First Law of Thermodynamics

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First Law of Thermodynamics

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CHAPTER

MEC 451

Thermodynamics

Lecture Notes:

MOHD HAFIZ MOHD NOH

HAZRAN HUSAIN & MOHD SUHAIRIL

Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450

Shah Alam, Selangor

First Law of

Thermodynamics

For students EM 220 and EM 221 only

ENERGY ANALYSIS

OF CLOSED SYSTEM

The First Law is usually referred to as the Law of Conservation

of Energy, i.e. energy can neither be created nor destroyed, but

rather transformed from one state to another.

The energy balance is maintained within the system being

studied/defined boundary.

The various energies associated are then being observed as

they cross the boundaries of the system.

Heat

Closed

System

Work

z

Reference Plane, z = 0

or

4

The total energy of the system, Esystem, is given as

E = U + KE + PE

The change in stored energy for the system is

E U KE PE

The first law of thermodynamics for closed systems then can be

written as

Qnet Wnet U KE PE

5

If the system does not move with a velocity and has no change in

elevation, the conservation of energy equation is reduced to

Qnet Wnet U

The first law of thermodynamics can be in the form of

qnet wnet

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

u 2 u1

2000

1000

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000

1000

2

2

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net W net m u2 u1

2000

1000

2

2

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net m u2 u1

2000

1000

(kJ / kg )

( kJ )

Q net W net

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

m u2 u1

2000

1000

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

Q net P (V2 V1 ) m u2 u1

2000

1000

Q net

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

m u2 u1 P(V2 V1 )

2000

1000

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

h2 h1

2000

1000

2

Q net m

Rigid tank

Piston cylinder

8

Example 3.1

A closed system of mass 2 kg

undergoes an adiabatic process.

The work done on the system is

30 kJ. The velocity of the system

changes from 3 m/s to 15 m/s.

During the process, the elevation

of the system increases 45 meters.

Determine the change in internal

energy of the system.

V2 2 V12 g ( z2 z1 )

Qnet W net m u2 u1

2000

1000

V2 2 V12 g ( z2 z1 )

Wnet m u2 u1

2000

1000

9.81 45

152 32

30 2u 2

2000

1000

u 14.451 kJ Ans..

Solution:

Energy balance,

Q net W net

V V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

m u2 u1 2

2000

1000

Example 3.2

Solution:

quality is heated in a rigid container

until the pressure is 2000 kPa. For a

mass of 0.05 kg, calculate the amount

of heat supply (in kJ) and the total

entropy change (in kJ/kg.K).

State1

at P1 1100 kPa, x1 0.92

v1 v f 1 x1v fg1

0.00113 0.92 0.17753 0.001133

0.1634 mkg

u1 u f 1 x1u fg1

780.09 0.92 1806.3

2441.9 kL

kg

s1 s f 1 x1 s fg1

2.1792 0.92 4.3744

6.204 kgkJ.K

10

v2=v1=0.1634 m3/kg

State2

superheated

0.15122

2945.9

7.1292

0.1634

u2

s2

0.17568

3116.9

7.4337

0.1634 0.15122

3116.9 2945.9

0.17568 0.15122

u2 2945.9

3030.42 kJ

kg

0.1634 0.15122

7.4337 7.1292

0.17568

0.15122

s2 7.1292

7.2790 kgkJ. K

11

Q m u2 u1

29.43 kJ

s s2 s1

7.2790 6.204

1.075 kgkJ.K

12

Example 3.3

Solution:

parts by a partition. Initially one side

of the tank contains 5 kg water at 200

kPa and 25C, and the other side is

evacuated. The partition is then

removed, and the water expands into

the entire tank. The water is allowed to

exchange heat with its surroundings

until the temperature in the tank

returns to the initial value of 25C.

Determine (a) the volume of the tank

(b) the final pressure (c) the heat

transfer for this process.

State1

Comp. liquid 3

m

v1 v f @ 25oC 0.001003 kg

P1 200 kPa,

T1 25o C

initial volume of half resevoir

V1 mv

5 0.001003

; 0.005 m3

Vresevoir 2 0.005

0.01 m3

13

u1 u f @ 25oC 104.88 kJ

kg

State 2

v 0.001003 m

f

kg

T2 25 C

o

u2 u f x2 u fg

0.01

3

0.002 mkg

5

check region !

v2

vg 43.34 mkg

x2

v2 v f

v fg

2.3 105

5

u2 104.88

2304.9

104.83 2.3 10 (2304.3)

v f v vg saturated mixture

104.88 kJ

104.93

kg

Then :

The heat transfer for this process

Qnet Wnet m u ke Pe

Qnet Wnet m u ke Pe

Qnet mu m u2 u1

(104.88-104.83)

Qnet 5 104.93

104.88

0.25 kJ

into the system.

14

Supplementary Problems 1

1.

monoxide gas at 77C and 0.7 bar. Tank B holds 8 kg of the same gas

at 27C and 1.2 bar. Then the valve is opened and the gases are

allowed to mix while receiving energy via heat transfer from the

surrounding. The final equilibrium temperature is found to be 42C.

Determine (a) the final pressure (b) the amount of heat transfer. Also

state your assumption.

[P2=105 kPa, Q =

+37.25 kJ]

2.

and 0.06 m3. Now 200 kJ of heat is transferred to the water while its

pressure is held constant. Determine the final temperature of the water.

Also, show the process on a T-V diagram with respect to saturation

lines.

[ 721.1oC]

15

Supplementary Problems 1

3.

4.

5.

and 50oC. The refrigerant is now cooled at constant pressure until it

exist as a liquid at 24oC. Show the process on T-v diagram and

determine the heat loss from the system. State any assumption made.

[1210.26

kJ]0.5 m3 rigid tank contains refrigerant-134a initially at 200 kPa and 40

A

percent quality. Heat is now transferred to the refrigerant until the

pressure reaches 800 kPa. Determine (a) the mass of the refrigerant in

the tank and (b) the amount of heat transferred. Also, show the process

on a P-v diagram with respect to saturation lines.

[12.3 kg, 2956.2

kJ]

An insulated tank is divided into two parts by a partition. One part of

the tank contains 6 kg of an ideal gas at 50C and 800 kPa while the

other part is evacuated. The partition is now removed, and the gas

expands to fill the entire tank. Determine the final temperature and the

pressure in the tank.

[50C, 400 kPa]

MEC 451 THERMODYNAMICS

16

Some thermodynamic cycle composes of processes in which

the working fluid undergoes a series of state changes such

that the final and initial states are identical.

For such system the change in internal energy of the

working fluid is zero.

The first law for a closed system operating in a

thermodynamic cycle becomes

Qnet Wnet

17

Boundary Works

P

2

3

4

1

V

18

According to a law of

P V n constant

No

Value of n

isochoric

isobaric

isothermal

constant temperature

(T1 = T2)

1<n<

polytropic

-none-

Process

isentropic

Description

Result of IGL

P1 P2

T1 T2

V1 V2

T1 T2

P1V1 P2V2

P1 V2

P2 V1

T1

T2

n

n 1

19

Process

Boundary Work

isochoric

W12 P(V2 V1 ) 0

isobaric

W12 P(V2 V1 )

isothermal

polytropic

isentropic

W12 P1V1 ln

V2

V1

P2V2 P1V1

W12

1 n

20

Example 3.4

Sketch a P-V diagram showing the following processes in a cycle

Process 1-2:

m3 and pressure 1.4 bar,

Process 2-3: isothermal compression, and

Process 3-1: isochoric heat transfer to its original volume of 0.028 m 3 and

pressure 1.4 bar.

Calculate (a) the maximum volume in the cycle, in m3, (b) the isothermal work,

in kJ, (c) the net work, in kJ, and (d) the heat transfer during isobaric expansion,

in kJ.

21

Solution:

Section 1 2 isobaric

W12 P V2 V1 10.5

V2 0.103 m3

Section 2 3 isothermal

PV

2 2 PV

3 3

0.103

140 515 kPa

0.028

V3

W23 PV

ln

2 2

V2

P3

0.028

0.103

140 0.103 ln

18.78 kJ

22

Section 3 1 isochoric

W31 0

Wnet W12 W23 W31

10.5 18.78

8.28 kJ

23

Example 3.5

A fluid at 4.15 bar is expanded reversibly according to a law PV = constant to

a pressure of 1.15 bar until it has a specific volume of 0.12 m 3/kg. It is then

cooled reversibly at a constant pressure, then is cooled at constant volume

until the pressure is 0.62 bar; and is then allowed to compress reversibly

according to a law PVn = constant back to the initial conditions. The work

done in the constant pressure is 0.525 kJ, and the mass of fluid present is 0.22

kg. Calculate the value of n in the fourth process, the net work of the cycle and

sketch the cycle on a P-V diagram.

24

Solution:

Section 1 2 isothermal

PV

1 1 PV

2 2

115

0.22 0.12

415

0.00732 m3

V2

W12 PV

ln

1 1

V1

V1

415 0.00732 ln

0.0264

0.00732

3.895 kJ

25

Section 2 3 isobaric

W23 P V3 V2 0.525 kJ

0.525

0.0264

115

0.03097 m3

V3

Section 3 4 isochoric

W34 0

Section 4 1 PolytroPic

P4 V1

P1 V4

62 0.00732

415 0.03097

ln 0.1494 n ln 0.2364

n 1.3182

W41

PV

1 1 PV

4 4

1 n

415 0.0072 62 0.03097

1 1.3182

3.5124 kJ

Wnet W12 W23 W34 W41

0.9076 kJ

MEC 451 THERMODYNAMICS

26

Supplementary Problems 2

1.

A mass of 0.15 kg of air is initially exists at 2 MPa and 350 oC. The air

is first expanded isothermally to 500 kPa, then compressed

polytropically with a polytropic exponent of 1.2 to the initial state.

Determine the boundary work for each process and the net work of the

cycle.

2.

0.078 kg of a carbon monoxide initially exists at 130 kPa and 120 oC. The

gas is then expanded polytropically to a state of 100 kPa and 100 oC.

Sketch the P-V diagram for this process. Also determine the value of n

(index) and the boundary work done during this process.

[1.248,1.855 kJ]

27

3.

Calculate the net work.

4.

expanded adiabatically till the pressure falls to 1.0 bar. The air is then

heated at a constant pressure till its enthalpy increases by 70 kJ.

Sketch the process on a P-V diagram and determine the total work

done.

Use cp=1.005 kJ/kg.K and cv=0.714 kJ/kg.K

28

MASS & ENERGY ANALYSIS

OF CONTROL VOLUME

29

Conservation of Mass

Conservation of mass is one of the most fundamental

principles in nature. We are all familiar with this

principle, and it is not difficult to understand it!

For closed system, the conservation of mass principle is

implicitly used since the mass of the system remain

constant during a process.

However, for control volume, mass can cross the

boundaries. So the amount of mass entering and leaving

the control volume must be considered.

30

Rates

Mass flow through a cross-sectional area per unit time is called the

mass flow rate. Note the dot over the mass symbol indicates a time

rate of change. It is expressed as

m V .dA

If the fluid density and velocity are constant over the flow crosssectional area, the mass flow rate is

AV

m AV

1

where

31

The conservation of mass principle for a control volume can be

expressed as

For a steady state, steady flow process the conservation of mass

principle becomes

m&in m&out

(kg/s)

32

Fluid

As the fluid upstream pushes mass across the control volume, work

done on that unit of mass is

W flow

w flow

A

F dL F dL PdV Pv m

A

W flow

Pv

m

33

The total energy carried by a unit of mass as it crosses the control

surface is the sum of the internal energy + flow work + potential

energy + kinetic energy

V2

V2

energy u P 2 gz h 2 gz

The first law for a control volume can be written as

.

out

Vout

Vin

gzin

2

2

in

34

The steady state, steady flow conservation of mass and first law of

thermodynamics can be expressed in the following forms

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

h2 h1

2000

1000

qnet wnet

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

h2 h1

2000

1000

2

Q net W net m

Q net W net

V2 V1

g ( z 2 z1 )

m h2 h1

2000

1000

(kJ / kg )

( kJ )

(kW )

35

36

Nozzle - device that increases

the velocity fluid at the expense

of pressure.

Diffuser - device that increases

pressure of a fluid by slowing it

down.

Commonly utilized in jet

engines, rockets, space-craft

and even garden hoses.

Q = 0 (heat transfer from the

fluid to surroundings very

small

W = 0 and PE = 0

37

.

Q in W in min

in

.

.

.

Vin

Vout

hin

gzin Q out W out mout hout

gzout

2

2

out

Vin

min hin

2

V1

h1

mout hout

Vout

V2

h2

2

38

Example 3.6

enters an adiabatic nozzle with

a low velocity and leaves at 0.2

MPa with a quality of 90%.

Find the exit velocity.

Solution:

State1

V12

V2 2

h1

h2

2

2

State1

P1 0.4 MPa h1 3067.1 kJ

kg

State 2

State 2

P1 0.4 MPa

P2 0.2 MPa

T1 300o C

x2 0.9

V1 ; 0

P2 0.2 MPa h2 h f x2 h fg

x2 0.9 h2 2486.1 kJ

kg

Exit velocity:

V2

1078 m / s

39

Example 3.7

State1

diffuser of a jet engine steadily

with a velocity of 200 m/s. The

inlet area of the diffuser is 0.4 m2.

The air leaves the diffuser with a

velocity that is very small

compared with the inlet velocity.

Determine (a) the mass flow rate

of the air and (b) the temperature

of the air leaving the diffuser.

State 2

P1 80 kPa

V2 ; 0

T1 10o C

V1 200m / s

A1 0.4 m 2

Solution:

V

V

2

h1 h2

2

2

2

1

v1

RT1

3

1.015 mkg

P1

40

1

m& V1 A1

v1

1

200 0.4

1.015

78.8 kgs

V12

h2 h1

2000

2002

284.42

2000

304.42 kJ

kg

T2

Enthalpy at state 1

h1 C pT1 1.005 283

284.42 kJ

kg

h2

Cp

304.42

1.005

302.9 K

41

fluid.

Compressor (as well as pump and fan) - device used to increase

pressure of a fluid and involves work input.

Q = 0 (well insulated), PE = 0, KE = 0 (very small compare

to enthalpy).

42

Vin

Vout

Q in W in min hin

gzin Q out W out mout hout

gzout

2

2

in

out

.

W out m h1 h2

43

.

Q in W in min

in

.

.

.

Vin

Vout

hin

gzin Q out W out mout hout

gzout

2

2

out

.

W in m h2 h1

44

Example 3.8

The power output of an adiabatic steam turbine is 5 MW. Compare

the magnitudes of h, ke, and pe. Then determine the work done

per unit mass of the steam flowing through the turbine and calculate

the mass flow rate of the steam.

Data

Exit (P = 15 kPa, x = 90%, v = 180 m/s, z = 6m)

45

Solution:

State 1

p1 2 MPa sup erheated

3248.4 kJ

T1 400o C h1 3247.6

kg

State 2

P2 15 kPa

sat. mixture

x2 0.9

h2 h f 2 x2 h fg 2

2373.1

2361.73

2361.01 kJ

kg

Vin 2

Qin W in min hin

gzin

2

in

.

.

.

Vout 2

Q out W out mout hout

gzout

2

out

h2 h1 -887.39

885.87 kJ

kg

V2 2 V12

KE

14.95 kJ

kg

2000

g z2 z1

PE

0.04 kJ

kg

1000

46

g z1 z2

V12 V2 2

Wout h1 h2

2000

1000

887.39 14.95 0.04

885.87

kJ

870.96

872.48 kg

W&out

5000

5.73 kgs

m&

5.74

Wout 870.96

872.48

47

Solution:

Example 3.9

Air at 100 kPa and 280 K is

compressed steadily to 600

kPa and 400 K. The mass

flow rate of the air is 0.02

kg/s, and a heat loss of 16

kJ/kg occurs during the

process.

Assuming

the

changes in kinetic and

potential

energies

are

negligible, determine the

necessary power input to the

compressor.

& out

m& h2 h1 mq

State1

air

P1 100 kPa

State 2

P2 600 kPa

air

48

Thus

2.74 kW

49

Throttling Valve

cause a significant pressure drop

in the fluid.

Some familiar examples are

ordinary adjustable valves and

capillary tubes.

50

Example 3.10

State 1

P1 8000 kPa sup erheated

o

T1 300 C h1 2786.5 kJkg

State 2

8000 kPa and 300C and leaves

at a pressure of 1600 kPa.

Determine the final temperature

and specific volume of the

steam.

P2 1600 kPa

h2 h1

P kPa

vf

1500

198.29

1600

T2

1750

205.72

vg

0.001154 0.131710

vf 2

vg 2

0.001166 0.113440

hf

hg

844.55

2791

hf 2

hg 2

878.16

2795.2

51

mixture

T2 Tsat 201.3o C

Getting the quality at state 2

x2

v2 v f 2 x2v fg 2

0.0011588

0.997 0.124402 0.0011588

0.1240

h2 h f 2

m3

kg

hg 2 h f 2

2786.5 857.994

2792.68 857.994

0.997

52

Mixing Chamber

takes place.

An ordinary T-elbow or a Y-elbow in

a shower, for example, serves as the

mixing chamber for the cold- and

hot-water streams.

53

Mixing Chamber

Energy Balance:

&1h1 m

&2 h2 m

&3h3

m

&1h1 m

&3 m

&1 h2 m

&3 h3

m

&1 h1 h2 m

&3 h3 h2

m

h3 h2

&1 m

&3

m

h

2

1

54

Heat Exchanger

streams exchange heat without

mixing.

Heat exchangers typically involve

no work interactions (w = 0) and

negligible kinetic and potential

energy changes for each fluid

stream.

55

Example 3.11

Solution:

Liquid sodium, flowing at 100

kg/s, enters a heat exchanger at

450C and exits at 350C. The

specific heat of sodium is 1.25

kJ/kg.oC. Water enters at 5000

kPa and 20oC. Determine the

minimum mass flux of the water

so that the water does not

completely vaporize. Neglect the

pressure drop through the

exchanger. Also, calculate the

rate of heat transfer.

m&s h1s h2 s m&w h2 w h1w

State 1: water

P1 5000 kPa comp. liquid

kg

State 2 : water

P2 5000 kPa

h2 w 2794.2 kJ

kg

Assume a sat.

vapor state to

obtain the max.

allowable exiting

enthalpy.

56

so that the water does not

completely vaporize

m&w

ms C p , s T1s T2 s

h2 w h1w

100 1.25 450 350

12.5 MW

2794.2 88.61

4.62 kgs

57

Supplementary Problems 3

1.

Air flows through the supersonic nozzle . The inlet conditions are 7 kPa

and 420C. The nozzle exit diameter is adjusted such that the exiting

velocity is 700 m/s. Calculate ( a ) the exit temperature, ( b )the mass flux,

and ( c ) the exit diameter. Assume an adiabatic quasiequilibrium flow.

2.

and it leaves at 2 MPa and 300C. The inlet area of the nozzle is 50 cm 2,

and heat is being lost at a rate of 120 kJ/s. Determine (a) the mass flow

rate of the steam, (b) the exit velocity of the steam, and (c) the exit area

nozzle.

3.

Steam enters a turbine at 4000 kPa and 500 oC and leaves as shown in Fig

A below. For an inlet velocity of 200 m/s, calculate the turbine power

output. ( a )Neglect any heat transfer and kinetic energy change ( b )Show

that the kinetic energy change is negligible.

58

Figure A

4.

Consider an ordinary shower where hot water at 60C is mixed with cold

water at 10C. If it is desired that a steady stream of warm water at 45C

be supplied, determine the ratio of the mass flow rates of the hot to cold

water. Assume the heat losses from the mixing chamber to be negligible

and the mixing to take place at a pressure of 150 kPa.

5.

enters the condenser with a mass flow rate of 6 kg/min at 1 MPa and 70C

and leaves at 35C. The cooling water enters at 300 kPa and 15C and

leaves at 25C. Neglecting any pressure drops, determine (a) the mass

flow rate of the cooling water required and (b) the heat transfer rate from

the refrigerant to water.

MEC 451 THERMODYNAMICS

59

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