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# CHAPTER 5

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Forces on a ship

1.

General

2.

Longitudinal strength

1.
2.
3.
4.

Shearing forces
Explaining bending moments
Longitudinal reinforcements

3.

Torsion of the hull

4.

Local stress

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Panting stresses

5.

Ship in waves

6.

Stiffening

1.
2.

Purpose or stiffeners
Longitudinal framing system
and transverse framing
system

1 General
There are many forces acting on a ship. How they act is largel y determined
by the purpo se the ship was built for. Forces on a tugboat will be different
from the forces acting on a contai ner ship. The types of forces that occur in
waves are the same for every ship but the magnitudes and points of action
depend on the shape of the ship below the waterline .
The pattern of forces on a ship is very
complicated and largely depends on
the following parameters:
- the weight of the empty ship
- the weight of the cargo, fuel,
bal last, provi sions, etc.
- ice
- hydrostatic"' pres sure on the
hull applied by the water
- hydrodynamic * forces resulting
from the movement of the ship
in the waves
- vibration s caused by engines,
propeller, pitching
- incident forces caused by
docking,
collisions
These and other forces cause the ship
to be deflected. When the force stops
acting, the ship will regain its original
shape. Every ship is different
and some have more or less of
this flexibility. If, however, the
forces exceed a certain limit , the
defor mation can be permanent.

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2 Longitudinal strength
2.1 Shearing forces
When a ship is in calm water, the total
upward force will equal the total
weight of the sh ip . Locally th
is eq uili briu m will
not
be
realised because the ship is not a
rectangular homogeneou s object.
The local

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Ship Knowledge , a modern
encyclopedia

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84

upward pressure. In the drawing on
the right a part of the aft ship
is depicted along with the shearing
force near a bulkhead . The shearing
is 400200=200 tons. The downward
force causes a hogging moment
of 400t x 6111. The upward force
causes a sagging moment of 200t
x 3m. The bend ing moment at the
bulk head is: 2400tm- 600tm =
1800tm hogging.

differences between upward pressure
and the local weight give rise
shearing
to
longitudinal tensions . The shearing
force is the force that wants to
shift the (athwart-ship) plane from
one part of the ship to another. The
submerged pai1 of the ship clearly
shows the difference in volume
between the midships, the fore- and
the aft ship; this is the reason for
the difference in

The
longitudinal
forces
occur because:
a. the weights in the ship are not
homogeneous in the fore and aft
direction
b. the upward pressure differs
becau se of the shape of
the underw ater body

200!

400!

The submerged part of this ship clea r/r .1hmrs the d( fjere1Jce i11 1'0 / wne het11·eeJJ the

sheenng

f rce

200 tons shearing force at

111id.1hips section 011d the a(i .1hip. This cxp/oi111 the tli(ler<'llCe in 11pu·urd pre rnre.

Weight

Buoyancy force

+

\

The black 1•cc1ors reJ1l'l' .lf!11/ the up ward f'l' <'s.rnre w1d the 1reighr 0(1/i e

ship.
Th£' red 1·ec/l!n R i1·e the rcs11/1wr 1 per sef'/ io11.
Initial draught

f-. ff - --i f
-)-t-j -t j. - --f

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+ ii
ti ,
s

4

Q.

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res11 /10 111 s/rearinR

Q2

Q,

f urces het H ·een rhe different comprlr!

z

Ui }
[ +'
G4

ments. The red i·ecwn giv1· 1/r,, rc.1ul 1n111 per rection
Ship Knowledxe. u modern
e11cyclopedi11

8
5

2.2 Explaining bending moments

Comainerfe eder in hem ·y weo rher. The ship is purrially un o l\'avetop;
hogg ing

Below is an explanation of how
bending moments and shearing forces
are continuously changing. As an
example a rectangular vessel is used
which is divided into three compart
ments (A, B and C). In figures 1, 2
and 3 both outer compartments are
filled with cargo. In figures 4 and 5
the inner compartment (B) is filled
with cargo. In figures 2 and 5
the vessel is on a wavetop and in
figures 3 and 6 the vessel is in a
trough. The u pward
pre ssures
keep changing because the wave
pattern is also changi ng. The
downward forces however stay the
same. The up and downward forces
per
compartment are depicted as
vectors.

T/1e .1/1ip is parti ally in u 1m11g li. In this rnse 1/1e.fiJreship will e.1pa irnce a
la rge sagging 11w me/lf while rite qfi .rhip experiences u lart:e hogg ing moment .

calm water

fig 2

fig 3

wavetop

trough

+
resultant

---

sheering force curve

---

bending moment

Ship Knowledge, a modem
encyclopedia

86

The mean resultant per compartment
is given as a vector on the line below.
The load curve gives the difference
of the up- and downward forces per
metre at each point on the
baseline . The su m of the areas
above the baseline and the areas
below the baseline should be equal.
The shearing force curve gives a sum
of the shearing forces on the right part
produced by the left side, going from
left to right. I f the direction of the
force is changing (from upward to
downward or vice versa), the shearing
force curve will change from rising to
falling
or
vice
versa.
The
shearing
force curve has an extreme value at
the points where the direction of
the force is changing. Converting
the load curve to a shear force
curve is

called summing. The sum of the areas
above the baseline has to equal the
sum of the areas below the baseline.
The shearing forces are expressed
in tons.
The
bending
moment
is
determined by summing the shearing
forces going from left to right.
The bending moment is expressed in
tonmetre (tm). I f the shearing force
curve changes from rising to falling
or vice versa , the bending moment
will bend at the bending point from
"hollow" to "round" or vice
versa. When the shearing force
curve crosses the baseline, the
bending moment line will change
from rising to falling or vice versa.
The ship will

take the shape of the bending moment
line if this has only one
extreme (maximum) value.
The situation in figures I and 2 is
called a hogging condition and
the situation in figures 3, 4, S and
6 is called a sagging condition.
Around the half height of the vessel
there is a "neutral zone". Here there
are hardly
any tension or compression stresses.
However , especially at the ends of the
vessel, heavy horizontal shearing
stress can occur.

fig 4

fig 5

fig 6

calm
water

wavetop

trough

resultant

-

sheering force curve

I
bending moment

Ship Knowledg e, a modem encycloped
ia

87

2.3 Longitudinal reinforcements
The preceding shows that the bigge st
stresses occur in the outer fibres: in
the shear strake, bilge strake, upper
strake of the side bu lkhead and
bottom strakes . This is were the
thickest p lati ng is applied. The
pictures above show a view that
clearly emphasizes the difference in
plate thickness between the upper
strake of the side bulkh ead and the
side bulkhead ju st below it. In
this shi p (container feeder) the
upper strake of the side bulkhead is
abou t
2.5 times as thick as the
contin uous side bul khead . The place
where the plate thickness changes
(from 22 mm to 9 mm ) is called the
taper.
When the ship's "officer has
entered the weight of all the items on
the ship into
the
programme ,
the computer can
calcu late the stability, shearin g
forces and bendin g mo men ts.
The program compares the present
situation with the requi rements
and
regu lations
of
the
classification bureau and the p roper
authori ties. The fol lowing pa ges
contain a number of examples of
board
depicts
these.
The
situations have
been
greatly
exaggerated for clarity. Of
the
tota l
loa ding programme, only a
few (shortened ) pages are shown.

Ship Knowledge, a modern encyclopedi
a

Situation I
Only the holds in the fore and the
aft ship are loaded , resul ting in a
great hogging moment. The graph
shows
that the be nding moment reaches the
limit for seagoing condi tion . There
fore, this is a dangerous situation .
Dur ing
in
port
th is bend ing
moment
is still
allowable. The difference between
maximu m allowable
bendi ng
moments at sea level and in the
bending moments due the waves at
sea.
Situation 2
The cargo is distrib uted equ ally
over the who le ship, resulting in
modest shear force
and bend ing
momen ts. Because part of the cargo is
placed on the main deck, the
initial stability (GMO) is negative.
This mean s that
the centre of gravity (G) is above the
metacentre (M) when the ship has no
list. When the ship starts listing M
wi ll move upwards due to
the widening of the wa terlin e till
it reaches G In case of an
increasing difference between G and
M the sh ip will eventually capsize.
Situation 3
On ly the holds in the mid ship section
are loaded. Because of this the ship
experiences a large saggi ng momen t.
The max imum be nd ing moment
exceeds the acceptable be nding
moment for seagoing condition at
Y2 L (frame 108) by 2% . In port this
table "strength summary" and the
graph of bending moments.

Explanation of the above pictures :
(22 rrun )
2. Main deck or gangway (14
mm)

3. Longitudi nal or side
Deck beam (HP-profile)
5. Deck beam (flat bar)
6. Longitudina l frame (HPprofile)
7. Web frame with pla te stiffeners
around manhole .
8. Inner side of the shell
with stringer.
9. Stringers on the side
4.

8
8

Maximum pressure

Minimum pressure

Pressure distribution for a hogging condition

Maximum stress
stress

Minimum

Global stress level (equivalent stress) for a hogging condition

l iu; comp111er si11111 /at io11.1· ll'hich shu11· the tension w1d compressi1 ·e stresses i11 hogg ing
co11Ji1i1111.
Ship Knowledge, a modem encyclopedia

8
9

Situation
1

S .W . 1025

- - -

-

-

- - - cargo

100
tonlm.

4

- - - Tanks
- - -

- Lightweight

2

0
-- - Buoyancy

2

r 1000

o 1Limit, Harbour

SHEAR FORCE

x x l imit,
Seagoing
-0 Actual
0 0
x x

t
0
)0(

2

0

x

'l l,C. .:::t
I

-

i

10000 tm
MOMENT
m -- <)---

j

x
x

0

( )

x

0

x xx

J

0

r)

0

x

(<.

) (

xx x

()

0

x

x

x

' X l Limit,

BENDING

-

-{ - --O-r

Harbour
Limit,
Seagoing
Actual

6
4
r:-=-::=:J_

;re- - - - - - + - - - - - - + -- - - - - -+----- -- ! -

Ship Knowledg e, a modem
encyclopedia

-

- - = } - -

- - - + - - ---""""=:-c·

90

1o· 1s · 20· 2s·

30•

so·

so·

40°

70°

Heel
(Trim=O)

Shear Force and Bending Moment
Results
- - - - - Distances
Buoyancy
Lightweight
Wght
Moment
from Ap. from OX
Wght
Compartments
Wght I
m
Moment
Im
I
-3.601
72.851
0
0
0
0
0
t
m
61.450
-53
-3403
401
26598
270
7.800
Im
34.625
34.625
-1912
97873
507
-86886 1798
51.200
18.050
-4038
-142256 2914
125683
721
74.300
-5.050
-7335
-163783 3891
132865 1440
90.025
-20.775
-9304
-138955 4788
122453 1739
110.860
-41.610 -11017
-87478 5396
102487 2277
133.900
-84.650 -11764
-49577 5934
74204 2869
146.501
-n.251 -11910
-39430 6089
63392 2694

STRENGTH S UMMARY
Shear Fon:es
Frame

no.
39
51
57
61
75
61
92
106
120
125
130

From
AP

26.000
3 ".6
25
38.60
0
42.0
10
51.2
00
55.4
00
6 3.1
00
142
98.100
74.30
150
103.850
0
160
110.860
83.1
171
118.400
00
Bays.
188
130.300
86.2
Maximum :
00
90.0
25
Position (m) :

% of permiss.

Seag.

t

1199
47
1139

Hartl.

44

1076
42
1037
'40

968
37
163
-1639
-1414
7
-633
-968
25
-527
2C
-62
-962
37
-1639
-1041
-1176
98.10

19978
29862

36
35

34253
37843

32
23
6
72

-46982
50492
51319
53762
4424
7
41151
36962

32
35

27

38

63

54
45
31
16
2C2
54

52
36
19
2C2
63
40

tm

41
39

22

693

Bending Moment
% of perm1!!S
Seag.

29
25
Harb.
45
38
53
59

43

47

80

60

90
96

65

83
78
71

69
59
56

Moment
Im

0
17727
28087
33685
38091
34379
16923
-2502
-4208

BreakBulk
Moment
Im

0
0
10774
27895
27895
27895
12914
-11267
-11267

Bays
SF
Moment
t
tm
0
0
0
617
19448 1139
19448
968
19448
-833
15618 -1176
4026
-968
-8487
-34
-8487
0

Wght
t
0
0
462
462
462
693
1046
1302
1302

Weight
21T CONTAINERS
• IT
CONTAJNERS
CONTAINERS

BREAKBULK
CREW AND STORES

HEAVY FUEL

DlESCL O!l
FRESH WATER
W ATERBAllAS T
MISCELLANEOUS

LIGHTWEJGHT
DIS?U\CEMENT
OW RESERVE

50

25828
53
38
32
16964
48
18
8584
26
8
11
3304
SA-48
5A-4B
5A-4B
359
2
2
72
53956

I

0
1302
1302
1825
103
8

107
202
1296
91
5822
6089
119100
112

LCG
m

TCG

-<l.52

m
0
·0 .22

-<l.52
-617
369
..J:U 9
38.03
85.0·t
2 •7
54.54
-4. 12
10.•10
3.31

-0.22
0.00
0.00
-0.00
-0.00
0.02
-0.03
0.15
-0.05
0.000
-0 03

c

VCG
m
0
17
.08
17
.08
8.12
13.8
1
2 61
0.93
8.9 !
8.28
1.25
8.00
5.92
7.71
0

Strength
BM
tm
0
3012
29862
46982
51319
36962
8584
186
15

s.Coo".(pc&.)
m

I
0)

I
62)

0 62
00
) 0 07
0.01
(
0.00
SJ
0.00
0.00
(

o.o
e0.00

0.08
0.00

44

98.1

HYDROSTATICS & STABILITY
Draught AP
7.55
Draught M.
7.00
Draught FP
6.45
Trim
1.10
Air
Draught
28.99
Propp.Ratio
82

98.1

65.-49 65.5

65.5

m
m

GM solid
Correction
GM fluid
GM req.

m
%

Heel
Rollp.

m
m

1.37
0.08
1.29
0.15
-1.1
15.0
sec.

Shi/' Knowledge, a modem
encycloped ia

Wght
I
0
0
284
909
909
909
1329
1826
1826

m
m

m
m

·ss

KMT
9.37 m
LCB
1.94 m
LCF
2.92 m
Immersion
21 t/cm
TrimMom
tm/cm
138
(Values above for trim=O)

91

Situation 2
C DECK
F'PERDECK

- + '>
;.- /

.l

B DECK

- - - Lightweight

4

!
t5C\ 15B05

2

_5A

0

- - -

Buoyancy

2
1000 t

x

x X l imit ,
Seagoing

)

( '

x x

x xx

0
)0(

• Limit, Harbour

SHEAR FORCE

2
-

r
,

. . .)

x

)

x

)
('

xx x

0

0

0

-

Actual

x
x

. ID

x

x

I

10000 tm

BENDING MOMENT

8

-o--o-n--

0 0 Limit, Harbour
Limit, Seagoing
- Actual

6

Ship Kno1V !edge, a modem
encyclopedia

92

GZ (m)

Heel (0 )
Trim = O

Shear Force and Bending Moment
Results
Distances
from Ap. from OX
m
m
-3.601 Buoyancy
72.851
7.800
34.625
51.200
74.300
90.025
110.860
133.900
146.501

61.450
34.625
18 050
-5.050
-20.775
-41.610
.Q4.650
-77.251

Wght
t
0
-470
-3747
-13737
-10983
-13402
-15406
-16197
-16340

STRENGTH SUMMAR
Y
Frame
no.

39
51
57
61
75
81
92
108
120
125

130
142
150
160

171

188

From

AP

26.000
34.6
25
38.6
00
42
010
51.20
0
55.4
00
63.1
00
74.30
0
110.860
63.1
00
8820
0
118400
90.0
25
98.1
00
130.300
103 6
50

Moment Wght
tm
t
0
-31165
-182130
-260427
-288729
-258328
-198358
-158411
-148428

m
Trim
Air Draught

0
401
1798
2914
3891
4786
5396
5934
6069

0
26598
97873
125683
132865
122453
102487
74204
63392

0
220
361
613
1333
1631
1742
1747
1752

Shear Forte&

Bending Momeni

% of permiss.

% of pert nl ss
tm Seag
707
1
Hartl.
3
4 1
4
-3060
5
-2096
4
-3269
6
1
-854
2
0
-342
1
-550
-1061
-1087
1
-561
0
5
316
:;
7
2356
5
2559

t Seag. Harb.

9

-216
-264
-160
32
306
-0
-39
-117
127
195
251
139
3

12
7
1
12
0
2
5
5
6
10
6
2

-105

4

6
10
5
1
10
0
1
4
4

7
6
5
2

0
14265
20887
27147
31553
27841
25332
25023
24681

0
0
842
2633
4103
5197
5773
5853
5853

0
0
31981
81197
90039
75390
60624
56719
56719

SUMMARY

Weight

t

BRE>J<BUU<

,
_

CREW ANO SlORES
HEAllYFUa

26"<6
13
5853
13 "

20' CONTAtNERS
4 0' CONTAINERS
CONTAINERS

FRESH WAl f f i
W"-TER BALLAST
MlSCat . AN EOUS
OEAOWEIGHT

OEAOLOAO

UGHlWElGHT
DISPlACEMENT
[}N RESERVE

2

"

5

0

&aa
16340
7339

1

m
0

0
0
19448
31066
33779
27744
16152
3640
3640

l CG
m

0
150
-284
306
-117
251
-105
-0

VCG

-023
0 02

1i'.4 1
10 31

<l8 38
2• 85
311.27
65 01

0 00
0.00
0 00
0.02

15 9 0

2 '7

--0.03

• 06

0 15
-0.05
0

3

1882

6

4

-114

4

4

1103

4

3

-33

1

1

181

1

1

25.8
5

5C 7AB

143

10

51.2
5C

m

GM solid
7
s
Correction
GM fluid
GM req.
41.58 103.8 103.B
Heel
68-M 2C-2B
2C-2B
Rollp_
-3294

s

CorT

(pco.)
0

9.69

&.30
0
104 1

0
488
-2098
-854
-1081
318
1882
91
-27

-17

17 m
41

. . . 54

Strengt
h BM
tm

SF
t

0
--0 2J

1 311

0

20

10 2

LCG

1 311

"
121iil

OIE'.SEL Oil

0
0
462
882
1540
2037
2390
2846
2846

Bay
s
Moment
tm

0 66
0.2•
8.llll
51.25
02
0

(

0

)
(
()

I

126
126)
15 )

0.00
0.02
0 00
0 00
0 00
0 00

B.2B

0 00
--003
10 .

HYDROSTATICS & STABILITY
Draught AP
11.07
Mall!mum .
306
12
m Draught M.
8.64
m
.87
PositionDraught
(m) :
34.6
FP 51.2046.20
Bays:

Lightweight
Compartment
BreakBul
s
Moment Wght
Moment Wght k Moment Wght
t
Im
t
t
tm
tm

...

80 0 02

0.00
0 00
0 02

1

0.02

m
m

m

1
0.15 m
10.6
40.1

•p s

9.72 m
KMT
2.71 m
LCB
6.88
LCF
Immersion
m24 t/cm
192 tm/cm
TrimMom
(Values above for trim=O)

sec.

m
Propp.Ratio
Ship K1101vled[ie.
% a modem
encyclopedia

9
3

Situation 3
C DECK

T

UPPER DECK

4+ -==r=:oT7r=i=--•r --r4'---.-- .,.....!:......--.---,-

>
TANl<TOP

A DECK

--------

u

BDEC

4

-

100
tonlm.

cargo
Tanks

Lightweight

-

2

1000 t

c.. Cl imit, Harbour

SHEAR FORCE

c

x x l imit, Seagoing
- Actual
0

0 0

x xx

10000 tm
CGIJl

Ship Knowledge, a mode m
ency clopedia

3 - -- < I

oo

0

x

x

BENDING MOMENT
J

-

-

-

0

-

--

x

0

xx x

c

tl

u

x

x

x x

If)

x

0 0 L1mit, Harbour
Limit, Seagoing
- Actual

94

GZ, m

/

1

/
5•

15° 10°

1 0·

15° 2 0 · 25°

/

/

iI

--------

so·

so·

74.300

120
83100
125
86.200
130
90.025
1<12
98.100
150
103.65()
160
110.860
Position
(m) .
171
118.400
Bays.
188
130.300

-290

745
1064
1466
16"1
117<1
685

51.20
301
5C27

11

10

29
42

25
36

57
69

49
56

47
27
5 1122

39
23
5 1102
5C
1

SC
1

HYDROSTATICS
& STABILITY
74
Maldmum :
-2202
86
Draught AP
8.74 m
Draught M.
9.07 m
Draught FP
9.41 m
Trim
-0.66 m
Air
Draught
27.62
103 m
Propp.Ratio

-43362

63

-41"464
98
60
-38641
92
56
-33716
81
49
-19802
51
32
-11609
44
24
"5188
20
12
76.61 76.6 76 4.6
-1547
6
4B-4A 4B-4A 4B-4A
-77
0

-43634

1

10·
50

GZ

15°
20°
25°
30°
40°

0 31
0
'i
0 'i9
0.70
0 93
1 08
1 16

60°
70°
Container COG

0 82
0 49
50

so·

1 06

Ship K11ml'ledge. a modem encyclopf'
dia

m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m
m

LIGHTWEIGHT
DISPLACEMENT
OW RESERVE

Bays

Wght

Moment

I

tm

0
0
0
0
0
0

Strength

BM

t

tm

0

0
2217
0
12621
0
43382
476
0
33716
-558
-5188
2713
-5
290
-12)
TC.G
VCG S.Corr (pcs
-3322
1466
17.57
(
60
·02 5
-5704
685
)
--5704
m
m
(
6m
0
·O 25
1715
57
8)
000
7 57
)(
-5704
-0
0 00
16.61
0.00

658
1155

202
1129
91
10449
0
6089
16537
6656

SF

LCG

-4 53
-4.53
m
-4 95
-16 95
·748
36 270
65.0t
-1.61

0 00
0.000
0 02
·O 03
0.15
·0.03
0
0 00
·0.02

5' !A

-2.69
0
1041
2 13

3 22
0 24D

0 01
(

8 98

1.29
5 92
8.01
0
828
811

0 00

0)
000
000
0 00
0 02
0.00
0 ()0
O.D2

63

GM solid
Correction
GM fluid
GM req.
Heel
Rollp.

%
Heel

FRESHWATER
WATER BALLAST
MISCELLANEOUS

Heel
(Trim=O)

30°
40°
Shear Force and Bending Moment
Results
Buoyancy
Distances
Lightweight
Compartments
BreakBulk
frcm Ap. from OX
Moment
Wght
Wght Moment Wght
Wght
Moment
m
t
tm
m
Moment
t
t
tm
t
-3.601
72.851
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
Im
7.800
61.450
-144
-9411
401
220
1426
26598
tm
34.625
34.625
-2661
1798
305
5
0
97873
74.300
-5.050
-9763
12318 3891
18602
132865 112
90.025
-20.775
7
4788
5
23788
0
12245
110.88
-41.610
1251
5396
1521
1881
3
0
-64.650
8
22313 5934
0
3800
21874
102487 1684
133.90
-77.251 -15155
8
6089
1501
6519
-13967
74204 168
0
-16367
3 SUMMARY
7500
-37139
63392 9 lEAOWEJGHT
STRENG TH SUM MARY
146.50
-16538
18813
168
1470
1260
Bending
Moment
w..9h1
Sheer Fon::e•
1
9
9
4
7500
-37139
16
13049
17
39
26.000
462
18
19
40' CONTAINERS
1260
-2<1 20
1470
1260
51
34 625
12621
19
16
-558
10836
4
7500
-37139
57
38600
-999 %
42
35
9506
15
12
CONTAINERS
1260l
'M.
of
permiss
Frame
From
Of permi5S.
BREAJ<B\JLK
7500
61
<12.010
-1351
47
5"94
9
7
457
1260
CREW AND STORES
8
75
51.200
-2202
74
-11053
23
15
86
-47067
HEAVY FUEL
248
6"
61
55<100
-2163
74
-20602
45
29
DIESEL O!L
110
63.100
-1377t -35252
56 Hart>
49
-3"330
80 Harb.
49
20' CONTAINERS
92
AP
Seag.
tm Seag
no.
108

70°

Floodangle,
Thf Deck
Subm.
Cb
W indForce
W ind Lever lw1
Total
CargoWWindArea
indAreaA

1.76
0.02
1.74
0.15
-0.7
12.3

m
m
m

m
·sa

9.87 m
LCB
2.99 m
LCF
7.36 m
Immersion
25 t/cm
TrimMom
206
tm/cm
(Values above for trim=O)

KMT

sec.

51 2°
21 0°
051
0 051 Vm"2
0 056
m
252
1o10 m "2
m"2

Act ua l
G M nuid
G Z 30
G Z max.
GZ max. at
Are a 30
Area 4 0
Are a 4 0 +3 0
Ar ea A
Are a B
Area BIA
S t a b.R a
Wind
ng e Heel ThO
Max

1

7

IMO
Um rt
Mm

m
m
m

0

15
1

o-

Min
Mm

') 275 M in
0200
4 74 Min
")1 1199
62
Min
38 B
0 097

0 090

0 03U

mR a d
10

0 596
6 143
1 i!
Min

5 2'

025

0 055

1 6 mRa d
Min

%

9
5

3 Torsion of the hull
Torsion occurs when there is an
asymmetry in the mass-distri bution
over the horizontal plan e . For
example, if there is a weight of I
00 tons on the starboard side of the
fore ship which is compensated by
an equivalent weight on the port side
of the aft ship. there will be torsion
(or torque). If both weights are 10
metres from the centreline , the
torsion will be I OOt x !Om = I
when the waves come in at an
angle, the torsion can increase as a
consequence of the asymmetric
distri bution of the up ward pressure
exerted by the water on the
submerged
part
of
the hull.
Torsion causes a ship to be subject to
extra stresses and deformations. This
can result in hatches leaking or badly
sealing. Especially "open shi ps", i.e.
ships with large deck openings, tend
to be torsionally weak and are
sensitive to this. A good example
are container ships and modem box
hold general cargo ships.

Hem·i/r pi1c/1i11g fishing
/>nu/.

4 Local stresses
4.1 Panting stresses

These occur mostly in the fore-ship
du ring pitching. The constantly
changing water pressure increases the
stress in the skin and the frames.
Panti ng stress is not a result of
hydrostatic pressure, but more
a result of hydrodynamic pressure.
To reduce
the panti ng stress
effec t, panting beams in tran sverse
direction and stringers against the
ship's shell are added to the forepeak
and aft peak structure.

Pitch i ng loads occurs in the
flat bottom of the foreship as a
result of (hea vy) pitching of the
ship. The pitching stresses are
red uced by increasing the bottomplating thick ness, by the addition
of extra side keelsons and closer
spacing of the frames and floors on
every frame.

Fo r c e on 1/iejim •1hip
u

irn re 1011 (lefl J am/ in

f 1he
t1

These occur when the ship is
asym metri ca lly laden and during
rollin g of the ship in waves. The
effect of the diagonal loads is reduced
by the addition of frame brackets .
deck beam brack ets, cross frames and

.1hip is mi

trr111gh(

right).

Diagull(1 / /oat/; due 10

rolling in 11·w·es

These can be caused by:
- vibrations of the engine
- forces on the aft ship caused by
the rotations of the propeller.

These result from
forces where the
placed and vertical
between the keel
side blocks.

vertical upward
keel blocks are
downward forces
blocks and the

Owm1r,e cw11ed h» punting 1Hui11. D11irL' ./()f f fll!a/.: tm1/.: tom

olj:
Ship 1 h · 11!0.UO/J I. tl1:<1d 11·cigh1

Ship Knowledge, o modern eHcyclopedio

96

5 Ship in waves
These figures , made by computer
simulation , show exaggeratedly how
a small container ship in heavy waves
may be distorted .

Slrit '

IJll a
lwgg111g

1rnre lop .

Ship i11 u trough . Sl/.f!.
i11g

Ship Kno wledge, a modem
e11cyc/opedia

Wm·e.1 r o111i11g in Jiwn sl urh oard at 1111 Wlf( le.
i orsi1n1

Wares coming in fro m Jl(lrfside at an 011gh·.

1onim1

97

6 Stiffening
HP

6.1 Purpose of
stiffeners

To prevent the planes (plate fields) of
a ship from distorting under influence
of the sheari ng loads, bending
moments and local loads, they have
to be stiffened. Examples of planes
are the shell, decks, bulkheads and
tank top. Compared to the dimensions
of the ship, the plating is not very
thick (about 10 - 20 mm). Once the
stiffeners are in place, they also
contri bute to the reinforcement of the
plane by reducing the tensions in it
and by preventing local buckling .
This enables the stiffened planes to be
thinner than the planes, which are not
strengthened.

Angle profile
Flat bar

Forces

a plat!! wi1h on HPJrume
0 1· w1glc har ur 1/te pluce o( hemling .
fhe pla cing nf on HP frume or ani.:le
012

Pam/le{ framn 011 a plate subje('(ed
to
/lending 11w111em

bar in 11eud 11f a single strip will
reduce 1/ie risk of bending .

i111
IIIIIII
111

I f all the frames run parallel (in either
An example of this are the frames
on the inside of the skin, most of
wh ich
(HP). The drawings show the impor
tance of stiffening .

l'u111prn

f

s i11g fo rces on a plare resrtlt in

!'late bu c/.:li11g.

athwart or fore and aft direction) it
is possible that the frames can
bend
To prevent this, a stiffening is placed
perpendicular to the frame direction.
Such a stiffening is called a
stringer for transverse frames and a
webframe for longitudinal frames.
using th is system. In the case of
decks , deck beams
and
deck
girders form the stiffening.

The .1·a111c . i111rt1ill/ t rmly nmi · 1ri1h
a 11ri11ger plmn/ perpendicular to 1!
1e

frame Jircctimr

Si milar stiffenings have different
names for different planes.

Planes:

Stiffening:

Support:

shell

(vertical) frames

stringers (horizontal)
web frames

horizontal stiffening
vertical stiffening

stringers(horizontal)
web girders

F

decks
flat bottom
F

tank top
Compression ji nces on a s1iffe11t' d
pluw
/J11ckli1114 requires extru Ji irce..
Ship Knowledge, a modern encyclopedia

deck frames
bottom frames (fore
and aft)
bottom frames
(transverse)
upper frames (fore
and afl)
upper frames
(transverse)

deck girders
floors
keelsons
floors
keelsons

98

I.
2.

3.
4.

5.

Frames
Ice frames
Web frames
Deck frames
Deck beam s

Centre
keelson 7 .
Side keelson

6.

Cm1·s-.\ection 0( 11 co111ai11a .1hip

/ ! ('I I / '

t!te engine mo111. (1ran.w e n e

fra111e .1 )
Ship Knowledge, a modem
encyclop edia

99

6.2 Longitudinal framing
system and transverse
framing system.
We have seen in this chapter
on all ships and that they play a
larger role if the ship is longer
and/or narrower. This is why ships
with a length of more than 70
metres
are usually constructed
according
to
a
longi tudinal
stiffening system. This means that the
frames and the deck beams run in
the fore and aft direction . Ship
shorter than 70 metres (for example
fish ing boats and tugboats ) are

usually built according to a transverse
stiffening system.
Lloyd's Register does not require a
calculation for longitudinal strength
if the ship is shorter than 65m.
On the next pages we see two
different kinds of ships. First a double
hull
tanker
built
with
the
longitudinal framing
system,
secondly a tug boat built with
transverse frames.

7irn J m11·ings <f a modem . Jo uhlc-Jwll 1r111!.:er /w ilt 11si11fi the / ong itudi11al
1y .1u •111
Shi!' Knowledfi e. a modern encyclopedi
a

JO
O

Plating

3.

Shell
(of the inner hull)

4.

5.

Lower hopper

I.

2.

6. Tanktop
7.

Stiffenings on the plating

Plate-stiffeners

Side longitudinals
Bottom frame I
Longitudinal
10. I n ner bottom

13
14.
15.
16.

8.
9.

longitudinal

Tie beam or cross-tie
Stringer
Stringer deck
Watertight floor

Holds
20. Wing ballast tank
21. Double bottom
22. Cargo tank

17. Full floor

1 8. Watertight side keelson

12. Stiffener with brackets

19. Web frame

Bottom

Ship Knoll'ledge, a modem
encyclopedia

101

1 Wheel house front windows
2 Wheel hou se rear windows
3 Portside fun nel
4 Starboard side fu n nel
5 Mast
6

Deckhouse top (location for
raft I rescueboat)

7 Foredeck
8 Forward bitts
9 Forward bul wark w i th

I O Location bow fender

1 Side bollard forward
1
1 Bilge keel
2
1 Towi ng bitt
3 Sideshell transver se frame
14
1 Deck bracket
5
16 Bilge bracket

Shir1 Knowledge, a modem
encycl opedia

17 Transverse full floor
1 Stri nger
8
19 Stern fender

20 Stemroller, for
anchor handli ng

21 Bulwark toprail , gun wale
22 Thruster nozzle
23
24
25
26

Poop deck, work i ng deck.
Rubbing bar
Deck beam

27 Location towi ng wi nch
28 Steering-gear room
29 Side bollard aft