3

Section 3 4 isochoric
W34 0

Section 4 1 PolytroPic
P4 V1

P1 V4

62 0.00732

415 0.03097
ln 0.1494 n ln 0.2364
n 1.3182
W41

PV
1 1 PV
4 4
1 n
415 0.0072 62 0.03097

1 1.3182
3.5124 kJ

The net work of the cycle

Wnet W12 W23 W34 W41
0.9076 kJ
MEC 451 THERMODYNAMICS

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Supplementary Problems 2
1.

A mass of 0.15 kg of air is initially exists at 2 MPa and 350 oC. The air
is first expanded isothermally to 500 kPa, then compressed
polytropically with a polytropic exponent of 1.2 to the initial state.
Determine the boundary work for each process and the net work of the
cycle.

2.

0.078 kg of a carbon monoxide initially exists at 130 kPa and 120 oC. The
gas is then expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100 oC.
Sketch the P-V diagram for this process. Also determine the value of n
(index) and the boundary work done during this process.
[1.248,1.855 kJ]

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3.

Two kg of air experiences the threeprocess cycle shown in Fig. 3-14.

Calculate the net work.

4.

A system contains 0.15 m3 of air pressure of 3.8 bars and 150 C. It is

expanded adiabatically till the pressure falls to 1.0 bar. The air is then
heated at a constant pressure till its enthalpy increases by 70 kJ.
Sketch the process on a P-V diagram and determine the total work
done.
Use cp=1.005 kJ/kg.K and cv=0.714 kJ/kg.K

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FIRST LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS

MASS & ENERGY ANALYSIS
OF CONTROL VOLUME

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Conservation of Mass
Conservation of mass is one of the most fundamental
principles in nature. We are all familiar with this
principle, and it is not difficult to understand it!
For closed system, the conservation of mass principle is
implicitly used since the mass of the system remain
constant during a process.
However, for control volume, mass can cross the
boundaries. So the amount of mass entering and leaving
the control volume must be considered.

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Mass and Volume Flow

Rates
Mass flow through a cross-sectional area per unit time is called the
mass flow rate. Note the dot over the mass symbol indicates a time
rate of change. It is expressed as

m V .dA
If the fluid density and velocity are constant over the flow crosssectional area, the mass flow rate is
AV
m AV

1
where

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Principal of Conservation of Mass

The conservation of mass principle for a control volume can be
expressed as

m&in m&out m&CV

principle becomes

m&in m&out

(kg/s)
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Flow Work & The Energy of a Flowing

Fluid

As the fluid upstream pushes mass across the control volume, work
done on that unit of mass is

W flow
w flow

A
F dL F dL PdV Pv m
A
W flow

Pv
m

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Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

The total energy carried by a unit of mass as it crosses the control
surface is the sum of the internal energy + flow work + potential
energy + kinetic energy

V2
V2
energy u P 2 gz h 2 gz
The first law for a control volume can be written as
.

out

Vout
Vin

gzin
2
2
in

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Total Energy of a Flowing Fluid

The steady state, steady flow conservation of mass and first law of
thermodynamics can be expressed in the following forms

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

h2 h1

2000
1000

qnet wnet

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

h2 h1

2000
1000
2

Q net W net m

Q net W net

V2 V1
g ( z 2 z1 )

m h2 h1

2000
1000

(kJ / kg )

( kJ )

(kW )
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Nozzle & Diffuser

Nozzle - device that increases
the velocity fluid at the expense
of pressure.
Diffuser - device that increases
pressure of a fluid by slowing it
down.
Commonly utilized in jet
engines, rockets, space-craft
and even garden hoses.
Q = 0 (heat transfer from the
fluid to surroundings very
small
W = 0 and PE = 0
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Energy balance (nozzle & diffuser):

.

Q in W in min

in

.
.
.

Vin
Vout

hin
gzin Q out W out mout hout
gzout
2
2
out

Vin
min hin
2

V1
h1

mout hout

Vout

V2
h2

2

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Example 3.6

Steam at 0.4 MPa, 300C,

a low velocity and leaves at 0.2
MPa with a quality of 90%.
Find the exit velocity.
Solution:

State1

V12

V2 2
h1
h2

2
2

State1
P1 0.4 MPa h1 3067.1 kJ
kg

T1 300o C sup erheated

State 2

State 2

P1 0.4 MPa

P2 0.2 MPa

T1 300o C

x2 0.9

V1 ; 0

P2 0.2 MPa h2 h f x2 h fg

x2 0.9 h2 2486.1 kJ
kg

Exit velocity:
V2

1078 m / s
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Example 3.7

State1

Air at 10C and 80 kPa enters the

diffuser of a jet engine steadily
with a velocity of 200 m/s. The
inlet area of the diffuser is 0.4 m2.
The air leaves the diffuser with a
velocity that is very small
compared with the inlet velocity.
Determine (a) the mass flow rate
of the air and (b) the temperature
of the air leaving the diffuser.

State 2

P1 80 kPa

V2 ; 0

T1 10o C
V1 200m / s
A1 0.4 m 2
Solution:

V
V
2

h1 h2
2
2

2
1

v1

RT1
3
1.015 mkg
P1
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From energy balance:

1
m& V1 A1
v1

1
200 0.4
1.015

78.8 kgs

V12
h2 h1
2000
2002
284.42
2000
304.42 kJ
kg
T2

Enthalpy at state 1
h1 C pT1 1.005 283
284.42 kJ
kg

h2
Cp

304.42
1.005
302.9 K

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Turbine a work producing device through the expansion of a

fluid.
Compressor (as well as pump and fan) - device used to increase
pressure of a fluid and involves work input.
Q = 0 (well insulated), PE = 0, KE = 0 (very small compare
to enthalpy).
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Energy balance: for turbine

Vin
Vout
Q in W in min hin
gzin Q out W out mout hout
gzout
2
2
in
out

.

W out m h1 h2

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Energy balance: for compressor, pump and fan

.

Q in W in min
in

.
.
.

Vin
Vout
hin
gzin Q out W out mout hout
gzout
2
2
out

.

W in m h2 h1

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Example 3.8
The power output of an adiabatic steam turbine is 5 MW. Compare
the magnitudes of h, ke, and pe. Then determine the work done
per unit mass of the steam flowing through the turbine and calculate
the mass flow rate of the steam.
Data

Inlet (P = 2 MPa, T = 400C,v = 50 m/s, z = 10 m)

Exit (P = 15 kPa, x = 90%, v = 180 m/s, z = 6m)

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Solution:

From energy balance:

State 1
p1 2 MPa sup erheated

3248.4 kJ
T1 400o C h1 3247.6
kg
State 2
P2 15 kPa

sat. mixture
x2 0.9
h2 h f 2 x2 h fg 2

225.94 0.9 (2372.3)

2373.1
2361.73
2361.01 kJ
kg

Vin 2
Qin W in min hin
gzin
2
in

.
.
.

Vout 2
Q out W out mout hout
gzout
2
out

h2 h1 -887.39
885.87 kJ
kg

V2 2 V12
KE
14.95 kJ
kg
2000
g z2 z1
PE
0.04 kJ
kg
1000
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the work done per unit mass

g z1 z2
V12 V2 2
Wout h1 h2

2000
1000

887.39 14.95 0.04
885.87

kJ
870.96
872.48 kg

W&out
5000
5.73 kgs
m&

5.74
Wout 870.96
872.48

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Solution:

Example 3.9
Air at 100 kPa and 280 K is
kPa and 400 K. The mass
flow rate of the air is 0.02
kg/s, and a heat loss of 16
kJ/kg occurs during the
process.
Assuming
the
changes in kinetic and
potential
energies
are
negligible, determine the
necessary power input to the
compressor.

& out
m& h2 h1 mq

State1
air
P1 100 kPa

State 2
P2 600 kPa

air

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Thus

2.74 kW

49

Throttling Valve

Flow-restricting devices that

cause a significant pressure drop
in the fluid.
Some familiar examples are
capillary tubes.

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Example 3.10
State 1
P1 8000 kPa sup erheated

o
T1 300 C h1 2786.5 kJkg
State 2

Steam enters a throttling valve at

8000 kPa and 300C and leaves
at a pressure of 1600 kPa.
Determine the final temperature
and specific volume of the
steam.

P2 1600 kPa
h2 h1
P kPa

make int erpolation

vf

1500

198.29

1600

T2

1750

205.72

vg

0.001154 0.131710
vf 2

vg 2

0.001166 0.113440

hf

hg

844.55

2791

hf 2

hg 2

878.16

2795.2
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At state 2, the region is sat. Specific volume at state 2

mixture

T2 Tsat 201.3o C
Getting the quality at state 2

x2

v2 v f 2 x2v fg 2

0.0011588
0.997 0.124402 0.0011588
0.1240

h2 h f 2

m3
kg

hg 2 h f 2

2786.5 857.994

2792.68 857.994
0.997

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Mixing Chamber

The section where the mixing process

takes place.
An ordinary T-elbow or a Y-elbow in
a shower, for example, serves as the
mixing chamber for the cold- and
hot-water streams.

53

Mixing Chamber
Energy Balance:

&1h1 m
&2 h2 m
&3h3
m

&1h1 m
&3 m
&1 h2 m
&3 h3
m
&1 h1 h2 m
&3 h3 h2
m

h3 h2
&1 m
&3
m

h
2
1

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Heat Exchanger

Devices where two moving fluid

streams exchange heat without
mixing.
Heat exchangers typically involve
no work interactions (w = 0) and
negligible kinetic and potential
energy changes for each fluid
stream.
55

Example 3.11

Solution:

simplified energy balance:

Liquid sodium, flowing at 100
kg/s, enters a heat exchanger at
450C and exits at 350C. The
specific heat of sodium is 1.25
kJ/kg.oC. Water enters at 5000
kPa and 20oC. Determine the
minimum mass flux of the water
so that the water does not
completely vaporize. Neglect the
pressure drop through the
exchanger. Also, calculate the
rate of heat transfer.

m&s h1s m&w h1w m&s h2 s m&w h2 w

m&s h1s h2 s m&w h2 w h1w

m&s C p , s T1s T2 s m&w h2 w h1w

State 1: water
P1 5000 kPa comp. liquid

T1 20o C h1w 88.61 kJ

kg
State 2 : water
P2 5000 kPa
h2 w 2794.2 kJ
kg

Assume a sat.
vapor state to
obtain the max.
allowable exiting
enthalpy.
56

the minimum mass flux of the water

so that the water does not
completely vaporize

m&w

ms C p , s T1s T2 s

h2 w h1w
100 1.25 450 350

12.5 MW

2794.2 88.61
4.62 kgs

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Supplementary Problems 3
1.

Air flows through the supersonic nozzle . The inlet conditions are 7 kPa
and 420C. The nozzle exit diameter is adjusted such that the exiting
velocity is 700 m/s. Calculate ( a ) the exit temperature, ( b )the mass flux,
and ( c ) the exit diameter. Assume an adiabatic quasiequilibrium flow.

2.

Steam at 5 MPa and 400C enters a nozzle steadily velocity of 80 m/s,

and it leaves at 2 MPa and 300C. The inlet area of the nozzle is 50 cm 2,
and heat is being lost at a rate of 120 kJ/s. Determine (a) the mass flow
rate of the steam, (b) the exit velocity of the steam, and (c) the exit area
nozzle.

3.

Steam enters a turbine at 4000 kPa and 500 oC and leaves as shown in Fig
A below. For an inlet velocity of 200 m/s, calculate the turbine power
output. ( a )Neglect any heat transfer and kinetic energy change ( b )Show
that the kinetic energy change is negligible.
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Figure A

4.

Consider an ordinary shower where hot water at 60C is mixed with cold
water at 10C. If it is desired that a steady stream of warm water at 45C
be supplied, determine the ratio of the mass flow rates of the hot to cold
water. Assume the heat losses from the mixing chamber to be negligible
and the mixing to take place at a pressure of 150 kPa.

5.

Refrigerant-134a is to be cooled by water in a condenser. The refrigerant

enters the condenser with a mass flow rate of 6 kg/min at 1 MPa and 70C
and leaves at 35C. The cooling water enters at 300 kPa and 15C and
leaves at 25C. Neglecting any pressure drops, determine (a) the mass
flow rate of the cooling water required and (b) the heat transfer rate from
the refrigerant to water.
MEC 451 THERMODYNAMICS

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