Ethernet Basics

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10-Mbps Ethernet • Three 10-Mbps Ethernet standards:
– 10BASE5 – 10BASE2 – 10BASE-T

• 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 were around more than 20 years and have been replaced by newer alternatives • 10BASE-T’s use is declining, but it is still used it some networks

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Comparing 10-Mbps Ethernet Options

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10-Mbps Ethernet
• 10-Mbps Ethernet standards cover all of IEEE 802.3 OSI physical layer (Layer 1) standards and the lower half of the OSI Layer 2 (the MAC sublayer) • IEEE 802.3 Logical Link Control (LLC) defines the upper sublayer of OSI Layer 2 for Ethernet

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Ethernet Standards and the OSI Layers

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10-Mbps Ethernet
• 10BASE5, 10BASE2, and 10BASE-T all use different physical layer specifications • All three types share the same settings for timing-related features • There are also three types of frames allowed on an Ethernet network

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Ethernet Framing Review

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10-Mbps Ethernet
• All three 10-Mbps Ethernet options use a logical bus topology • All three 10-Mbps Ethernet options use asynchronous transmission logic (do not send any signals when idle) • Receivers must synchronize themselves to the sender each time a device sends a frame; done by using the Preamble and Start Frame Delimiter (SFD)

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10-Mbps Ethernet
• Other key features identical across all types of 10-Mbps Ethernet:
– Shared medium – CSMA/CD and half duplex – Design rules about the number of hubs or repeaters between two end-user devices – Timing parameters – Frame format – Logical bus topology – Asynchronous transmission – silence between frames

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T
• Approved in 1990 • Similar to 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 • Major change from the physical bus topology • Uses a physical star and UTP cabling • In 1997, full duplex standard was approved, allowing simultaneous transmission and reception of signals by a device, which significantly increases performance

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Wiring • Supports Categories 3, 5, and 5e unshielded twisted-pair (UTP) cabling • Works better with Cat5 than Cat3 • Current installations of cabling are at least Cat5e which will allow support of Gigabit Ethernet

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Using a Straight-Through UTP Cable

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Wiring
• Straight-through cables are used to connect a NIC to a hub • The NIC’s transmit pins (1 and 2) are connected to the hub’s receive pins (1 and 2) • The NIC’s receive pins (3 and 6) are connected to the hub’s transmit pins (3 and 6)

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
TIAStandard Pinouts

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
TIA/EIA 568A Pinouts

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Wiring
• Hubs and switches are often connected together to forward data • This type of connection requires a crossover cable • The same cable can be used to connect two PCs directly without using a hub or switch

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Crossover Cable

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Design: Using Hubs, CSMA/CD, and Half Duplex • 10BASE2, 10BASE5, and 10BASE-T all use the same CSMA/CD algorithm to avoid and recover from collisions • 10BASE-T requires CSMA/CD when using hubs, but usually not when using switches

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Design: Using Hubs, CSMA/CD, and Half Duplex: the 5,4,3 Rule • Key design rule when using hubs:
– Between any two devices on a LAN, there can be at most
• Five cable segments • Four hubs • Three LAN segments with devices attached to them

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Example of a Long Delay for Hearing a Collision

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
The 5-4-3 Rule
• Makes sure that CSMA/CD works correctly by ensuring a collision can be heard in a reasonable amount of time • A collision fragment must propagate back to the sending device for it to know there has been a collision • The delay for the electricity to get from the collision point back to the sending device is affected distance, cable type and any repeaters or hubs in the path

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
The 5-4-3 Rule
• Each repeater or hub adds to the delay • All 10-Mbps Ethernet network standards require that a frame be able to go from one end of the network and back to the other in 50 microseconds • In today’s network designs, hubs are

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Good Design Practice with 10BASE-T Hubs

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Design: Using Switches
• The exclusive use of switches eliminates the 5-4-3 rule’s restrictions • Switches have small collision domains • If collisions can’t occur, 5-4-3 rule is not needed

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Using Switches to Create Many Smaller Collision Domains

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Design: Using Switches
• In the previous slide, each collision domain is a cable up to 100 meters long, with no hosts attached; no collisions occur • 1997 – IEEE802.3i standard defines “full duplex” with these restrictions
– Ethernet switches/bridges must be used (no hubs/repeaters – Only two Ethernet interfaces can be in the same collision domain

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
10BASE-T Design: Using Switches
• Full duplex more than doubles the bandwidth
– Devices on either end of a cable can send at the same time – CSMA/CD can be disabled – Collisions cannot occur, so no collision waste

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100-Mbps Ethernet
• In the 1990s, use of 10BASE-T LANs grew rapidly (cheaper to install) • The Internet grew quickly, about 10% per month • Eventually, 10Mpbs to the desktop was not fast enough

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100-Mbps Ethernet: 100BASE-TX
• The Fast Ethernet family was introduced in 1995 • 100BASE-TX (IEEE 802.3u), which specifies Cat5 copper cabling, became widely popular • The 100BASE-T standard, using Cat3 cabling, was not widely supported

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100-Mbps Ethernet: 100BASE-TX
• 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX Equivalent Features – Support CSMA/CD and half duplex – Support autonegotiation today – Use Cat5/5e cabling – Have same cable length restrictions – Use same Ethernet frame format – Use most of the same timing parameters – Use the same RJ-45 pinouts – Can disable CSMA/CD and use full duplex

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100-Mbps Ethernet: 100BASE-TX
• 10BASE-T and 100BASE-TX differences – Relate to physical layer – 100BASE-TX transmits data at 100 Mbps, ten times faster than 10BASE-T – 100BASE-TX is synchronous (always sending some bits, even when idle) – The bit-time of 100BASE-TX is 1/10th the bit-time of 10BASE-T

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Common Ethernet Timing Settings for 100 Mbps Ethernet Standards

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Designing Ethernets with Two Speeds
• Autonegotiation allows NIC and switch ports to use either 10 or 100 Mbps and either half or full duplex • Mixed speeds were common on LANs • Today, mixed speeds are more likely to be 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Typical 10/100 Ethernet Design

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Designing Ethernets with Two Speeds
• Autonegotiation provides design and upgrade flexibility • NICs can be used that support only 10 Mbps, 10 or 100 Mbps, or only 100 Mbps • Upgrades do not have to be completed over one weekend • Note: Hubs cannot be used in this design

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100BASE-FX
• Can run longer distances than 100BASE-TX • Often used between buildings on a campus • 100 Mbps speed • Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) was also popular

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
Backbone Design Using FDDI

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100BASE-FX
• Asynchronous Transfer mode (ATM) became popular in the mid-1990s
– Took place of FDDI equipment – Equipment overhead caused some inefficiencies

• 100BASE-FX allowed similar cabling distances and speeds as FDDI, overcame some of the inefficiencies

10- and 100-Mbps Ethernet
100BASE-FX
• 100BASE-FX was not as popular as 100BASE-TX because:
– Not enough benefit seen in replacing existing FDDI backbones – ATM allowed higher transfer speeds (155 or 622 Mbps) – Introduction of Gigabit Ethernet ended need for it

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
• Gigabit Ethernet runs at 1 Gigabit per second (Gbps), which is 1000 Mbps • Often called “GigE” • Originally the IEEE 802.3z standard that uses fiber • Now available over UTP – IEEE 802.3ab • Uses same framing as other Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Common Ethernet Timing Settings for 1000-Mbps Ethernet Standards

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
1000BASE-X
• Refers to three separate Gigabit Ethernet standards, all of which use fiber-optic cabling • Two popular commercial versions:
– 1000BASE-SX (short distances) – 1000BASE-LX (long distances)

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Comparing 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
1000BASE-X Advantages Versus 1000BASE-T with Copper Cabling
• Noise immunity, because fiber-optic cabling is not susceptible to interference from nearby radiation • Because 1000BASE-X is not electrical, no grounding problems exist • Provides various options for different types of cabling, connectors and price points • Cabling distance allows a more widely dispersed Ethernet LAN

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Comparing Maximum Cabling Distances: 1000BASE-X and 1000BASE-T

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Backbone with Two 1000BASE-X Links

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Backbone Links
• With 1000BASE-X, longer backbone links can be built than with ATM • Up to eight parallel 1000BASE-X links could be used between switches in a single Gigabit EtherChannel • Most backbone links have at least two parallel channels for redundancy

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Gigabit Ethernet Connectors
• Both 1000BASE-SX and 1000BASE-LX use two fiber strands – one to communicate in each direction • The concept is similar to using pairs of copper wires in copper cabling • The connectors are typically either SC or MT-RJ connectors

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
SC Connector

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
MT-RJ Connector

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Backbone Links
• The small circles at the end of each connector represent the end of the actual fibers • The transmitter on one end must connect to the detector on the other end • Every fiber optical cable essentially acts like a crossover cable

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Matching Transmitter with Receiver on 1000BASE-X

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
1000BASE-T
• Development of Gigabit over copper required much more engineering work than Gigabit over fiber • 1000BASE-T uses Cat5e cabling (Cat5 cable can be re-terminated and made to pass the Cat5e standard without replacing the cable) • 2 bits (called a symbol) are sent at a time • All four pairs of wires are used, with each pair transmitting twice as many bits per second as 100BASE-TX, which gives 4 x 250 Mbps = 1 Gps • Each wire pair can simultaneously send and receive!

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
1000BASE-T
• If a NIC sends a frame and begins to send one at the same time, a collision is assumed • Gigabit Ethernet does not use CSMA/CD or half duplex by choice - to do so, Gigabit hubs would be needed and none are made • Gigabit switches are used instead of hubs • Ethernet standards faster than Gigabit do not support CSMA/CD and half duplex

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
1000BASE-T Straight-Through Cable Pin Lead Names

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Future of Ethernet
• Next step is migration of the desktop to 1 Gbps • Many LAN installations already run multiple 1-Gbps links as an EtherChannel between switches • 10 Gigabit standards for fiber and copper have been approved by the IEEE • IEEE 802.3ae standard allows links up to 40 kilometers, allowing Ethernet MAN

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Service Provider MAN with 10 Gigabit and 1 Gigabit Ethernet

Gigabit Ethernet and Beyond
Networking Media Speeds
• Copper
– Up to 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) (probably more)

• Wireless
– Up to 1000 Mbps (1 Gbps) (probably more)

• Optical
– Up to 10 Gbps (probably more)

Summary
• Ethernet has increased in speed 1000 times, from 10 Mbps to 10,000 Mbps • All Ethernet forms share a common frame structure, which leads to excellent interoperability • Most copper Ethernet connections are now switched full duplex • 10GigE and faster were exclusively fiber technologies, but some are now available over copper

Summary
• 10BASE5, 10BASE2 and 10BASE-T are considered legacy Ethernet technologies • The four common features of legacy Ethernet are timing parameters, frame format, transmission process, and the 5-4-3 basic design rule • The 5-4-3 rule states that a single (10BASE5, 10BASE2 and 10BASE-T) LAN can have no more than 5 segments, 4 repeaters, and 3 segments occupied between any two LAN devices • 10BASE-T uses twisted-pair cabling and was introduced in 1990

Summary
• Because 10BASE-T has multiple wires, it is capable of full duplex signaling • 10BASE-T carries 10 Mbps of traffic in half duplex mode and 20 Mbps in full duplex mode • 10BASE-T links can have unrepeated distances of up to 100 meters; repeaters, hubs, bridges and switches can extend the network beyond that distance • A 10BASE-T LAN can be extended indefinitely by stringing together switches; each connection between switches is limited to 100 meters

Summary
• 100-Mbps Ethernet is known as “FastEthernet” • 100-Mbps Ethernet can be implemented with twisted-pair copper wire (100BASE-TX) or with fiber (100BASE-FX) • 100-Mbps Ethernet forms can transmit 200 Mbps in full duplex • 100-Mbps Ethernet uses two separate encoding steps to enhance signal integrity • Two fiber versions of Gigabit Ethernet, 1000BASESX and 1000BASE-LX, offer these advantages:
– Noise immunity, small size, increased unrepeated distances and bandwidth

• Gigabit Ethernet over fiber is the preferred backbone technology